VITAMINS SUBMITTED BY NIKITA LALCHANDANI GUIDED BY MAYUR CHAUDHARY
Fat soluble Vitamin
They are soluble in fat.
Bile salts are essential for their absorption.
They are generally stored in liver.
They are not excreted in urine.
VITAMIN A (Retinol)
Vit ‘A’ is a fat soluble vitamin.
It exist in the plant in the form of carotene,
which is activated in the liver & having following important functions
1) Vision : It plays an important role in vision
forming prosthetic group of a series of
carotenoid protein that provide molecular
basis for visual excitation.
2) Epithelial Tissue : Vitamin A helps in maintaining the integrity of epithelial tissue such as epithelial layers of skin. Respiratory mucosa & esophagus & gastro urinary tract. Due to this it builds us resistance to respiratory infection.
3) Structural Integrity : Its function in the presentation in the structural integrity and normal permeability of the cell membrane.
4) Bone And Teeth : It accelerates the normal formation of bones and teeth.
5) Oxygenation : It also increases permeability
of blood capillaries thereby contributing to
better tissue oxygenation.
6) Aging And Senility : It also prevents premature agening and senility.
7) Synthesis : It is required for synthesis of glucocorticoids and cholesterol.
Plant Source – Carrots ( richest source ), dark green leafy vegetables, yellow fruits, red palm oil etc.
Effect On Eyes –
Night-blindness, Dry conjunctiva, Bitot’s spot,Corneal xerosis, Corneal ulceration or keratomalacia can occur. Xeropthalmia due to decrease in lacrimal secretion.
Effect on growth -
Failure of growth in young and collagenous tissue is affected.
Keratinizing Metaplasia –
The epithelial cells fail to differentiate. This means that the cells in the basal layer loose their specificity and tend to form a stratified squamous metaplasia of epithelial cells is usually evident on several organs such as bladder, vagina and skin and predisposes them to infection. Drying of skin and atrophy of sebaceous gland.
Effect On Reproductive Organs –
Degeneration of germinal epithelium thus affecting reproduction causes sterility in males and cornification of vaginal epithelium in females.
Effect On Bones –
Imbalance between osteoblast (Bone forming cell) & osteoclast (Bone resorbing cell) causing abberration in the shape of Bone.
TEETH : Defective formation of enamel in teeth
Hypoplasia of Teeth.
DENTIN : Dentin too is atypical in structure taking normal tubular arrangement and containing vascular and cellular inclusion.
CARIES : There is increased caries suceptibility.
IN PROLONGED DEFICIENCY :
Eruption is delayed.
Alveolar bone is retarded in its rate of formation.
Gingival epithelium becomes hyper plastic and shows keratinization.
Prevention is better than cure.
Pregnant women , lactating mothers , growing childrens should be advised to take adequate
amount of dark green leafy vegetables. They should also take yellow and green fruits.
Immediately after making the diagnosis, a single
dose of oral retinol palmitate , 60 mg may be given.
Hypervitaminosis – A
If more than 30000 mcg of vit A is taken daily, it can produce toxic effect in adults if continued for many months. In infants , toxic effect can be produced by the intake of more than 5550 mcg per day.
Painful joints, thickening of long bones, anorexia, low grade fever, loss of hair, hepatomegaly,
blurred vision, rashes, irregular menstruation,
fatigue and headache.
Acute Toxicity :
In result from a single massive dose and it manifests abdominal pain, nausea, vomitting, headache, dizziness and sluggishness.
Chronic Toxicity :
It may occur following ingestion of 12000 mcg or more daily for prolonged periods. It is characterized by joints pain, hair loss and dryness and fissuring of lips, loss of appetite, low grade fever and weight loss.
VITAMIN E (TOCOPHEROL)
It is a fat soluble vitamin .
It is also called as ‘ anti-aging’ factor. The
‘ tocopherol’ is derived from the word tocos
meaning child birth and pheros meaning to
Tocopherol alpha, beta, gamma, lamda have been Obtained from natural sources and there relationship with fertility and prevention of muscular dystrophy have been found.
They are not destroyed by heat even at room temp. or above 100.
They are destroyed by UV light.
FUNCTION IN THE BODY
1) Reproductive Functions
Protective effect of vitamin ‘E’ on reproduction and prevention of sterility. All three layers of embryo ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm are preserved by vitamin E.
2) Blood Flow And Clotting Mechanism
Vitamin E dilutes the capillary and enables the blood to flow freely into the blood deficient muscle tissue thus strenghening both the tissue and nerves supplying them.
It also dissolves the blood clot and also prevents their formation.
It prevents the formation of excessive scar tissue & some instance even melts away unwanted scar tissue.
4) Electron Transport System
It functions as a co-factor in the electron transport system.
It has ability to prevent hepatic necrosis in animals. It prevents vitamin A from destruction and helps in its storage in tissue.
Abortion of fetus in females and atrophy at spermatogenic structures in males leading to permanent sterility.
It causes degenerative changes in muscles. There is muscle fiber atrophy which is replaced by connective tissue.
There is necrosis and fibrosis of heart muscle.
Blood Capillaries :
Deficiency may lead to degenerative changes in
the blood capillaries which in turn lead to heart & lung