Research assumption


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Research assumption

  2. 2. INTRODUCTION• An assumption is a realistic expectation which issomething that we believe to be true.• However, no adequate evidence exists to support thisbelief.• In other words, an assumption is an act of faith whichdoes not have empirical evidenced to support.• Assumption provide a basis to develop theories &research instrument & therefore, influence thedevelopment & implement of research
  3. 3. DEFINITION• Assumptions are statements that are takenfor granted or are considered true, eventhrough they have not been scientificallytested.• Assumption are principles those areaccepted as being true based on logic orreasons, but without proof or
  4. 4. DIFFERENCE BETWEENASSUMPTION & HYPOTHESIS…Assumptions HypothesisAssumption are basically beliefs &ideas that we hold to be trueHypothesis is a predictionOften with little or no evidence & arenot statistically tested in researchCan be statistically tested & may beaccepted or rejectedBeliefs about the variables Predictions about the relationship oftwo or more variablesBased on the beliefs, the researchersattempt to discover the correlationPredict a relation between variables &statistically tested to conclude
  5. 5. USES OF ASSUMPTION INRESEARCHResearch is built upon assumptions since afoundation is needed to move forward. Onemust assume something to discover something.Assumptions listed in research paper may begood sources of the research topics.Assumption provide basis to conduct of theresearch study.Tested assumptions through research studiesexpand the professionals body of
  6. 6. TYPES OF
  7. 7. 1. Universal assumption:• Universal assumptions are beliefs that areassumed to be true by a large part ofsociety, but testing such assumptions isnot always possible.• For example, ‘there is a supernaturalpower which governs this universe’
  8. 8. 2. Assumptions based ontheories:• Assumptions may also be drawn fromtheories.• If a research study is based on a theory, theassumption of the particular theory maybecome assumption of that particularresearch study.• For example, ‘a study on Roy’s AdaptationModel will use assumption of this particulartheoretical model.’
  9. 9. 3. Assumptions needed toconduct a research:• Some of the common-sense assumptionsmay be developed to conduct a particularstudy.• For example, ‘prevalence of coronary arterydisease is more common among urbanpeople as compared to rural people’
  10. 10. 4. Warranted assumption:• These are stated along with evidence tosupport.• For example, ‘regular prayers bringsuccess because they boost morale’
  11. 11. 5. Unwarranted assumptions:• These are stated without any supportiveevidence.• For example, ‘Almighty God existseverywhere in this universe’
  12. 12. EXAMPLES OF ASSUMPTIONWilliams (1980) reviewed published nursingstudies & other health care literature, wherefollowing common assumptions were found:• People are aware of the experiences that mostaffect their life choices.• People in underserved areas feel underserved.• People want to assume control of their ownhealth problems.• Stress should be avoided.• Health is the priority for most of the
  13. 13. Count…• Most measurable attitudes are held stronglyenough to direct behavior.• Health professionals view health care in adifferent manner than layperson.• Human biological & chemical factors show lessvariation than cultural & social factors.• The nursing process is the best way toconceptualizing nursing practices.• Statistically significant differences relate to thevariables under
  14. 14. Example…“Effectiveness of planned teaching on the knowledgeof staff nurses working in psychiatric unit regardingPhysical Restraints for psychiatric patient inselected hospital of Vidharbha region”.The study is based on the following assumptions:1. Every nursing student is taught about Physicalrestraint during basic nursing training programme.2. Awareness of alternative to the use of physicalrestraint is inadequate among nursing staff.3. Physical Restraint is not, the only treatment forbehavioral emergencies.4. Untrained nurses are responsible for injuries
  15. 15. LIMITATIONS• Limitations are restrictions of the study dueto theoretical or methodological reasons,which may decrease the credibility &generalizability of the research findings.• Usually, there are two types of limitations inresearch studies which may reduce thecredibility & generalizability of the researchfindings they are:1. Theoretical limitations2. Methodological
  16. 16. 1. Theoretical limitations:• They restrict the ability of researchfindings to generalizes due to the use ofspecific theoretical concepts in study, orlimiting the study of variables throughoperational
  17. 17. 2. Methodological limitations• Methodological limitations usually result fromsome of the methodological factors such asunrepresentative sample, weak design,single setting, limited control over extraneousvariables, poor data collection procedure,ineffective use of statistical analysis etc.• Therefore, researchers usually mentionlimitations of their study, so that the readerscan have idea about the credibility &generalizability of the research
  18. 18. Example…“Effectiveness of planned teaching on the knowledgeof staff nurses working in psychiatric unitregarding Physical Restraints for psychiatricpatient in selected hospital of Vidharbha region”.1. The study is delimited only to the nurses working inunits of general and specific hospital of Vidharbhregion.2. The study is limited to population that speaksEnglish.3. The study is limited to registered and licensednurses.4. The study is limited to nurses with GNM and BScNursing education.5. The study will limited to the experience level of theresearcher.
  19. 19.