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Developing Audience Insight: Arts and Entertainment Experience (Un)marketing
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Developing Audience Insight: Arts and Entertainment Experience (Un)marketing

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In this presentation I introduce the methods for developing research insight about how people experience arts and entertainment events, and cultural experiences. How do we collect the data and ...

In this presentation I introduce the methods for developing research insight about how people experience arts and entertainment events, and cultural experiences. How do we collect the data and information to inform our communications and marketing activities. The main two approaches discussed include qualitative (observation, interviews and focus groups) and quantitative (surveys or questionnaires. digital tracking) data collection methods.

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Developing Audience Insight: Arts and Entertainment Experience (Un)marketing Developing Audience Insight: Arts and Entertainment Experience (Un)marketing Presentation Transcript

  • @drkellypage!/drkellypage!Date: 10/7/13! ^ Entertainment “Experience” UnMarketing Arts &
  • @drkellypage!/drkellypage!Date: 10/7/13! What is Audience & Market Research? “The systematic and objective identification, collection, analysis, dissemination and use of information that is undertaken to improve decision making related to identifying and solving problems in marketing” (Malhotra, 2009: 30) Opportunistic? Identify the market and/or community of interest Helps in decision making for resource allocation Insightful? Marketing research is the key to understanding the environment Provides information for altering marketing    
  • @drkellypage!/drkellypage!Date: 10/7/13!                                 More  Academic                                   More  Consultancy   Types of Audience Research    
  • @drkellypage!/drkellypage!Date: 10/7/13! The Functions of Experience Research How is it used by decision makers? 1.  Descriptively – the gathering and presenting of statements of fact •  e.g. 55% of customers are male, etc. 2.  Diagnostically – the explanation of data or actions •  e.g. What do audiences want? Why do audiences behave that way? 3.  Predictively – specification of how to use descriptive and diagnostic research to predict the results of a planned marketing decision •  e.g., what will audiences do? 3.  Evaluative – to review communications activities and evaluate their effectiveness for a program of work •  e.g., what was the reach of the social media campaign    
  • @drkellypage!/drkellypage!Date: 10/7/13! Audience  Research  is  Intui6ve   Understand  the  other  players  in  our   arts  and  entertainment  landscape   Ø Complete  category  overview,  levels   of  success  and  poten7al  cross-­‐over   between  and  among  audiences     Get  to  know  our  audience   Ø Who  they  are,  preferences,   frustra7ons,  and  a<endance  pa<erns   How  Does  It  Help  Me?   •  Iden7fy  opportuni7es  and  solve   problems   •  Improve  organiza7on   management   •  Influence  decisions  on  budgets,   fundraising  and  promo7on   •  Priori7ze  spending  and  seek   funding   •  Iden7fy  poten7al  new  audiences   •  Predict  future  audience  behavior    
  • @drkellypage!/drkellypage!Date: 10/7/13! Evaluative Research •  Audience analysis by syndicated research companies •  Exposure ratings use both gross and cumulative measures such as GRP, CPP and CPM. •  Advertising Research •  Measures who sees the ad, the page, the content •  Determines audience response to content •  Evaluates effect of ad through sales data •  Nielsen Media Research tracks product placement ratings •  Alexa and Quantcast as emerging models for digital audience research
  • @drkellypage!/drkellypage!Date: 10/7/13! The Functions of Research II Broad decisions •  Which new audiences to reach (Older/younger) •  Which new features to introduce (Sustainable) •  Which new partner opportunities to pursue (Apps). Narrow decisions •  Communication effectiveness •  Experience/Event positioning •  Ticket Sales tracking •  Monitoring audience satisfaction    
  • @drkellypage!/drkellypage!Date: 10/7/13! The Functions of Research III How is MR predominantly used by decision makers? -  The quest for audience satisfaction -  The quest for audience retention -  The quest for audience participation -  The quest for increased WOM -  The quest for share of wallet -  The quest for share of voice -  The quest for sustainability (Claes Fornell - Founder of the American Customer Satisfaction Index & Professor of Marketing, University of Michigan)     Airline  War  Goes  Social;   Who's  winning  in  the  BA   versus  Virgin  Atlan9c   ba;le?  
  • @drkellypage!/drkellypage!Date: 10/7/13! When shouldn’t audience/community research be used? 1.  Resources are lacking 2.  Research results wouldn’t be useful/used 3.  The opportunity has passed 4.  Decision making information already exists 5.  Costs outweigh Benefits… 6.  When it is just to justify a decision… (95% of women…)
  • @drkellypage!/drkellypage!Date: 10/7/13!             WHY?   The Research Process     (2) Creating of the Research Design (4) Selecting the Sampling Procedure (5) Collecting the Data (6) Analyzing the Data (7) Writing and Presenting the Report (8) Follow-up (1) Identification of the Problem and Statement of Objectives (3) Choosing the Method of Research
  • @drkellypage!/drkellypage!Date: 10/7/13! Link Research to Your Communications Plan •  It’s  the  first  step  in  your  planning  cycle   –  Focus  on  understanding  the  best,  most  prac7cal  solu7ons  for  insight   –  We  call  this  “defining  the  research  problem”   The  Problem   •  What  is  the  Experience/ Event  Issue?                                                       •  example:  less  people  are   a<ending  our   performances   •  example:  poor   par7cipa7on  at  our   event   The  Ques7on   •  Re-­‐state  the  issue  in   research  terms   •  example:  why  do  less   people  buy  7ckets  to  our   performances?   •  example:  why  do  people   not  par7cipate  /  are   passive  at  our  event   The  Research  Proposi7on   •  Decide  what  type  of   research  to  do  and  how   it  will  provide  insight  to   the  issue   •  example:  survey   audiences  that  a<ended   single  events  vs.  mul7ple   events  
  • @drkellypage!/drkellypage!Date: 10/7/13!                                    HOW?               WHY?   The Research Process     (2) Creating of the Research Design (4) Selecting the Sampling Procedure (5) Collecting the Data (6) Analyzing the Data (7) Writing and Presenting the Report (8) Follow-up (1) Identification of the Problem and Statement of Objectives (3) Choosing the Method of Research
  • @drkellypage!/drkellypage!Date: 10/7/13! STAGE 2: Creating of the Research Design Types of Research Designs 1. Exploratory: •  To explore, further define or understand further the problem/opportunity at hand •  Secondary Data; Qualitative – interviews, focus groups 2. Descriptive: •  To describe and provide insight to the who what, where, when and how questions. •  Secondary Data; Cross sectional & Longitudinal Surveys; Statistical Data Analysis 3. Causal: •  To establish cause-&-effect thus whether the value of one variable (IV) influences the value of another variable (DV). •  Secondary Data; Cross sectional & Longitudinal Surveys; Experiments; Time Sequence; Systematic Elimination
  • @drkellypage!/drkellypage!Date: 10/7/13! STAGE 3: Choosing a Research Method Qualitative Versus Quantitative Research Qualitative Research Exploratory To gain a qualitative understanding of the underlying reasons and motivations Small number of non- representative cases Unstructured Non-statistical Develop an initial understanding Secondary Research, Observation, Interviews, Focus Groups Objective Type of Study Sample Data Collection Data Analysis Outcome Methods Quantitative Research Descriptive, Causal To quantify the data and generalize the results from the sample to the population of interest Large number of representative cases Structured Statistical Recommend a final course of action Secondary Research, Surveys, Experiments
  • @drkellypage!/drkellypage!Date: 10/7/13! Classification of Segmentation Variables Measurement Objec7ve Subjec7ve General  Level   (Par%cipants)   (e.g.,  audience   profile) Age   Educa7on  Level   Geographic  Area   Family  life-­‐cycle Lifestyle   General  Values   Personality Domain-­‐specific   Level   (Par%cipa%on  with   A&E  Type  of   Experience)     (e.g.,  immersive   theater)   Usage  Frequency   Subs7tu7on   Complementary Percep7on   AYtude,  preference,   interests,  opinions,     domain-­‐specific  values Specific  Level   (Our  Branded   Experience)   (e.g.,  Redmoon   experience) Brand  loyalty  (behaviour)   Recency,  Usage  Frequency,     Monetary  Value  (RFM) Brand  loyalty  (aYtude)   Brand  preference   Purchase  inten7on
  • @drkellypage!/drkellypage!Date: 10/7/13! WHO?                       WHY?   The Research Process     (2) Creating of the Research Design (4) Selecting the Sampling Procedure (5) Collecting the Data (6) Analyzing the Data (7) Writing and Presenting the Report (8) Follow-up (1) Identification of the Problem and Statement of Objectives (3) Choosing the Method of Research
  • @drkellypage!/drkellypage!Date: 10/7/13! STAGE 4: Selecting the Sampling Procedure Samples & Populations •  Census Sampling… •  Probability Sampling: ‘Every case (person) in a population has a statistically equal probability of being selected for research’. •  Non-probability Sampling: ‘Not every case (person) in a population has a statistically equal probability of being selected for research’. Chicago  Arts  Ins9tute:  Not  only  picked  a  sample   of  arts  students  but  one’s  who  had  the   characteris%cs  to  be  brand  ambassadors  of  the   future…  
  • @drkellypage!/drkellypage!Date: 10/7/13!             WHY?   The Research Process     (2) Creating of the Research Design (4) Selecting the Sampling Procedure (5) Collecting the Data (6) Analyzing the Data (7) Writing and Presenting the Report (8) Follow-up (1) Identification of the Problem and Statement of Objectives (3) Choosing the Method of Research HOW?  
  • @drkellypage!/drkellypage!Date: 10/7/13! Topline   Approach   •  Focus  on  quality   •  Designed  to  “ask  why”  people   act  on  mo7va7ons  for  decisions   Method   •  Observa7ons   •  In-­‐depth  interviews   •  Focus  Groups   Skill   •  Challenging  for  small,  mid-­‐size   arts  organiza7ons   •  Need  experienced  researchers   Audience  Considera6ons   Qualitative: Why?
  • @drkellypage!/drkellypage!Date: 10/7/13! Observation Research •  Two Main Approaches: •  Participant observation involves interaction with those being watched. •  Ethnography (NTW, Southbank Centre, Redmoon Theater) •  ‘Going Native’ --- Hanging out with people. •  Non-participant observation involves no interaction with the participants. •  Human (watching) / (lurking) •  Electronic methods (Camera; Apps) •  Quantcast, Web Trends Analytics
  • @drkellypage!/drkellypage!Date: 10/7/13! Quantcast h<ps://www.quantcast.com/    
  • @drkellypage!/drkellypage!Date: 10/7/13! Alexa h<p://www.alexa.com/    
  • @drkellypage!/drkellypage!Date: 10/7/13! Focus Group An interview conducted by a trained moderator among a small group of respondents in an unstructured and natural manner. •  Discussion group involving 8-12 people •  Last from 1-3 hours •  Relaxed environment •  Incentivized •  Requires a homogenous group of participants •  Aims to establish group consensus / difference of opinion •  Considerations when using FG’s: (a)  Selecting respondents (b) Choosing a venue (c) Client involvement (d) How many focus groups? (e) Record keeping (f) How do I moderate a focus group?
  • @drkellypage!/drkellypage!Date: 10/7/13! Interviews What is a depth interview?" •  ‘An unstructured, direct, personal interview in which a single respondent is probed by a highly skilled interviewer to uncover underlying motivations, beliefs, attitudes, and feelings on a topic’.! Properties of a depth-interview:" •  20 minutes-1 hour! •  The interviewer has pre-planned questions, but then encourages the respondent to talk freely about his/her opinions towards an issue! •  Interviewer follows up with probing questions! •  Good interviewers listen to a greater extent than talk!
  • @drkellypage!/drkellypage!Date: 10/7/13! The Discussion Guide 1. Why do we need a guide / schedule? •  To help in formulating the research •  To ensure all questions are covered •  To improve reliability between interviews / FG’s •  As a safety net for the researcher 2. Properties of the guide / schedule: •  Best kept to one-two pages. •  Have a checklist of preamble: •  Consent forms, format, timings, incentives •  Rules (if a FG) •  Have some introduction: •  Breaking the ice Have the main questions: •  Use the filter approach – can be very structured and specific or very loose and open-ended depending on the study.: •  If interested in separate themes, break this into topics of discussion: e.g. •  Attitudes •  Intentions •  Behavior 3. Close - Have a checklist of key information •  Confidentiality •  Follow-up queries •  Result summary (?)
  • @drkellypage!/drkellypage!Date: 10/7/13! Quantitative: “Who” and “What” Approach   •  Focus  on  quan7ty   •  Designed  to  “count”  people   with  spec  behavior  or  aYtudes   Method   •  Survey   •  Ques7onnaire   Skill   •  Simple  for  small,  mid-­‐size  arts   organiza7ons   •  Easy;  No  specialist  required   •  Topline   Audience  Considera6ons  
  • @drkellypage!/drkellypage!Date: 10/7/13! Questionnaire Design
  • @drkellypage!/drkellypage!Date: 10/7/13! Questionnaire Design Process Measurement Types: •  Measurement –  The process of assigning numbers or labels to person’s, objects, or events in accordance with specific rules for representing quantities and qualities of attributes e.g., Biological Sex: 0 = Males, 1 = Female •  Levels of Measurement –  Nominal (a) –  Ordinal (b) –  Interval –  Ratio b)  How  frequently  do  you  use  the  Internet?        Once  a  month      1      Twice  a  month      2      Once  a  week          3      Twice  a  week          4   a)  Please  indicate  your  gender?        Male              0      Female    1  
  • @drkellypage!/drkellypage!Date: 10/7/13! Question Response Format Open-ended questions" •  Participant responds in own words! •  Open response option (a)! " Close-ended questions" •  Participants required to choose from a pre-determined list of answers! •  Dichotomous (b)! •  Multichotomous c)! " Partially open-ended (d)" b)  Have  you  used  the  Internet  today?        Yes        No   c)  Which  best  represents  your  age?    a)  Under  17                d)  36-­‐50    b)  18-­‐25                            e)  51-­‐65    c)  26-­‐35                              f)  66+   d)  What  is  your  preferred  brand  of  car?        BMW    Mercedes    Ford    Other  (please  specify)  ________________   a)  Why  is  brand  X  be<er?  
  • @drkellypage!/drkellypage!Date: 10/7/13! Question Wording •  Objectionable questions –  How old are you? ________________ (Too Direct) –  Please indicate your age: (Better) •  Bias in more than one direction –  Are you against same sex marriage and in favour of legislation to ban it? (Biased) –  What is your view of same sex marriage? (Less Bias) •  Emotionally charged words –  Was the government negligent by ignoring the views of the people whom were opposed to the war in Iraq? (Emotional) –  Given the views expressed against the ware in Iraq, what should have the government done? (Less Emotional)
  • @drkellypage!/drkellypage!Date: 10/7/13! Question Wording II •  Estimation questions –  What is your yearly cat food expenditure? (Too difficult) –  Approximately how much do you spend per week on your cat food?: (Easier) •  Double-barreled questions –  Do you like rap and rock music? (Two questions) –  Do you like rap music? (One question) –  Do you like rock music? (One question) •  Double negatives –  Do you dislike it when people don’t wipe their feet when entering your home?
  • @drkellypage!/drkellypage!Date: 10/7/13! Flow & Layout General Guidelines: •  Divide the questionnaire into sub-sections •  Use Times Roman for the text (or Arial) •  Don’t put too much information on a page •  Makes the questionnaire look complex reducing uptake •  Use vertical columns for lists Suggested Layout: •  Screening questions: Use to identify appropriate respondents •  Questions to gain interest (Warm-ups): Easy to answer questions •  General Questions: e.g., behavioral question about purchase/usage •  Difficult & Complicated questions - e.g. attitudes, rankings etc •  Position sensitive, threatening, and demographic questions at the end - e.g., age, income etc. •  Distinguish instructions - e.g., capitals, italics
  • @drkellypage!/drkellypage!Date: 10/7/13! Google Forms
  • @drkellypage!/drkellypage!Date: 10/7/13! Survey Monkey h<ps://www.surveymonkey.com  
  • @drkellypage!/drkellypage!Date: 10/7/13! Analytical Design Qualitative Data •  Sorting and categorization of interview text is used to identify emerging themes •  Top-of-mind preferences are used to answer the question ‘why’ •  Projective techniques yield patterns •  Triangulation uses multiple methods to authenticate the data collection and analysis " Quantitative Data" •  Descriptive statistics: frequencies, cross-tabulations, correlations. ! •  Multivariate statistics: regression, SEM etc!
  • @drkellypage!/drkellypage!Date: 10/7/13! DISSEMINATE                         WHY?   The Research Process     (2) Creating of the Research Design (4) Selecting the Sampling Procedure (5) Collecting the Data (6) Analyzing the Data (7) Writing and Presenting the Report (8) Follow-up (1) Identification of the Problem and Statement of Objectives (3) Choosing the Method of Research HOW?  
  • @drkellypage!/drkellypage!Date: 10/7/13! How would you describe your audiences lifestage? 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Infancy Teenager Newlyweds Parents The Golden Years Frequency
  • @drkellypage!/drkellypage!Date: 10/7/13! Lifestage vs. Frequency of Use 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Infancy Teenager Newlyweds Parents The Golden Years Frequency Rarely Occasionally Regularly Frequently
  • @drkellypage!/drkellypage!Date: 10/7/13! Audience Frequency of Use vs. Information Used 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%Frequently Regularly O ccasionally Rarely Frequency Advocacy/Activism Personal Satisfaction Purchase behavior Demographic *select all that apply
  • @drkellypage!/drkellypage!Date: 10/7/13!                         Problem  Addressed/Insight?               WHY?   The Research Process     (2) Creating of the Research Design (4) Selecting the Sampling Procedure (5) Collecting the Data (6) Analyzing the Data (7) Writing and Presenting the Report (8) Follow-up (1) Identification of the Problem and Statement of Objectives (3) Choosing the Method of Research HOW?  
  • @drkellypage!/drkellypage!Date: 10/7/13! ^ Entertainment “Experience” UnMarketing Arts &