School health services
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  • 1. 1www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.comSchool health servicesDefine School HealthSchool health refers to a state of complete physical, mental, social and spiritual well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity among pupils, teachers andothers school personnel.Define School Health servicesIt refers to need based comprehensive services rendered to pupils ,teachers and otherpersonnel in the school to promote, protect their health, prevent and control diseases andmaintain their health.Aims and Objectives of School Health services:Aim:To promote,to protect and maintain health of school children and reduce morbidity andmortality in themSpecific Objectives:1) To create health consciousness among school children, parents and teachers.2) To provide healthy and safe environment which is conducive to comprehensivedevelopment of children3) Impart health information and conduct health education on various aspects ofhealthful living in school, home and community.4) Prevent communicable and non-communicable diseases.5) Identify and treat any abnormalities/defects/diseases as early as possible and dothe referral and follow up6) Involve teachers, students and their parents in the management of health aspects ofchildren.Principles:1) School health services should be based on health needs of children2) School health services should be planned in coordination with school,healthpersonnel,parents and community people3) School health services should be pa part of community health services4) School health services should emphasize on promotive and preventive aspects.
  • 2. 2www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com5) School health services should emphasise on health education topromote,protect,improve and maintain health of children and staff.6) School health services should emphasise on learning through active and desirableparticipation.7) School health services should be continuos and ongoing process.8) School health services should be ongoing and continuous programme.9) School health services should have an effective system of record keeping andreporting.Components of school health Services:1) Health promotive and Protective servicesWholesome school environmentMaintainence of personal hygieneNutritional servicesPhysical and recreational activitiesPromotion of mental healthHealth educationImmunization2) Therapeutic ServicesHealth appraisalTreatment and follow-upFirst aid and emergency careSpecialized health care services3) Rehabilitative servicesCare of the handicapped4) School health RecordsComponents of school health Services:1) Health promotive and Protective servicesWholesome school environment
  • 3. 3www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.comIt is essential for holistic development of children coming from varying socio-economic and cultural backgrounds.It comprises of the site,location,the buildingstructure and its surroundings, the sanitary and other facilities.i)Location;School should be located away from the nuisance of noise, traffic, dust and easilyapproachable.Site should be dry on a raised surface with proper drainage system and with aproper play ground.ii) Building structure It should be single storeyed building Construction should be heat proof. Well ventilated and attached to verandas and there should be crossventilation. Classroom should be spacious enough with a space of 10.sq feet for eachstudent. It is better to to have trees, plantations etc to keep the environments cleanand fresh.iii) Furnishing of classrooms It is desirable to have a single desk with chair for each student.iv) Sanitary and other Facilities Water supply- It should be continuous, potable and safe water supply fromthe tap. Water should be chlorinated periodically for safety. Drinking watershould be handled properly with long handle and a tumbler kept along withit. Lavatory- Each School must have school urinals and latrines with adequatewater supply.The habit of micturition should not be allowed anywhere. Disposal of waste water and refuse-Each school should have a propersystem of drainage of waste water.In rural areas drainage water can bedrained in soak pit or garden or nearby agricultural field. The refuse
  • 4. 4www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.comcomprised of dust,paper,dirt,peelings of fruit,vegetables and left out ofvegetables should be disposed off in a dustbin.v) Canteen and Eating-School should have its own sanitary canteen facility onsubsidy basis. Food items should be prepared and maintained in a hygienic manner by thefood handlers.2)Maintainence of personal hygiene It is important on the part of the teachers to explain the importance of personalhygiene among children and promote it. They can be a role model of personal hygiene. Daily inspection of personal hygiene(eg: checking nails, daily baths, Proper care of the body should be explained to te students(eg:care ofhair,nails,eyes,ears)3)Nutritional services A good nutritional intake is very important in the growth and development of achild and also for his educational achievement. A nutritious mid-day meal is considered a very practical solution to combatmalnutrition.In view to curb malnutrition,in the year 1961 the mid-day mealcommittee had started the mid-day meal programme which caters atleast the 1/3rdof the caloric requirements of the child4)Physical and recreational activities Physical activities and recreational activities in the school promotemusculoskeletal development inculcate team-spirit and help release physical andmental stress. This helps to achieve optimal health and promote growth and development.5)Promotion of mental health Wholesome mental health and behavior of the child is making sound adjustmentwith overall environment around him/her in the school and with the studiesexpected.
  • 5. 5www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com Maladjustment may lead to untoward behavior such as truancy,juveniledelinquency, drug addiction etc.6)Health educationHealth education creates awareness, makes them regarding health matter;developsmotivation and promotes change in health behavior and health attitudes in them.It consists of areas including personal hygiene, environmental health, nutrition,prevention and control of communicable and non-communicable diseases.7)ImmunizationImmunization of children against specific communicable diseases is necessary toprevent the occurrence of diseases like tuberculosis, diphtheria, tetanus, measlesand polio.Immunization schedule is complete by the time the child is 5-6 years old.A proper record of immunization should be maintained as part of comprehensivehealth record which should be handed over to the child at the time of leavingschool2) Therapeutic Services1) Health appraisalRegular periodical appraisal of health of school children is very necessary toidentify the deviation from normal body parts and systems.It requires complete physical and medical check-ups.Initial appraisal should be done at the time of entry of the child which includeshistory taking, physical and medical examination.Physical examination includes observation of child from head to toe,measurement of height, weight, arm and chest circumference.Testing of vision,hearing and speech,observations such as vital signs as pulse,respiratory rate and temperature.A routine examination of blood, urine and stool should be carried out.Screening for tuberculosis should be done at the tuberculosis clinicA minimum of three health check-ups need to be carried out ati)on school entry at the age of 5-6yrsii)on passing out from primary school at the age of 10-11 years.iii)on passing out from middle school at the age of 13-14 years.
  • 6. 6www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.comTreatment and follow-up*Treatment and follow-up of children who are found to have any illness ordefect is essential for their cure.*It is therefore very important to have such arrangements exclusively forchildren in the rural area specifically at the primary health centers.First aid and emergency care*The school should make arrangements for providing first-aid and emergencycare to children who get injured and sick at school.*Teachers who are available at the spot can provide such care.Specialized health care services*School children often suffer from problems like dental carries,periodontaldiseases;eye problems like defective vision,squint, eye infection.3) Rehabilitative servicesRehabilitative services are required for those candidates who are born with orand acquire any disability or handicap due to road accident/infection someserious diseases, burns, injury etc.Children with special disabilities like autism, blindness, deafness should betrained in special institutions for rehabilitation.4) School health Records*It is essential to maintain complete, accurate and continuous records of schoolchildren.*Such health records are very useful in monitoring the health status of the children*They are used for i) identification and personal aspectii) findings of physical and medical examinationiii) findings of physical and medical examinationiv) findings of routine examination and screeningv) services rendered and the progress
  • 7. 7www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.comSchool health Team*The concept of school health team has evolved with generalized family and communityservices.*The services to the children in school is in continuation of the services which arerendered to age of under five children.It consists of the several members like:1) The School Principal2) The School Teacher3) The Parents4) The Community5) The Children6) The Medical Officer7) The School Health Nurse