Choice theory

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Choice theory

  1. 1. Choice<br /> Theory<br />William Glasser<br />
  2. 2. Why did we choose (the choice theory)<br />There are many reasons concerning why we chose this theory, but we will focus on the two reasons that we feel are the most important:<br /><ul><li>This theory states that the classroom is run by both the student and the teacher and the student should always choose how the classroom is run and then he should be responsible for his choice, the fact is our case the teacher would come at the beginning of the school year and say these are my rules, this is how I will teach you and punishment is the fate of disobeying me. </li></li></ul><li>Why did we choose (the choice theory)<br />We felt controlled and our only outlet was complaining behind the teachers back. We should have a saying in running our classroom(not theirs).<br /><ul><li>This theory is so focused on building strong relationships and this is a necessity for every classroom because if we had a good relationship among each other and with our teachers we will develop a strong sense of belonging to our class, which lead us to be motivated for a better performance in studying and participating the class, instead of studying and participating just because we do not want to be punished. </li></li></ul><li>Who is William Glasser?<br />Dr. Glasser is an internationally recognized psychiatrist who is best known as the author of Reality Therapy, a method of psychotherapy he created in 1965 and that is now taught all over the world.<br /><ul><li>Born in 1925 and raised in Cleveland, Ohio, Dr. Glasser was initially a Chemical Engineer but went into psychiatry when it became apparent to him that this was his real interest in life. He attended medical school at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, and took his psychiatric training at the Veterans Administration Hospital in West Los Angeles and UCLA (1954-57). He became Board Certified in 1961 and was in private practice from 1957 to 1986.</li></li></ul><li>Who is William Glasser?<br />Glasser's path has been one of a continuing progression from private practice to lecturing and writing and ultimately culminating in the publication of over twenty books. After writing the counseling book, Reality Therapy (1965), he published his first book on education, Schools without Failure (1969).<br />In the late 70’s, Glasser was introduced to control theory systems through the writings of William T. Powers. In consultation with Powers, Dr. Glasser applied Powers’ knowledge of how systems work to the field of human behavior. That theory of why and how we behave is now called Choice Theory<br />
  3. 3. Who is William Glasser?<br />Dr. Glasser’s approach is non-traditional. He does not believe in the concept of mental illness unless there is something organically wrong with the brain. he came to the conclusion that genetically we are social creatures and the cause of almost all psychological symptoms is our inability to get along with the important people in our lives.<br />In 1967, he founded The Institute for Reality Therapy. Since that time, over 75,000 people worldwide have taken Intensive Training to gain knowledge on how to apply his ideas in their professional life. <br />Although Dr. Glasser is mostly retired, he is still a much sought-after speaker, nationally and internationally. <br />
  4. 4. Some of his many accomplishments are as follows:<br />listed in Who’s Who in America since the 1970s; <br />1990awarded an honorary degree of Doctor of Humane Letters, HonorisCausa from the University of San Francisco.<br />2003presented with the ACA Professional Development Award recognizing the significant contributions made to the field of counseling. <br />2004 presented with the "A Legend in Counseling Award" by the ACA. <br />January - 2005 presented with the prestigious Master Therapist designation by the American Psychotherapy Association<br />2005 presented with the Life Achievement Award by the International Center for the Study of Psychiatry and Psychology for his enormous influence as a psychotherapist and author.<br />Who is William Glasser?<br />
  5. 5. Where did choice theory come from?<br /> <br />In the late 70’s, Glasser was introduced to control theory systems through the writings of William T. Powers.  In consultation with Powers, Dr. Glasser applied Powers’ knowledge of how systems work to the field of human behavior.  That theory of why and how we behave is now called Choice Theory.<br />In (1998), Glasser greatly expanded the understanding of motivation and<br /> behavior.<br />
  6. 6. So what is choice theory based on?<br />The choice theory is based on ten axioms that Glasser believes in. these axioms are:<br /> <br /> 1. The only person whose behavior we can control is our own.2. All we can give another person is information.3. All long-lasting psychological problems are relationship problems.4. The problem relationship is always part of our present life.5. What happened in the past has everything to do with what we are today, but we can only satisfy our basic needs right now and plan to continue satisfying them in the future.6. We can only satisfy our needs by satisfying the pictures in our Quality World.<br />
  7. 7. So what is choice theory based on?<br /> 7. All we do is behave.8. All behavior is Total Behavior and is made up of four components: acting, thinking, feeling and physiology9. All Total Behavior is chosen, but we only have direct control over the acting and thinking components. We can only control our feeling and physiology indirectly through how we choose to act and think.10. All Total Behavior is designated by verbs and named by the part that is the most recognizable. <br />Glasser'sknowledge on human behavior has been summarized in these axioms; he developed choice theory.<br />
  8. 8. So choice theory means:<br /> <br />Choice Theory tells us that we choose everything we do, it states that behavior is a constant attempt to satisfy one or more of our five basic needs(power, fun, love belonging, freedom, survival). Those needs are thought to be innate (we are born with them), and we are responsible for the choices we make.<br />
  9. 9. How does Choice Theory Impacts Classroom Learning? <br />When choice theory is employed in classrooms, students have a say in what they learn, and teachers negotiate both content and method with them. Thus, how and what students learn stems directly from their basic needs.<br />Curriculum--Teachers must negotiate both content and method with students. Students' basic needs literally help shape how and what they are taught. <br />
  10. 10. How does Choice Theory Impacts Classroom Learning? <br />Instruction--Teachers rely on cooperative, active learning techniques that enhance the power of the learners. Lead teachers make sure that all assignments meet some degree of their students' need satisfaction. This secures student loyalty, which carries the class through whatever relatively meaningless tasks might be necessary to satisfy official requirements. <br />
  11. 11. Students should participate in rule-making.<br />Since classroom situations are always changing, rules should be changeable also.<br />When students have a part in making and changing rules, better discipline usually<br />results. Glasser's system is one of the few that emphasizes student participation in rule-making.<br />Students must know the school rules.<br />Rules<br />If a teacher's behavioral expectations are clear to his/her students, there is a better<br />chance for those preferred behaviors to increase.<br />
  12. 12. Within reason, students should agree with the rules.<br />Glasser insists that if the rules make sense and promise to produce a better learning<br /> situation for all, students will welcome them.<br />Students should know the consequences of rule breaking.<br />If a student contemplates breaking rules, she should know the consequence. If the consequence is logically related to<br /> the misbehavior, better discipline <br />will result , e.g. if you vandalize – you<br /> must make restitution.<br />Rules<br />
  13. 13. Routines<br />They mostly set through:<br />Classroom meetings:This is a well-known strategy in Glasser’s theory. The teacher organizes regular classroom meetings for dealing with a student’s problems, or for revising the overall organization and the curriculum of the class. In the meeting, the students and the teacher sit in a circle facing each other, on a rug or in chairs. The teacher explains the students that each of them are free to express their opinions, thoughts, and feelings during the meeting. It is also said that they are not there to talk about the past, but to talk about present and the future.<br />
  14. 14. Discipline in the Glasser model<br />Misbehavior according to Glasserstem from 5 basic needs: survival, love/ belonging, freedom, fun and power. <br />He maintains that 95% of all misbehaviour stems from the need for power although love/ belonging he is the most important, as it affects the other needs.<br />To avoid misbehaviors There are 7 Caring Habits that should be used in the classroom:<br /> -supporting -encouraging -listening -accepting -respecting -trusting -negotiating differences <br />
  15. 15. However if a misbehavior did really take place in the classroom:<br />Glasser believes in Non-Coercive Disciplineand that students should take responsibility for their actions .<br />To do this, students and teachers should create student-teacher contracts which allow the student to devise their own goal, plan and solution with minimal direction from the teacher. <br />And to deal with misbehaving students...<br />Avoid past actions and respond to what they are doing, what need they are trying to fulfill through their action, and how they are going to fix it .<br />Then the student and teacher create a contract and agree on solutions to solve the problem.<br />Discipline in the Glasser model<br />
  16. 16. Implication in the classroom: <br /> Step 1: What Are You Doing?If a student disrupts the class ask, in a normal. quiet tone of voice: "What are you doing?" - expect an answer other than "Nothing" or "I don't known. Say it sharply, quickly - not angrily or punitively.Step 2: Is it Working? Is it against the Rules?Ask the student "Is it against the rules?" The student must accept that rules are necessary and are to be obeyed. If the student does not admit the disruptive behavior you declare: "This is what I saw. It is against the rules". Do not enter into an argument with the student.<br />
  17. 17. Implication in the classroom: <br />Step 3: We Must Work it OutSay and mean "We have to work it out". The behaviour cannot continue, the teacher and student must reach a solution through negotiation.Step 4: WithdrawalA pleasant but isolated place is designated the withdrawal area in the classroom. If the student continues to disrupt, ask the student to move to the spot where work can be continued but where the student is not a part of the class. Movement back to the body of the class is dependent upon agreement to "work it out" with the teacher<br />
  18. 18. Implication in the classroom: <br />Step 5: Time -outIf disruption continues to occur the student is excluded from class to a pre- arranged area. The student must stay there until he or she decides to work out a plan to behave in an acceptable manner and give a commitment to follow through on the plan.Step 6: SuspensionIf the student continues to disrupt in the time-out room suspension in accordance with Departmental policy must take place. It is important to treat the student with courtesy and emphasize quietly and politely "You have to obey the rules we're happy to have you back when you are ready to follow the rules."<br />
  19. 19. Reward and punishment<br />Glasser does not believe in rewards/ punishments because they are coercive and take away responsibility from the students (teacher-implemented).<br />Glasser would prefer students to create their own personal rewards for a job well done. <br />He believes that consequences should be natural and not teacher-directed .<br />Glasserbelieves that punishment is ineffective because it does not allow the student to take responsibility for their actions .<br />

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