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Diabetes Prevention - Dr. Jose Guevara
 

Diabetes Prevention - Dr. Jose Guevara

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All about diabetes risk factors and prevention

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    Diabetes Prevention - Dr. Jose Guevara Diabetes Prevention - Dr. Jose Guevara Document Transcript

    • NIHSeniorHealth: Diabetes (Print Version) 6/11/08 12:41 PM Main Menu Site Index Print this page Cancel print request Diabetes Risk Factors and Prevention Diabetes is a serious, life-long disease. It cannot be cured, but control of blood glucose, blood pressure, and cholesterol can prevent or delay the complications of this disease. A great deal of research is underway to find out exactly what causes diabetes and how to prevent it. Risk Factors and Prevention - Risk Factors Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease. An autoimmune disease occurs when the body's system for fighting infection -- the immune system -- turns against a part of the body. At present, scientists do not know exactly what causes the body's immune system to attack the cells, but they believe that both genetic factors and environmental factors, such as viruses, are involved. Studies have begun to try to identify these factors and prevent type 1 diabetes in people at risk. Type 2 diabetes -- the most common form -- is linked to obesity, high blood pressure, and abnormal cholesterol levels. About 80 percent of people with type 2 diabetes are overweight. Being overweight can keep your body from using insulin properly. Being over 45 years of age and overweight or obese raises the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Other risk factors include: having a first-degree relative -- a parent, brother, or sister -- with diabetes being African American, American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian American or Pacific Islander, or Hispanic American/Latino. Other risk factors include: having gestational diabetes, or giving birth to at least one baby weighing more than 9 pounds having blood pressure of 140/90 or higher, or having been told that you have high blood pressure. http://nihseniorhealth.gov/diabetes/printerFriendly.html?selectedTopic…ndprevention=Risk+Factors+and+Prevention&print=Confirm+print+selection Page 1 of 5
    • NIHSeniorHealth: Diabetes (Print Version) 6/11/08 12:41 PM Other risk factors include: having abnormal cholesterol levels -- an HDL cholesterol level of 35 or lower, or a triglyceride level of 250 or higher being inactive or exercising fewer than three times a week. Other risk factors include having polycystic ovary syndrome, also called PCOS (women only) on previous testing, having impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or impaired fasting glucose (IFG) history of cardiovascular disease. Before people develop type 2 diabetes, they usually have pre-diabetes -- a condition in which blood glucose levels are higher than normal, but not yet high enough for a diagnosis of diabetes. People with pre-diabetes are more likely to develop diabetes within 10 years and also are more likely to have a heart attack or stroke. Pre-diabetes is common in America, according to new estimates. In 2002, about 54 million people in the U.S. had pre-diabetes. Some women develop gestational diabetes during the late stages of pregnancy. Although this form of diabetes usually goes away after the baby is born, a woman who has had it and her child are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes later in life. Gestational diabetes is caused by the hormones of pregnancy or a shortage of insulin. Quiz 1. Being overweight can keep your body from making and using insulin properly. TRUE is the correct answer. Type 2 diabetes -- the most common form -- is linked to obesity, high blood pressure, and high levels of bad cholesterol. About 80 percent of people with type 2 diabetes are overweight. Being overweight can keep your body from using insulin properly. 2. Scientists believe that genetic and environmental factors play a role in causing type 1 diabetes. TRUE is the correct answer. In type 1 diabetes, the immune system attacks the cells in the pancreas that make insulin and destroys them. The pancreas then produces little or no insulin. At present, scientists do not know exactly what causes the body's system to attack the cells, but they believe that both genetic factors and environmental factors, possibly viruses, are involved. 3. If you have a parent or sibling with type 2 diabetes, you also are likely to develop type 2 diabetes. http://nihseniorhealth.gov/diabetes/printerFriendly.html?selectedTopic…ndprevention=Risk+Factors+and+Prevention&print=Confirm+print+selection Page 2 of 5
    • NIHSeniorHealth: Diabetes (Print Version) 6/11/08 12:41 PM TRUE is the correct answer. Having a first-degree relative -- a parent, brother, or sister -- with diabetes increases your risk of developing type 2 diabetes later in life. Other key risk factors include being 45 years of age or older and being overweight or obese, being part of a minority group, having gestational diabetes, having high blood pressure, having abnormal cholesterol levels, and/or being inactive or exercising fewer than three times a week. 4. Current estimates indicate that nearly 30 million U.S. adults have a condition called pre-diabetes. FALSE is the correct answer. About 54 million Americans have a condition called pre-diabetes, a condition in which blood glucose levels are higher than normal but not yet high enough for a diagnosis of diabetes, is common in America. Before people develop type 2 diabetes, they usually have pre- diabetes. They are more likely to develop diabetes within ten years and are also more likely to have a heart attack or stroke. Risk Factors and Prevention - Prevention The two most common forms of diabetes are type 1 and type 2. Currently, there is no way to delay or prevent type 1 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes can be prevented or delayed in people who are at an increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes, a condition called pre-diabetes. Pre-diabetes means blood glucose levels are higher than normal but not yet high enough for a diagnosis of diabetes. People with pre-diabetes are more likely to develop diabetes within 10 years and are also more likely to have a heart attack or stroke. A recent study by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, called the Diabetes Prevention Program, showed that people with pre-diabetes can cut their risk for developing type 2 diabetes in half by losing a modest amount of weight and being more physically active. This means losing 5 to 7 percent of body weight (that's 10 pounds if you weigh 200 pounds) and getting 150 minutes of physical activity a week. That same study showed that modest weight loss (achieved by following a low calorie, low-fat diet) and moderate physical activity were especially effective in preventing or delaying the development of diabetes in older people. In fact, people over the age of 60 were able to reduce their risk for developing type 2 diabetes by 71 percent. Making modest lifestyle changes can often prevent or delay type 2 diabetes in people who are at risk. Here are some tips that may help. Reach and maintain a reasonable body weight. Your weight affects your health in many ways. Being overweight can keep your body from making http://nihseniorhealth.gov/diabetes/printerFriendly.html?selectedTopic…ndprevention=Risk+Factors+and+Prevention&print=Confirm+print+selection Page 3 of 5
    • NIHSeniorHealth: Diabetes (Print Version) 6/11/08 12:41 PM health in many ways. Being overweight can keep your body from making and using insulin properly. It can also cause high blood pressure. Recent studies have shown that losing even a modest amount of weight can help reduce your risk of developing type 2 diabetes. In the Diabetes Prevention Program, people who lost 5 to 7 percent of their body weight significantly reduced their risk of type 2 diabetes. So if you weigh 200 pounds, losing only 10 pounds can make a difference. Make healthy food choices. What you eat has a big impact on your health. By making healthy food choices, you can help control your body weight, blood pressure, and cholesterol. Be physically active every day. Regular exercise tackles several risk factors at once. It helps you lose weight, control your cholesterol and blood pressure, and improve your body's use of insulin. People in the Diabetes Prevention Program study who were physically active 30 minutes a day 5 days a week reduced their weight and risk of type 2 diabetes. Many chose walking for exercise. Researchers are working hard to uncover the genetic and environmental factors that may put people at risk for obesity, pre-diabetes, and diabetes. As they learn more about the changes in the body that lead to diabetes, researchers may develop ways to prevent and cure the different stages of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Quiz 1. Scientists have found ways to prevent or delay type 1 diabetes. FALSE is the correct answer. With type 1 diabetes, which is usually first diagnosed in children, teenagers, and young adults, the body stops making insulin. At present, scientists do not know exactly what causes this to happen, but they think that both genetic factors and environmental factors, such as viruses, are involved. Currently, there is no way to delay or prevent this form of diabetes. 2. If you have pre-diabetes you will eventually be diagnosed with type 2 diabetes later in life. FALSE is the correct answer. If you have pre-diabetes, you can reduce your risk of getting diabetes. With modest weight loss and moderate physical activity, you can delay or prevent type 2 diabetes and even return to normal glucose levels. 3. If you have pre-diabetes and are overweight, you will need to lose 30 percent of your body weight to decrease your risk for developing type 2 diabetes. http://nihseniorhealth.gov/diabetes/printerFriendly.html?selectedTopic…ndprevention=Risk+Factors+and+Prevention&print=Confirm+print+selection Page 4 of 5
    • NIHSeniorHealth: Diabetes (Print Version) 6/11/08 12:41 PM FALSE is the correct answer. Recent studies found that people who lost 5 to 7 percent of their body weight significantly reduced their risk of type 2 diabetes. So if you weigh 200 pounds, losing only 10 pounds can make a difference. 4. Making healthy food choices plays an important role in preventing or delaying type 2 diabetes. TRUE is the correct answer. What you eat has a big impact on your health. By making healthy food choices to help you lose weight, you can prevent or delay type 2 diabetes and its complications. Topic last reviewed: 07 March 2008 Topic first published: 09 December 2004 http://nihseniorhealth.gov/diabetes/printerFriendly.html?selectedTopic…ndprevention=Risk+Factors+and+Prevention&print=Confirm+print+selection Page 5 of 5