The term education has its origin in the
Latin words educo, educare & educatum.
Etymologically, the word education is
derived from the Latin words educo where
e means ‘out of’ duco means ‘I lead.’
Accorsing to this view, education means ‘I
lead out darkness into brightness’.
Education means the training for the country &
love for the nation.
Education is realization of self
Education is an all-round drawing out of the
best in child & man-body, mind & spirit.
Education is the natural, harmonious &
progressive development of man’s innate
Nursing education is a professional education
which is consciously & systematically planned &
implemented through instruction & discipline &
aims the harmonious development of the
physical, intellectual, social, emotional, spiritual
& aesthetic powers or abilities of the students in
order to tender professional nursing care to
people of all ages, in all phases of health &
illness, in a variety of setting, in the best or
highest possible manner.
Development as an individual of a human being.
Moral & spiritual development.
Promote positive physical development
Development of a right personality
Development of good citizenship
Development of good leadership
Emotional & mental development
Character building, etc.
provided with the
become a useful
member of the
the socioeconomic status.
child to earn
so that he can
in the society.
child to lead an
aesthetic sense &
social & moral
by the society.
health & well
child to lead a
required for a
the child to
attitudes & habits
child to use his
leisure time for
Aims of education as stated by Secondary
Development of democratic citizenship
Improvement of vocational efficiency
Development of personality
Development of qualities leadership
• Inculcating right
• Knowledge & skill
• Emphasis on hightech-high-touch
• Prepare students to
take up a proactive
role in nursing
• Assist to build a
• Social aim
• To prepare global
• Leadership aim
Growth & development of individual
Direction & guidance
Preparation for adult life
Conservation of traditional knowledge
Transmission of culture
Achievement of self-sufficiency
Holistic personality development
Moral & character development
Develop vocational efficiency
Awareness of past & present & preparing for future
The term philosophy has a Greek
origin, i.e. philosophia, which is
made up of two words, viz. phileo &
Phileo means ‘love & sophia means
The literal meaning of philosophy is
‘love of wisdom’ or ‘passion of
Philosophy is the science of knowledge.
Philosophy is the science of sciences.
Philosophy is a search for
comprehensive view of nature, an
attempt at a universal explanation of the
nature of things.
- Alfred Weber
Chief proponents: Rabindranath Tagore, Jean
Jacques Rousseau, Johann Heinrich
Concept: Educating the human generation about
& in the nature rather than artificial environment
by keeping in mind the individuality of each
Organization & Aims of education: Nature is
considered the classroom. Emphasis on open air
schools to teach through direct experience with
Curriculum: Basis of curriculum development
was child’s nature, interest & needs.
Stressed on subjects dealing with nature
such as physics, chemistry, biology,
language & mathematics. Tagore also
stressed on teaching spiritual values of
Methods of Education: As natural as possible
considering individual differences. Noble
efforts for planned living with nature. Direct
experience of nature through observation,
excursion, experimentation, play-way.
Role of teacher: Teacher is an observe
& facilitator of the child to develop in
nature; teacher facilitates best possible
natural environment for prompt
Discipline: No emphasis on external
rigid discipline; recommended free
discipline to child in nature for
optimum desired learning.
Chief proponents: Dr. Radhakrishan, Sir
Auurobindo, Plato, Ross & Socrates
Concept: It believes that the act of knowing takes
place within the mind for three values, i.e.
intellectual, aesthetic & moral values & the
purpose of education is the development of the
student’s mind & self
Organization & Aims of Education: Well-planned
formal classrooms or formal place of teachinglearning activity is recommended.
Curriculum: The basis of curriculum is inculcating
intellectual, aesthetic & moral values or discipline.
The intellectual value is represented by subjects
such as language, literature, science,
mathematics, history & geography; aesthetic
through arts & poetry & moral through religion,
ethics. Dr. Radhakrishan also advocated for
Methods of Education: Idealism recommended
formal classroom teaching methods such as
lecture, discussion, presentation, & group
interaction. Knowledge is transferred from the
more mature person (teacher) to less mature
person (pupil) through formal & well-planned
Role of teacher: Teacher is considered as centre of
education where pupil catches fire from teacher
who is himself a flame teacher must be ideal & a
role model for the child both intellectually &
morally. The teacher should exercise great creative
skills in providing opportunity for the pupil’s mind
to discover, analyze, unify, synthesize & creative
application of knowledge to life.
Discipline: Idealism believes in interconnection of
discipline & interest. Advocates discipline for selfrealization of individual. It does not favor rigid
discipline but advocates spontaneous & self
Chief proponents: Williams James, John
Dewey, Charles Sanders Pierce
Concept: It considers self-activity as the basis
of all teaching-learning processes in context
of cooperative activity; to create optimistic
men, who are the architects of their own fate
by the process of their efforts. Education
should be according to the child’s aptitudes &
abilities; where he is respected & education is
planned to cater to his inclinations &
Organization & Aims of Education: Aims of
education is to teach one how to think so that
one can adjust to an ever-changing society. In
order to produce creative resourceful &
adaptable children we should have conditions in
the school which are conducive to the creation
of these qualities of mind. Recommends formal
schools to have activity oriented learning based
on the needs, interest, aptitude & capabilities of
the individual student.
Curriculum: Pragmatists believe in a broad &
diversified curriculum, which is composed of
both content & process & subjects ranging from
humanities to geography & science.
Methods of education: Teaching-learning process
is a social process where the sharing of
experiences between the teacher & the student
takes place. Preferred methods are project
method & activity oriented learning.
Role of teacher: Role of a teacher is not that of a
dictator or a task master but as a leader of group
activities. Teacher acts as catalyst where he
suggests a problem to students & stimulates
them to find a solution. Teacher is a mentor with
resources to guide the students
Discipline: Pragmatism does not believe in
traditional firm discipline. It advocates for
freedom of self-discipline in a free & conducive
Chief proponents: Aristotle, Johann Friedrich
Herbart, Herbert Spencer
Concept: Realism makes the human being
understand & enjoy society in the true sense
by getting the multidimensional real joy of
life in reality. It also aims for education to
make the life of a man useful; where a man
can enjoy his activities & comfort in reality.
Education should equip individuals to a best
possible meaningful life through vocational
Organization & Aims of Education: Realism
emphasizes on scientific attitude based on realistic
principles, where the child can extend his
knowledge, which he learns through books. It has
given due emphasis on formal schools, which
provides adequate opportunity for learners to learn
the vocational skills through observation,
experimentations & examinations.
Curriculum: Selection of the curriculum for the
students must based on their abilities, interest &
capabilities so that education helps the student to
adjust to changing circumstances of the society. It
also emphasis on subject matter of real-life use
such as science, mathematics, hygiene & vocational
Methods of Education: Realism believe in objectivity,
knowledge of scientific evidences & reality. Methods of
teaching should be according to needs, interest &
capabilities of students. Vocational education should
equip the individual with capacities to earn livelihood
such as experimentation, examination & observation,
Role of Teacher: Teacher must focus on the
development of vocational skills in the learners, so that
they can be equipped with qualities of race
preservation & vocational behavior activities. Teacher
acts as a mentor, & must be a role model & skilled to
demonstrate vocational skills to the learners
Discipline: Realism believes in an optimum level of
discipline without imposing undue stress on the
Chief proponents: Thomas Aquinas, Robert
Hutchins & Mortimer Adler
Concept: Education ensures that students acquire
an understanding about the great ideas of
civilization. These ideas have the potential for
solving problems in any era. The focus is to teach
ideas that are everlasting to seek ensuring truths
which are constant, as the natural & human
worlds at their most essential level.
Organization & Aims of Education: The aim of
education is to develop the rational person, who
has intellectual abilities to uncover universal
truth. Character training is also important for
moral & spiritual development of an individual
Curriculum: Accepts little flexibility in the
curriculum that emphasizes on language,
literature, mathematics, arts & sciences.
Common curriculum for all the students with
minimal opportunities for elective subjects.
Teaching-learning process must create
liberalism, tolerance & discretion among
Methods of Education: Perennialism portages for the
educational methods, which promotes constant
teacher-taught interaction such as oral exposition,
lecture & explication. Emphasis is placed on teacherguided seminars, where students & teachers engage in
mutual inquiry sessions. Students may also learn
directly from reading & analyzing the great books.
Role of teacher: Teacher must be competent & master
of his subject so that he can help their students to
develop the power to think deeply, analytically,
flexibly & imaginatively. Teacher is also authoritative
& a guide of the students.
Discipline: Education should be organized &
conducted in a manner that problem of indiscipline
does not arise at all.
Chief proponents: William Bagley, Arthur Bestor,
Admiral Hyman Rickover, James D. Koermer
Concept: Essentialism believe that there is
common core of knowledge that needs to e
transmitted to students in a systematic,
disciplined way. The emphasis placed on
intellectual & moral standards that schools
should teach & preparing students to become
valuable members of society.
Organization & Aims of Education: Essentialism
has recommended for the formal schools or
teaching-learning places. The aims of education
is to promote intellectual growth & academic
competitiveness of the individual to become a
Curriculum: This philosophy recommended
intellectual content with quality & capacity of the
learner. The recommended subjects are English,
mathematics, natural science, history & foreign
Methods of Education: Essentialism
recommended formal & well-planned
classroom teaching methods such as lectures,
discussions, presentations & group interaction
Role of Teacher: Teacher must be a master of
subject matter & role model for learners with
high level of authority & control over
teaching-learning process & learner.
Discipline: Essentialism believes in rigid
discipline & devoted hard work of learners in
Chief proponents: Soren Kierkegaard, Friedrich
Nietzsche, Maxine Greene
Concept: This philosophy believes that education must
develop the consciousness about the freedom of
choices among learners because a man becomes what
he chooses for his self. Education must equip the
individual for better choices
Organization & Aims of Education: The ultimate aim of
education is to develop child’s knowledge about
human conditions & the choices that person has to
make for self. Therefore organization of education
must be formal with sufficient opportunities of choices
Curriculum: Curriculum must be that which provides
the free opportunities for children to select from
many available learning situations & choosing the
subjects that learner wish to learn. Humanities are
commonly given tremendous emphasis, which helps
the student to unleash their own creativity & selfexpression.
Methods of Education: Existentialism promotes the
methods of education which emphasizes on selfactivity of the learner such as self-expressive
activities, experimentation, methods & media that
illustrate emotions feelings & insight
Role of Teacher: Teacher must promote freedom for
a learner to make personal choices & individual selfdefinition
Discipline: Existentialism believe in self-discipline
but not in the strict discipline. Teacher creates an
environment in which students may freely choose
their own preferred way
Chief proponents: Theodore Brameld, George Counts
& Paulo Freire
Concept: This philosophy of education believes on
reorganizing & restructuring the process of education
to being about social & cultural contrastive changes in
community, society & country, where emphasis is
placed on cultural pluralism, equality, futurism,
national interest oriented education
Organization & Aims of Education: This philosophy
recommended for formal as well as informal ways of
organizing the education so that desired aim of
education can be achieved to bring the reconstruction
of the society.
Curriculum: Curriculum should be conceived with a
new socioeconomic & political interest. The subject
content must be oriented towards aspects of new
changes expected social, economic & political
discipline such as sociology, economics, science &
Methods of Education: This philosophy of education
believes that teaching methods must be organized in
manner that student become self-reliant, education
must be activity oriented to develop necessary
activities & abilities
Role of Teacher: The role of a teacher is to take the
social responsibilities & along with students must
become the agent to improve society.
Discipline: This philosophy of education propagates
about optimum level of discipline but not a rigid
Chief proponents: Horace Mann, Henry Barnard &
Concept: Progressivism believe that learning
must be through problem solving & scientific
inquiry in a cooperative & self-discipline way,
which promote democratic living & transmits the
culture of society while preparing students to
adapt in changing world
Organization & Aims of Education: Progressivism
recommended democratic school procedures,
which promote the community & social reforms.
The aim of education is to promote the
democratic social living
Curriculum: Progressivism recommended
curriculum, which is interdisciplinary in nature,
which promotes written textbooks subject content
that are the part & process of learning rather than
ultimate source of knowledge. Further curriculum
is based on child’s interest, problems & life affairs
Methods of Education: Child is considered as
learner rather than subject, who primarily learned
through cooperative group activities &
Role of Teacher: Teacher must act as guide for
problem solving, leader for group activities &
partner in planning the learning activities
Discipline: Has not recommended any sort of
specific formal discipline
Any activity can be called learning so far as
it develops the individual & makes his/her
behavior & experiences different from what
that would otherwise have been.
-Woodworth R. S.
Learning is a process that result in the
modification of behavior.
-J. F. Travers
view: Learning is a change in behavior as
a result of experience. Men & other living being react
to the environment.
Gestalt view: According to this, learning depends on
gestalt or configuration (wholeness of the situation).
Learning is a total reaction to the total situation.
Hormic view: This view was developed by McDougall.
It stresses on the purposeful nature of learning, i.e.
learning is a goral-directed activity.
Trail & error view: This view was put forward by
Thorndike. He conducted many experiments on
dogs, cats & fish & concluded that most learning
takes place by trial & error.
is a process which involves a series of
1. Motive of
4. Change in
is cooperative process:
Elements of cooperative learning
Individual & Promote facegroup
• It is unitary
• It is individual
• It is purposive
• It is creative
• It modifies the behavior of individual
• It helps in the organization of experiences
• It helps to make choices in life
• It helps to bring changes in life
• It helps in continuous professional development
• It tunes with the trends & development in particular fields
Teaching is a form of interpersonal influence
aimed at changing the behavior potential of
-American Educational Research Association
Teaching is stimulation, guidance, direction &
encouragement of learning.
Teaching is a tripolar process
Teaching is an interactive process
Teaching takes place at multiple levels
Teaching must be planned
Teaching needs effective reciprocal
Teaching is the motivation to learn
Teaching is guidance
Teaching is a professional activity
Teaching is an art as well as science
Teaching helps attain information, knowledge &
Teaching principles help teachers develop an
insight regarding their strength & weakness &
provide information pertaining to teaching.
The principles of teaching are discussed
under two subheadings:
General principles of teaching
Psychological principles of teaching
Activity (learning by doing )
Principle of correlation
Principles of planning
Principles of flexibility & elasticity
Principle of utilizing past experiences
Principle of pupil centeredness
Principle of individual differences
Principles of effective strategies &
Principles of conducive environment &
Principle of diagnostic & remedial
Principle of suggestiveness
Principle of progressiveness
Principles of democracy
Principles of liberasting the mind
• Motivation or interest
• Creativity & recreation
• Principle of sympathy & kindness
• Principle of repetition & exercise
• Principle of readiness
•Principle of change & rest
•Principle of providing training to senses
•Principle of feedback & reinforcement
•Principle of group dynamics
•Principle of creativity & self-expression
•Principle of encouraging self-learning
Indefinite to Overview to
Educational objectives are the results sought by
the learner at the educational program that is
what the student should be able to do at the end
of a leaning period that they could not be
- J.J Guilbert
Educational objectives are the behaviors to be
learner, aims are for the teacher & the objectives
are for the learners to achieve through the
support & guidance of the teacher.
The well-stated objective should be SMART &
Centered on student
According to level of educational
According to taxonomy of educational
The taxonomy for the educational objectives
points out that they are concerned with intended
behavior or the behavior to be learned by
students rather than the actual behavior learned
from an educational objective.
In other words, taxonomy means ‘a set of
classification principles or structure & domains
simply means category.
Bloom’s taxonomy divides educational
objectives into three domains: cognitive,
affective & psychomotor.
The aspects of the cognitive domain resolve
around, comprehension & critical thinking on a
This domain focuses on thinking skills.
Traditional education tends to emphasize on
skills in this domain, particular the lower-order
These are six levels in the cognitive domain,
moving from the lowest order processes to the
The aspects in the affective domain describe the
way people react emotionally & their ability to
feel another living thing’s pain or joy.
Affective objectives typically target the
awareness & growth in attitudes, emotion,
motivation & feelings.
There are five levels in the affective domain,
moving from the lowest order processes to the
The psychomotor domain describes about
obtaining the skills or abilities to carry out
physical tasks such as the skills of a nurse in
catheterizing a patient or operating a
Psychomotor educational objectives usually
focus on the expected changes in skills of an
Lesson planning is an important activity of
The lesson plan might include the main
points to be covered in the lesson activities
for the students to do, questions related to
the topic being taught & some from of
assessment for the realization of stipulated
Lesson planning is the heart of effective
Lesson plan is the title given to a statement of
achievement to be realize & specific meanings
by which these are to be attained as a result of
the activities engaged during the period.
Daily lesson planning involves defining the
objectives, selecting & arranging the subject
matter & determining the method of procedure.
-Bining & Bining
It ensure a definite objective for the day’s work & a
clear visualization of that objective.
It helps for adequate & appropriate use of resources
in an efficient way.
It keeps the teacher on track.
It help clarify ideas about what, how, where & when
& whom to teach.
It directs the teaching-learning process &
procedures in the right direction.
Helps review the subject matter & gives up-to-date
It helps the teacher delimit the teaching.
It provide confidence, self-reliance. Ease & freedom
to teacher in teaching.
It provides guidelines to students & the teacher
during their teaching-learning practices.
It helps in achieving the definite objectives.
It makes teaching systematic, orderly &
It gives confidence to face the class.
It link new knowledge with previous knowledge.
It prepare pivotal questions & illustrations.
It enables the teacher evaluate his work as the
It helps the teacher use a wider variety of
teaching material & learning activities.
Knowledge & mastery of subject matter
Knowledge of student psychology
Knowledge of methods & techniques
Knowledge of aims
Knowledge about student’s interests, traits & abilities
Selection & organization of subject matter
Definite aim & objectives
Extension of existing knowledge
Simple & comprehensive
Ensure active teaching-learning process
Division with essence of wholesomeness
Individualized & customized
Feasibility & significance
Processed from general to specific
Inclusion of summary, recapitalization,
bibliography & student assignment.
The lesson plan must be efficiently written,
prepared & designed with a complete sense of
The presenter or teacher must be clear about
the aim & objectives of the lesson plan.
Use of A-V aids must be well planned, judicious
Introduction of the lesson must create interest
in the students & they must be well motivated to
receive the subject content.
It is essential to use the right methods of
teaching ensuring the active involvement of
There must be careful use of blackboard & other
Questions planned & presented in a lesson plan
must be definite, clear, stimulating & thought
Content must be delivered in a simple language
with a clear & audible voice with complete sense
Provide enough time to the students for
clarifying their doubts.
Individual student attention while taking & giving
regular feedback on the understanding of subject
content is vary essential for effective
implementation of the lesson plan.
Efficient time management, appropriate
recapitalization of the subject matter & relevant
thought provoking questioning & continuous
feedback are key aspects of effective
implementation of the lesson plan.
End recapitalization, discussion of refeence,
bibliography & further reading & expected
students exercise assignments are also
considered to be important in the success of a
Cover Page: This page must include topic of
lesson, date of submission, name of supervisor
& name & details of the presenting teacher.
First page: This must include the following
Basic lesson plan information:
•Name of topic
•Name of student teacher
•Name of Supervisor
•Date of teaching
•Time of teaching
• Venue of teaching
: Communication & Education
Assessment of learning needs
Mr. Chirag sharma
Dr. Jayesh Patidar
: Lecturer Hall No. 2
Basic lesson plan information:
: BSc (N) 2nd year students
Size of group
Method of teaching
: Lecture cum discussion
: _____ minutes
: Power Point Presentation
: The group has some knowledge about
the topic: Assessment of learning needs
: At the end of the class, students will
be able to acquire knowledge about assessment of learning needs
Specific objectives: At the end of teaching, students will be able to
Define various terms related to assessment of learning needs.
Explain about historical perspective.
Enlist types of assessment.
Enumerate principles of assessment for learning.
Describe purposes of conducting assessment of learning needs.
III. Main body of lesson plan:
IV. Appendix of lesson plan: This includes giving
the assignment to students & recommending
further reading, writing the bibliography &
Classroom management is an organizational
function in which tasks are performed in a variety
of settings, resulting in the inculcation of certain
values such as human respect, personal integrity,
self-direction & group cohesion etc.
-Johanson & Brooks
Classroom management is a system of action &
activities are managed in classroom to induce
learning through teacher-taught relationship.
Teacher & students are the basic components for
managing classroom activities.
• Self-control & role model approach
• Understanding & acceptance of
• Realistic & practical goals of
• Exercising the productive teachinglearning activities
• Understanding student’s interest &
• Appropriate planning of classroom
• Encouragement of students
• Giving responsibility to learners
• Minimum disruption of teaching-learning
• Clear guideline of rules for students
• Reward & punishment for student’s
• Conducive learning environment
General principles of classroom
Specific principles of classroom
Self-control & role
model approach of
Appropriate planning of classroom management
acceptance of student
Encouragement of students
Realistic & practical
goals of teachinglearning
productive teachinglearning activities
Giving responsibility to learners
Minimum disruption of teaching-learning activities
student’s interest &
Inadequate light & ventilation
Inadequate furniture & lack of conducive seating arrangement
Lack of routine
Lack of adequate distance between classroom
Problem of indiscipline
Poor teacher-taught IPR
Promotion of rhythm in teachinglearning activities
Enhancing healthy classroom
customs & traditions
Promote positivity in teacher’s
Infuse motivation in students
Encouraging pupil’s participation
Role of a