1www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.comPREVENTION OF CROSS INFECTIONDefinition –It is the infection of a patient with a disease other than that for which he had beenadmitted. In short patient gets the infection from some one during his stay in the hospitalcross infection usually occurs in the hospitalMethod of Transmission of cross infection. -1) Direct Contacts: - The organisms can be Transmitted directly from person to personthrough droplet infection, infected hands, sexual contact kissing.2) Indirect Contact; - Contact with the secretion and excretions’ of infected person.a) Through fomitestoys linen, utensils,b) Through contaminated food, & waterc) Through insects ( S.F. – finger food flies faces and fomites )d) Through duste) Through carriers.Prevention of cross infection1) Hospital should be well ventilated2) Maintenance of general cleanliness of hospital3) Safe food and water supply4) The bed pans, urinals sputum cups etc. are cleaned disinfected before it is used foranother patient.5) Safe disposal of excreta urine stool & sputum6) Discarded dressing collect of daily & burnt.Medical Aseptic practices: -
2www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.comDefinition: -Medical Asepsis is the term used to describe the technique of preventing the transfer ofdisease by stopping the infection at its source or by reducing number if pathogenic microorganisms after they have left source.Isolation Technique (Barrier Nursing)1. Isolation is the separation of the patient and his unit from others to prevent thedirect or indirect contacts of infectious agent to susceptible person dropletinfection, contamination.2. To protect the hospital staff and other patient from infection.3. To prevent cross infection of different diseaseTypes of Isolation –1) Respiratory isolation – In this tech mask & gown by nurse while caring for theinfants teach patient and visitors to use disposable mask or handkerchiefs ofprevent cross infection. Restrict the number of visitorsNurses suffering from respiratory disease should not attain to the patient.2) Intestinal Isolation – Pathogens are transmitted through faces & urine Proper handwashing is necessary.All contaminated articles should be disinfected while handling soiled articles gown &gloves must be used.3) Contact isolation – this isolation is used when the pathogens are present in thedischarging wound on skin lesion.For the isolation gloves gown must be used care must be taken for safe disposal ofdressings & discharges from wounds.Articles used for these patient should be separate.3) Blood Isolation: - Pathogen which are present in blood Articles which have come incontact with the patient should be disinfected thoroughly.
3www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.comPrecaution to be taken while caring for infections patient.1) Isolation of a patient.2) Proper hand washing.3) Immunization against communicable disease.4) Below 12 yrs. Of age children are not allow to enter the ward.5) Restrict visitors.6) Maintain sufficient space between two beds.Hand washing Technique: -Purpose: -1) To protect the nurse from contaminating herself and others around her.2) To remove pathogenic organisms from her hands.Precaution to be taken during hand washing.1) Nails should be short to avoid the diet Micro organic to enter.2) Remove all types of jewelery.3) Wet the hands & fore arms.4) Use soap, rinse soap before it is returned to the container.5) Work hand thoroughly, Use brush t remove the dirt, from under the nail beds,wash each finger separately.6) Rinse hands by keeping the hands well below the elbow level. The mist flow fromelbow to the hand.7) Repeat the procedure for through cleanliness.8) Dry the fore aim and hands.If the hands touch to any object, repeat the whole procedure.Use of Mask-Masks are usually used to prevent the spread of respiratory micro organisms. A freshmask should be wash each time the nurse enter the rooms.
4www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.comThe mask should not be worn outside the room it must be disconded when it is damp orwet.Mask should cover nose & mouth.While wearing the masks –1) Wash hands thoroughly.2) Remove the sterile mask from the container using sterile forceps,3) Hold it by strings. Does not touch the position of the masks which covers the facemouth and nose should be covered with the masks?4) Tie the strings at back of the head.Removing the masks1) Wash hands.2) Untie the strings & then remove mask & put it in the container.3) Work hand thoroughly.It gown is worn , then remove the gown first and then remove masks.Gown TechniqueThe using gowns should be used only once and then discarded.Gown should be with long sleeves, long squint, and high neck to cover theclothing of wearWhile using gown.1) Remove watch, put it in uniform pocket.2) Wash hands and dry.3) Hold the gown at the neck on the inside ( The open part of the gown should facetowards the nurse)4) Slides hands and gowns down the sleeves.5) Tie at the neck.6) Over lap the gown at the back a much as possible
5www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.comWhile removing gown1) After finishing the work go first to the brain. And scrub hand well then dip inantistatic lotion.2) Untie the neck ties. Do not touch, out side of the gown.3) Slide the gown at the neck on the inside( The open part of the gown should betowards the nurse)4) Slide the gown with both the hands at the shoulder, train the gown inside out thenbring the hands together. Roll the gown, and discord it in the container.5) Scrub hand s and arms again, up to the elbow.6) If the gown is to be used again, hung the gown inside the patients room with thecontaminated side folded out.7) Have the gown outside patents unit, with the contaminated side in.Gloves ; -Gloves are used to protect the nurse from the pathogenic micro-organisms.Gloves are also used to avoid the contamination of articles and other things.In Medical asepsis clean gloves are used.While wearing the gloves –1) Wash hands.2) Dry the hands and apply powder for easy insertion of gloves.3) Put on clean gloves.After use: -Remove gloves & discard them in the container with antiseptic lotion.Wash hands, and dip in antiseptic lotion.Wash hands, and dip in antiseptic lotion.Disinfection of various Articles.
6www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com1) Concurrent 2) TerminalConcurrent: - It means during illness, a daily cleaning of the unit, as well a immediatedisinfection of infections materials and all bodily discharges.Daily cleaning of the room with use of disinfectant.Disinfection of all articles.Terminal Disinfection : -It means disinfection of the patient unit and all the articles used after thedischarge. Transfer and death of the patient who was suffering from the contagiousdisease.Usually fumigation is used for this purpose.Fumigation: - It is disinfection by exposure to the fumes of a vaporized disinfection orus of fumes or gases to destroy organisms.Set of Isolation units-Purpose : - 1) To separate the patient from communicable disease, completely from otherpatient.2) To prevent spread of infection.Equipment : -- Bed, bed side table , chair- Hand washing facilities – sink, water tap, soap- Gown & mask- One extra table to put tray – mouth care, TPR tray- Garbage receptacle , with paper lining- Personal articles for lunch, toilet.- Isolation and to hand on the door.
7www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.comHow to prevent cross infection in the hospital1) Hospital should be well ventilated.2) General cleanliness should be maintained in the hospital sweeping & mopping ofthe floor.Must be done daily with antiseptic lotions.- Room should be fee from dust particles.- Furniture & other articles should be washed & cleaned- Mattress, pillows & other un washable things must be exposed to sunlight.- White washing of the walks- Painting of the doors, windows should be done3) Pure water supply is essential kitchen and panting must be free from Files.4) Stool, urine sputum should be disposal safety. Bed pans urinals cleaned & disposalsafety. Bed pans, urinals are cleaned & disinfected before it is used by the nextpatient.5) Disposal of returned discarded dressing, garbage , are burns daily6) Rodents & insects they be destroyed7) Nurse must plan her work to prevent frequently going in and out of room.8) Nurse must receive necessary vamination before nursing patients.9) Nurse must wash hand. Put on clean gown & mark before entering the room.10)After finishing work she goes first to the basin & scrub hands well.11)She leaves the room, closes the door, removes gown & mask, and discounts themin the container with disinfectant solution.12)She washes hand thoroughlyDifference between medical & surgical asepsis.Medical Asepsis1) A clean TechniquesSurgical Asepsis1) Sterile technique
8www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com2) Transmission of pathogenicorganisms is prevented e.g. Haircombing, mouth wash.3) Patient & his environment isprotected from cross injection2) Pathogenic and Non –Pathogenic organisms are totallyprevented e.g. giving injection,dressing.3) Objects on articles are free frompathogenic and Non-pathogenicorganisms.