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Pharmacology

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  • 1. PHARMACOLOGY Jayesh Patidar
  • 2. DIGOXIN (LANOXIN)D – dig level 2ng/mL or greater is toxicI – inhibits sodium-potassium ATPaseG – GI or CNS signs signs indicate adverse effects (nausea/anorexia for adult toxicity, stomach upset in older child)O – output, intake, and weight should be monitored
  • 3. X – don’t give if pulse is less than 60 beats/minI – indicated for CHF, atrial fibrillationN – note potassium, ECG and renal function tests
  • 4. EPINEPHRINEN – nervousness (undesirable effect)A – angina, arrhythmia (undesirable effect)S – sugar is increasedC – cardiac arrest
  • 5. A – allergic reactionR – respiratory - bronchodilator
  • 6. NOREPINEPHRINE(LEVOPHED)S – stimulates alpha and beta adrenergic receptorsH – hypovolemia – should be corrected before using drugO – output of urine should increase
  • 7. C – constriction of blood vesselsK – keep monitoring vital signs every 5 to 15 minutes
  • 8. NITROGLYCERINA – avoid alcoholN – Note BP and apical pulse before administrationG – given to relax the vascular smooth systemI – indicated for angina pectoris
  • 9. N – note for postural hypotension; rise slowlyA – advice client to seek medical assistance if pain is unrelieved after 3 doses with 5 minute interval
  • 10. ACE INHIBITORSS – suppresses renin-angiotensin- aldosterone systemW – warn client with renal or thyroid diseasesE – ends with pril - captopril (capoten); enalapril (vasotec)
  • 11. R – rise slowly to reduce orthostatic hypotensionT – treatment of hypertensionE – evaluate blood pressure
  • 12. BETA-ADRENERGICBLOCKERSEnds with lol – atenolol (Tenormin)B – bradycardiaB – blood pressure is too lowB – bronchial constrictionB – blood sugar is masked when low
  • 13. CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKER Amlodipine (Norvasc), Diltiazem (Cardizem), Nifedipine (Procardia)B – blocks calcium access to the cellsI – indicated for hypertensionL – let client take drug with meals or milkL - light and moisture - protect
  • 14. DIURETICS Loop – furosemide (Lasix) Thiazides – chlorothiazide (Diuril) Potassium sparing – spironolactone (Aldactone) Osmotic – mannitol (Osmitrol)
  • 15. D – diet; increase potassium for all except aldactoneI – intake, output, daily weight monitoringU – undesirable effects: F&E imbalanceR – review HR, BP, and electrolytes
  • 16. E – elderly careful; evening dose not recommendedT – take with or after meals and in AMI – increase risk of orthostatic hypotension; move slowlyC – cancel alcohol and cigarettes
  • 17. WARFARIN (COUMADIN) Prothrombin time is monitored (1.5-2.5 X control is the therapeutic range) Vitamin K is the antidote Green leafy vegetables should be avoided
  • 18. C – check vital signs, platelet count, and PTO – observe for bleedingR – review bleeding protocolA – avoid ASA, may use acetaminophen
  • 19. HEPARIN SODIUM PTT must be monitored (1.5-2.5 X control) Antidote is protamine sulfate is the antidote Hospitalization is required for IV Heparin
  • 20. CLOPIDOGREL (PLAVIX)B – bleeding, bronchospasms – undesirable effectsL – lowers risk of atherosclerotic eventsE – evaluate bruisingE – evaluate liver functionD – do take with food or after meals
  • 21. HMG CoA INHIBITORS Competitive inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase, an enzyme necessary for cholesterol biosynthesis Indicated for hypercholesterolemia Atorvastatin (Lipitor), Simvastatin (Zocor)
  • 22. S – statin is the endingT – take with food and at bedtimeA – always consume 2-3 liters of fluid dailyT – teach client to do exercise and weight reduction as well
  • 23. T – treats hypercholesterolemiaI – increase fiber in dietN – never give if with liver disease
  • 24. ANTIHISTAMINES Cetirizine (Zyrtec); loratidine (Claritine); diphenhydramine (Benadryl); hydroxyzine (Atarax)A – acts by blocking histamine release at H1 receptorsT – take with food
  • 25. E – educate client not to drive or operate machinery if drowsiness occursC – Commonly given for upper respiratory allergic disorders and anaphylactic reactionsL – let client eat candy or sugarless gums if dry mouth occursE – eliminate alcohol (CNS depression)
  • 26. ANTIBIOTICSM – monitor superinfetionsE – evaluate renal/liver functionsD – diarrhea – take yogurtI – inform provider prior to taking other medications
  • 27. C – cultures prior to initial doseA – alcohol is out, ask about allergyT – take full courseE – evaluate cultures, WBC, temperature, blood
  • 28. AMINOGLYCOSIDES Amikacin (Amikin); gentamicin (Garamycin); Neomycin (Neobiotcs, Mycifradin); Streptomycin Serious infections caused by gram- negativ infections
  • 29. CEPHALOSPORINS 1st generation – often used in client allergic to penicillin, gram positive organisms, cefazolin (Ancef) 2nd generation – gram negative, cefuroxime (Zinacef)
  • 30.  3rd generation – mostly gram negative organisms, ceftazidime (Fortaz), ceftriaxone (Rocephin) 4th generation – gram-negative and gram-positive, cefepime (Maxipime)
  • 31. ALLOPURINOL (ZYLOPRIM)G – gulp 10-12 glasses of fluid daily; GI distress (undesirable effect)O – output and input monitor closelyU – uric acid production decreased, use no alcoholT – take after meals
  • 32. COLCHICINEA – alcohol is outC – cuts down on effects of B12 supplementsU – undesirable effects (oliguria, anemia, diarrhea)T – take with foodE – exacerbation - gout
  • 33. PHENYTOIN (DILANTIN)G – gingival hyperplasiaU – use alternate birth controlM – mouth care; preventative dental check-upS – soft toothbrush, don’t stop abruptly
  • 34. LITHIUML – level-therapeutic (0.6-1.2mEq/L)I – increased urinationT – thirst increasedH – headache and tremorsI – increase fluids
  • 35. U – unsteadyM – monitor salt