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  • 1. English 505 Modern English Grammar
  • 2.
    • Elements:
  • 3.
    • Topic
    • Match the topic to the audience.
    • Select one that is important to you and the office.
    • Trouble deciding upon a topic?
    • Make a list and narrow it down to one.
  • 4.
    • Purpose
    • (Dowis 17)
    • There are six basic purposes of a speech:
    • to entertain,
    • to inform,
    • to motivate,
    • to advocate, or
    • to convince or persuade
    • Select one or two.
  • 5.
    • Audience
    • Don’t assume
    • Length
    • Timing
    • Number of people
    • Gender, age group, education level, etc.
    • Prior knowledge on topic
  • 6.
    • Research
    • (Dowis 35)
    • Keep your focus narrow
    • Be disciplined in researching, reading, and writing
    • Connect to nature of speech, subject, prior knowledge of the audience, your own knowledge, etc.
  • 7.
    • Organize
    • (Dowis 50-12)
    • Create a list of key points. Narrow the scope.
    • Write you supporting points.
    • This process helps you develop your thesis statement.
    • Develop an outline
  • 8.
    • Thesis
    • A thesis is a single, unifying idea or theme of the speech (Dowis 2000)
    • You should develop your thesis first. However, writing is not always neat and tidy.
    • Develop an outline. This is will help your organize your speech.
  • 9.
    • Recap
    • Here’s what you should have before you begin writing:
    • audience,
    • purpose,
    • what you want to accomplish,
    • thesis, and
    • key and supporting points.
  • 10.
    • What is cohesion?
    • Cohesion is the glue that binds your writing together into a seamless unit.
  • 11.  
  • 12.
    • Transitions
    • Move the reader from paragraph to another.
    • Also, transitions close gaps within a paragraph.
  • 13.
    • Transitions (Ruskiewicz, Friend, Hairston 211)
    Similarity Contrast Accumulation Consequence likewise like similarity in the same way just as however --instead nevertheless although--but in spite of--rather on the other hand not only moreover in addition to for example and for instance hence consequently so therefore as a result of thus Causation Sequence because--since next--after—finally subsequently first, second, third
  • 14.
    • Repetition
    • Contribution of particular words to the continuity of text. (Kolln 67)
    • Repeating of key terms
    • Refers to synonyms and other related words: animals/lions, supper/dinner, husband/hubby, etc.
  • 15.
    • Opener
    • (Dowis 61-8)
    • Establish a common ground.
    • Set the tone.
    • Catch the interest of the listener.
    • Segues into the topic
    • Types -- novelty, dramatic, question, humorous, and reference
  • 16.  
  • 17.