Research problem


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Research problem

  1. 1. MR. JAYESH PATIDARwww.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.comRESEARCHPROBLEM
  2. 2. INTRODUCTIONA research problem is a question that researcherwants to answer or a problem that a researcherwants to solveIdentification & formulation of a research problem isthe first step of the research process.Selection of research problem depends on severalfactors such as researcher’sknowledge, skills, interest, expertise, motivation &creativity with respect to the subject of inquiry.It is believed that most of the good research studiesneed lots of time for selection of a
  3. 3. DEFINITION According to Kerlinger, ‘A problem is aninterrogative sentence or statement that asks whatrelation exists between two or more variable. Theanswer to question will provide what is havingsought in the research. R.S. Woodworth defines problem as ‘a situation forwhich we have no ready & successful response byinstinct or by previous acquired habit. We must findout what to do’, i.e. the solution can be found outonly after an investigation. In other words, ‘a research problem is an area ofconcern where there is a gap in the knowledgebase needed for professional
  4. 4. IDENTIFICATION OF RESEARCHPROBLEM Identification of a research problem is the first & mostimportant step in research process. Generally, a broad area is selected & then a broadtopic is delimited or narrowed down to a specific one-sentence statement of the problem. This step of the research process is considered as themost difficult & challenging, & need slots of time. A research problem may come from several
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  6. 6. Personal Experiences:Day-to-day personal experience of a research mayserve as good source of ideas to formulate aresearch problem.For example, a researcher observed domesticviolence suffered by wives of alcoholic husbands.This experience may provide ideas to identityseveral research problems related to domesticviolence against women.There may be so many such life experiences of
  7. 7. Practical Experiences:Nurses gets plenty of ideas to formulate researchproblems from their clinical experiences.Every curious nurse has several questions to beanswered which are encountered during clinicalexperience.For example, a nurse finds that unrestricted visitinghours in surgical wards reduced the analgesic demandamong postoperative patients.Such clinical experiences could be rich sources of ideasto identify a significant research
  8. 8. Critical Appraisal of literature:When we critically study books & articles relating to thesubject of our interest, including researchreport, opinion articles, & summaries of clinicalissues, pertinent questions may arise in our mind.These may strike reader’s mind indirectly by stimulatingimagination & directly by stating what additionalresearch is needed.For example, a nurse reads an article on the prevalenceof the pin site infection among patients with externalfixators; while reading this article nurse learns that thereis lack of consensus about pin site care.This information may serve as a basis to formulate aresearch
  9. 9. Previous Experience:A body of knowledge should be developed on a soundfoundation of research findings.Usually at the end of a research further researchproblems are suggested, based on the shortcomings ofprevious research, which can be investigated.In nursing profession, not much research has been yetdone; therefore, this profession needs research whoare willing to replicate or repeat other studies ondifferent samples & settings where all the essentialelements of the original study are held
  10. 10. Existing theories:Research is a process of theory development & theorytesting.Nurses use many theories from other disciplines in theirpractices.It an existing theory is used in developing aresearchable problem, a specific statement from thetheory must be isolated.Generally, a part of parts of the theory are subjected totesting in the clinical
  11. 11. Social issues:Sometimes, topics are suggested by more globalcontemporary social or political issues of relevance tothe health care community.For example, HIV/AIDS, female foeticide, sexualharassment, domestic violence, & gender equality inhealth care & in research are some of the currentsocial & political issues of concern for health
  12. 12. Brainstorming:Brainstorming sessions are good techniques to findnew questions, where an intensified discussion amonginterested people of the profession is conducted to findmore ideas to formulate a good research problem.For example, ideas for studies may emerge fromreviewing research priorities by having brainstormingsession with other nurses, researchers, or
  13. 13. Intuition:Traditionally institutions are considered good sources ofknowledge as well as sources to find new researchproblems.It is believed that reflective mind is good sources ofideas, which may be used to formulate a good
  14. 14. Folklores:Common beliefs could be right or wrong.For examples, it is generally believed that studyingjust before the test decrease the score.We believe we should not study just before test torelax our mind.Researchers can conduct a research study onwhether one should study before the test or
  15. 15. Exposure to field situations:During field exposure, researchers get variety ofexperiences, which may provide plenty of ideas toformulate research problems.For example, while working in field a researcherobserved a specific traditional practice for cure ofdisease condition, which can be used as researchproblem to investigate its
  16. 16. Consultation with experts:Experts are believed to have sound experience oftheir respective field, which may suggest asignificance problem to be studied.In addition, expert may help in finding a currentproblem of discipline to be solve, which may serveas basis for formulation of research
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  18. 18. 1. Significance to nursingprofessionA problem which a researcher is selecting shouldhave significance to nursing profession or it will notserve any purpose.A research problem is significant for nursingprofession when it is directed to develop or refine thebody of professional
  19. 19. Count…A research problem could be considered significant fornursing profession if it fulfils the following criteria: Nursing profession & patients, nurses, & health carefraternity will benefit from the study. The results will improve clinical nursing practices. Promotes nursing theory development or testing. Provides solutions of current nursing practice needs Generate information to get practical implications for
  20. 20. 2. OriginalIt is fundamentally considered that every researchproblem should be new & unique in itself.Therefore, it is the key responsibility of a researcherthat an innovative knowledge is used for selecting aresearch problem, so as to extend the growth ofexisting body of knowledge on a
  21. 21. 3. FeasibleFeasibility is an essential consideration of any researchproject.Regardless of how significant or researchable aproblem may be, the feasibility of research problem inreference to time, availability tosubjects, facilities, equipment & money, & ethicalconsiderations should be checked.It will help the researcher to decide whether selectedproblem is appropriate or inappropriate & study can
  22. 22. Time: A nurse might be interested in studying siblingrelationships among quintuplets knowledge of theincidence of quintuplet birth would certainlydiscourage anyone considering research on thisparticular population unless the researcher plans tomake this a lifetime project. So, time is always a factor to be considered. It is wise to allow more time than seems to beneeded because unexpected delays frequently
  23. 23. Count…Cost: All research projects cost money; some studies aremuch more expensive than others. The researcher must consider realistically the financialresources available.Equipment & supplies: All research projects require some type of resources. Therefore, before making the final decision to conduct astudy, an accurate determination of the neededequipment & supplies should be ensured. If researcher takes into consideration equipment &supplies in the early phases of a research project, thereare less chances of the project to be revised ordiscarded later because of equipment or
  24. 24. Count…Administrative support: Many research projects require administrative support. The nurse researcher may find it very difficult toconduct research independently. Financial as well as psychological support fromadministrative is very helpful. Knowing that your superiors support your researchefforts can be very powerful motivating
  25. 25. Count…Peer support: Many research ideas have never been developedbecause potential researchers received no supportfrom their peers. One of the best ways to determine a researchableproblem is through interactions & discussions withother nurses. A climate of shared interest in nursing research isessential among the members of the
  26. 26. Count…Availability of subjects: A researcher may believe that study subjects arereadily available for the study. But this may not be thecase. Potential subjects may not meet the studycriteria, may be unwilling to participate, or may alreadybe participating in other studies.Researcher’s competence: A research problem can only be feasible if it is inaccordance with researcher’s competence,
  27. 27. Count…Ethical considerations: A researcher must ensure that the researchproblem can be considered by the ethicalcommittee without undue hurdles. A very important topic of research cannot beconsidered feasible unit & unless it is inaccordance with ethical
  28. 28. 4. Solvable/researchable:Problem selected is considered good only if it issolvable so that chances of insolvability of problemshould be minimized.It will enhance relevant results.For example, a researcher selects a research problemto know the existence of God in this universe.These sorts of problems are ambiguous & impossibleto solve.Therefore, the researcher must ensure that a
  29. 29. 5. Current:A good research problem must be based on thecurrent problems & needs of a profession, so thatresults generated will be of more use.Furthermore, more number of the professionals willbe interested in the research conducted on thecurrent issues of their
  30. 30. 6. Interesting:A research problem can only be considered good ifit is an accordance with researcher’s field ofinterest.A research problem must be as per the motivationof the researcher & it should be fascinating to theresearcher, so that research is conducted with fullenthusiasm & not merely for its
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  32. 32. Selection of a researchareasFormulating final statementof research problemReviewing the literature &theoriesDelimiting the researchtopicEvaluating the
  33. 33. Selection of a research area:Formulate of a research problem begins with selectionof a broad research topic from personalexperience, literature, previous research, & theories inwhich researcher is interested & has significance fornursing profession.For example, a researcher gets an idea to conduct astudy on the female feticide.Therefore, he or she initially begins with such broadresearch
  34. 34. Reviewing literature & theories:After getting a broad idea for research, he or she needsto review the nursing literature & theories.Literature is reviewed to know what has already beendone in this selected areas of research.Review of nursing theories provides an opportunity fornurses researcher to plan a research problem tocontribute towards either testing or development of atheory/conceptual
  35. 35. Delimiting the research topic:In this step, researcher proceeds from a general area ofinterest to more specific topic of research to conduct astudy.For example, initially a researcher decide to conduct astudy on female feticide; later in this stage researcherlimits it to specific research topic ‘a study on perceptionof women about causes & prevention of female feticidein selected rural communities of districtmehsana, Gujrat’
  36. 36. Evaluating the research problemOnce researcher is clear about the specific researchproblem, next the research problem must be carefullyevaluated for its significance, researchability, &feasibility.Feasibility of the research problem should beevaluated for time, cost, availability of subjects &resources, administrative & peer support, ethicalconsideration, & researcher’s competence &
  37. 37. Formulating final statement of researchproblem:After establishing the significance, researchability, &feasibility, then researcher finally formulates a finalstatement of a research problem.A statement of research problem could be indeclarative or interrogative
  38. 38. Count…a. Declarative format:In this format, a research problem isstated in declarative statement.For example: ‘A descriptive study on prevalence of bedsoresamong unconscious patients admitted in intensivecare unit of Lions hospital, Mehsana’. ‘A exploratory study on contributing factors ofmaternal mortality in selected rural communities ofdistrict Mehsana, Gujrat’
  39. 39. Count…b. Interrogative format:In interrogative format, a researchproblem is stated in question form.For example: ‘What is the influence of level of hemoglobin on pinsite infection among patients with external skeletalfixators admitted in orthopedic wards of Lionshospital, Mehsana. ‘What is the effect of ginger or morning sicknesson pregnant women in selected urbancommunities of district Mehsana,
  40. 40. Count…The choice of either of these two types of format formulationof a research problem depends on the researcher’spreference & institutional policies.Declarative format much popular among researchers.For the formulation of a research problem it is preferable it itfulfils the following features: Research problem is clearly, precisely articulated. It clearly states the variables, population, & research settingunder study. Variable are expressed in measurable terms. The type of study also may be included in the statement ofresearch
  41. 41. Count…Example of a well-formulated research problem“Effectiveness of planned teaching on the knowledgeof staff nurses working in psychiatric unit regardingPhysical Restraints for psychiatric patient inselected hospital of Vidharbha region”.It is an example of declarative formof the statement of problem, where it is precisely &concisely stated & include most of the requiredcomponents of a research statement, which are Research study type: Quasi-experiment Variable(s): it has two research variable i.eknowledge & planned teaching Population: Nurses working in selected psychiatrichospital Research setting: Psychiatric hospital
  42. 42. Thank
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