Who is Dreikurs?<br /><ul><li>Rudolf Dreikurs was born in Vienna,</li></ul> Austria, on February 8, 1897.<br /><ul><li>was an American psychiatrist and educator who developed psychologist Alfred Adler's system of individual psychology into a pragmatic method for understanding the purposes of repsponsiblebehaviour in children and for stimulating cooperative behaviour without punishment or reward. </li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Rudolf Dreikurs was Alfred Adler's close colleague and student.
Upon his death in 1939, Dreikurs completed Adler's lecture tour in Scotland.
Dreikurs then began his own mission to promote Adler's individual psychology through lectures in prisons, schools, and health care settings.</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>He graduated from the medical school of the University of Vienna before spending five years as an intern and resident in psychiatry.</li></ul>The following is a list of books written by Dreikurs :<br />A Parent's Guide to Child Discipline by Rudolf Dreikurs and Loren Grey<br />Children: The Challenge -- by Rudolf Dreikurs, Vicki Soltz<br />Discipline Without Tears -- by Rudolf Dreikurs, et al<br />Encouraging Children to Learn by Rudolf Dreikurs, Don, Sr. Dinkmeyer<br />Maintaining Sanity in the Classroom: Classroom Management Techniques -- by Rudolf Dreikurs, et al<br />New Approach to Discipline: Logical Consequences<br />
What is the theory?<br /><ul><li>Every act has a consequence, and if we are to avoid unpleasant results of our acts we must then behave in a way which will help to guarantee more favourable results.
Logical consequences should offer the child a clear and logical choice of behaviour and results.
The child must perceive that he has a choice and accept the relationship of his choice to what followed .</li></li></ul><li>Logical Consequences<br /><ul><li>Children should be given a choice rather than forced to behave as directed.
Logical consequences must be explained, understood, and agreed upon by the students.
Logical consequences are contrived and then applied as necessary to influence students’ behavior.</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Criteria Distinguishing Logical Consequences from Punishment: </li></li></ul><li>
Conditions under which logical consequences maybe utilized<br />
The use of choice: the child should be asked to choose between behaving in the correct manner or continuing with his misbehaviour. If he decides to continue it, then the consequence should immediately follow. <br />Understanding the goal of the child. <br />The situation of danger.<br />What to do when consequences fail<br />
1)students write on the walls, they can either clean <br />them or pay the janitor to clean them. Can you think of others?<br />2) Students who fight during recess may be barred from recess until they provide the teacher with a plan outlining how they propose to avoid fighting. Can you think of others?<br />
3) If students disturb others, they maybe isolated from the group until they agree to disturb the class no longer. <br />4) If students are late for class, they maybe directed either to come on time or to wait at the door until they receive a signal that their late arrival will no longer disturb theclass.<br />
Questions to determine children’s goals/needs.<br />Could it be that you want special attention?<br />Could it be that you want your own way and hope to be boss?<br />Could it be that you want to hurt others as much as you feel hurt by them?<br />Could it be that you want to be left alone?<br />
Goals of misbehavour<br />Dreikurs (1971) describes the four goals of misbehavior as:<br />seeking attention<br /> power struggle<br />exacting revenge<br />displaying inadequacy<br /> The following presentation will describe the characteristics of each behavior, which will include four specific management strategies in response to each goal. <br />
Seeking Attention<br />These students usually get attention for disruptive behaviour and are thus motivated tocontinue the inappropriate behaviour.<br />Child’s Action:<br />nuisance<br />always talks out/asks questions the show off<br />helpless - passive destructive<br />lazy and inept - passive destructive<br />calling out, interrupting<br />making silly noises or commentaries<br />frequently disturbs people and puts them in his/her service<br />works only when receiving complete attention<br />needs attention from peers/adults and will do whatever it takes to get that attention .<br />
Helping Students to Change Their Mistaken Goals ((Seeking Attention))<br />The Look. Hold ‘The Look’ until the child gets back on task.<br />Physical Proximity. Just walk over and stand by or gently touch the child.<br />Mention the child’s name as you talk or ask the child for an answer.<br />Disruptive children need corrective action and to suffer consequences to getthem back on task. They must be held accountable to the same behavioural<br /> limits as other Children . <br />
During instructional times, <br /><ul><li>get the student involved at the start of the lesson.
greet the student as soon as she enters the room.
Try to provide the student with a responsibility, like handing out materials
Notice Appropriate Behavior (Thank </li></ul>students, write well-behaved students' names<br /> on the chalkboard) .<br />
Power struggle ( conflict) <br />The goal of the power-seeking student is to have complete <br />control over his environment, thus challenging any authority. <br />When children fail to gain the attention they seek, <br />they often engage in a power struggle with parents and teachers<br />The Child’s Action : <br /><ul><li>powerful: intense attention seeking
stubborn - lazy, disobedient, forgetful</li></li></ul><li>Helping Students to Change Their Mistaken Goals (Power).<br />. Try to help the student feel important without having to challenge authority.<br />give power in situations where the student can use it productively.<br />use group encouragement , making him leader of a group or giving her a visible and important responsibility.<br />Provide various responsibilities in the classroom on a rotating basis. This makes the student feel important without allowing him to become possessive of certain jobs.<br />
▫Teachers also make sure that they don’t give in to the demands of power seeking children. <br />▫Teachers need to remember that they must not fight with students. <br />▫They can often avoid power struggles simply by <br />refusing to play the role of authoritarian<br />
Exacting revenge<br />When children’s efforts at control are prevented, they usually claim to have been dealt unfairly. <br />•They believe that others have deliberately tried to <br />hurt them, and they attempt to get even. <br />•Commonly they take out their revenge on anyone <br />around them. <br />•They are convinced that nobody likes them and <br />create proof of this dislike by provoking others to <br />strike back. <br />•These children lash out by tripping,<br /> hitting,, <br />kicking, or scratching others or by destroying <br />their property .<br />
Helping Students to Change Their Mistaken Goals (Revenge )<br />Dealing With Revenge Seeking Behavior <br />▫Revenge is usually the motive in children who are <br />convinced that they are right and can do whatever they <br />please. <br />Regardless of the severity of an episode, Treat each day as a fresh start.<br />▫They often try to hurt others and feel that those who <br />try to stop them are their enemies. <br />▫Helping such children is a delicate matter. Teachers <br />can enlist the help of other class members, but they <br />should do so with care.<br />
Teachers need to encourage the class to be more positive .<br />Try to make students realise their mistaken goal and help them use their energy in a productive way<br />When children whose help has been rejected should be encouraged not to reject their revengeful peers but not to accept their behaviours, as well .<br />Teachers should aim for equity and equality of treatment for all students <br />
Displaying inadequacy<br />Children who fail to achieve a sense of self-worth <br />through attention, power or revenge oftenbecome so discouraged that they give up andseek to wrap themselves in a cloak of inadequacy.<br />Child’s Action:<br /><ul><li>hopeless
lacks self-confidence</li></li></ul><li>Helping Students to Change Their Mistaken Goals (Displaying )<br /><ul><li>Appreciate their efforts and opinions
Teachers must learn never to give up on students who </li></ul>believe themselves to be inadequate.<br /><ul><li>They must provide these students an abundance of </li></ul>support and encouragement. <br /><ul><li>These students need to feel successful and </li></ul>accepted for what they are .<br /><ul><li>Give higher degree of autonomy and responsibility to students .</li></li></ul><li>Helping Students Correct Their Misbehavior<br />1. Teachers attempt to find out students motives. <br />2. Students are helped to understand their motives. <br />3. Students are helped to understand their <br />mistaken goal for useful ones. <br />4. Students are taught to apply logical <br />consequences. <br />5. Group discussions regarding class rules and <br />problems are held<br />
A Teacher’s Role <br />.To Identify the students mistaken goal. <br />▫Being able to confront their students about their mistaken goal. <br />▫Observe students and their reactions. <br />▫Important to avoid power struggles with students. <br />▫Redirect students.▫To examine strengths and acceptance.▫Give some encouragement to students who<br />display inadequacy. (Even minimal efforts)<br />
Logical Consequences (Strengths )<br />Promotes a degree of autonomy for students.<br />•It incorporates a preventive approach to discipline.<br />•It help students to understand why they behave as they do. <br />•Helps students learn correct behavior .<br />•Promotes mutual respect between teachers and <br />students .<br />•Relies on logical consequences instead of arbitrary punishments and systematic reinforcement .<br />•Helps teachers focus on causes for behavior <br />before they take action<br />
Logical Consequences (Weakness) <br />Teachers have trouble determining the actual <br />motives of their students .<br />•Students may not admit their real motives, either <br />because they believe that their motives are <br />unacceptable or because they do not know what <br />they are.<br />•Teachers find it difficult to respond to students in <br />a non-controlling way. <br />•Teachers may have a problem dealing with the <br />complexity of engaging in a dialogue with their students.<br />