Research terminology


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Research terminology

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  2. 2. Abstract:A clear, concise summary of the study thatcommunicates the essential information about thestudy. In research journals, it is usually located atthe beginning of an article.Data :Units of information or anystatistics, facts, figures, generalmaterial, evidence, or knowledge collected
  3. 3. Variables:Attributes or characteristics that can have morethan one value, such as height or weight. In otherwords, variables are qualities, quantities, properties, orcharacteristics of people, things, or situations that change orvary. Dependent variables:Variables that change as the independentvariable is manipulated by the researcher; sometimes calledthe criterion
  4. 4. Count… Independent variables:Variables that are purposelymanipulated or changed by the researcher; also calledmanipulated variables. Research variables:These are the qualities, properties, orcharacteristics which are observed or measured in anatural setting without manipulating & establishingcause-&-effect relationship
  5. 5. Count… Demographic variables:The characteristics & attributes of thestudy subjects are considered demographic variables, forexample, age, gender, educational status, religion, socialclass, maritalstatus, habitat, occupation, income, medical diagnosis, &so on. Extraneous variables:Extraneous variables are the factors thatare not the part of the study but may affect themeasurement of the study
  6. 6. Operational definition:The way by which a researcherclarifies & defines the variables under investigation.In addition, the researcher must also specify how thevariables will be observed & measured in the actualresearch situation.Concept:A word picture or mental idea ofphenomenon. Concepts are words or terms thatsymbolize some aspects of reality. Forexample, stress, pain, or love. Concepts are thebuilding blocks of
  7. 7. Construct:A highly abstract, complex phenomenon(concept) is denoted by a made-up or construedterm. A construct term is used to indicate aphenomenon that cannot be directly observed butmust be inferred by certain concrete or less-abstractindicators of the phenomenon. Forexample, wellness, mental health, & self-esteem areconstructed, & they can only be measured throughindefinable & measurable concept; forexample, wellness can only be assessed throughlaboratory
  8. 8. Proposition:A proposition is a statement or assertion ofthe relationship between concepts. For example, thereis relationship between level of anxiety & performance;or virus causes acute illness. Proposition are drawn fromtheories or empirical data.Conceptual framework:Interrelated concepts or abstractionsthat are assembled together in some rational scheme byvirtue of their relevance to a common theme;sometimes referred to as a conceptual theoreticalframework if based on the concepts of an existingtheory or
  9. 9. Assumption:Basic principle that is accepted as being true onthe basis of logic or reason, without proof or verification.Hypothesis:A statement of the predicted relationshipbetween two or more variable in a research study; aneducated or calculated guess by researcher.Literature review:A critical summary or research on a topicof interest, generally prepared to put a research problemin context or to identify gaps & weaknesses in prior studiesso as to justify a new
  10. 10. Limitations:Restrictions in a study that may decrease thecredibility & generalization of the research findings.Manipulation:An intervention or treatment introduced by theresearcher in an experimental or quasi-experimental study;the researcher manipulates the independent variable toassess its impact on the dependent
  11. 11. Population:The entire set of individuals or objects havingsome common characteristics selected for a researchstudy (eg; patients admitted in intensive care units);sometimes referred to as the universe of the researchstudy. Target population:The entire population in which theresearchers are interested & to which they would like togeneralize the research finding. Accessible population:The aggregate of cases that conform todesignated inclusion or exclusion criteria & that areaccessible as subject of the
  12. 12. Research study setting:The study setting is the location inwhich the research is conducted – it could benatural, partially controlled, or highly controlled.Natural or field setting is an uncontrolled real-lifesituation. In a partially controlledsituation, environment is partially modified to controlextraneous variables, while in highly controlledsituations, study environment is fully controlled tocombat the effect of extraneous variables.Sample:A part or subset of population selected toparticipate in research
  13. 13. Representative sample:A sample whose characteristics are highlysimilar to that of the population from which it is drawn.Sampling:The process of selecting sample from the targetpopulation to represent the entire population.Probability sampling:The selection of subjects or samplingunits from a population using random procedure; exampleinclude simple random sampling, stratified randomsampling, & systematic
  14. 14. Nonprobability sampling:The selection of subjects or sampling units froma population using nonrandom procedures; examplesinclude convenient, purposive, & quota sampling.Reliability:The degree of consistency or accuracy withwhich an instrument measures the attribute it is designedto measure.Validity:The degree to which an instrument measureswhat it is intended to
  15. 15. Pilot study:Study carried out at the end of the planningphase of research in order to explore & test the researchelements to make relevant to make modification in researchtools & methodology.Analysis:Method of organizing, sorting, & scrutinizing data insuch a way that research question can be answered ormeaningful inferences can be
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