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    Nursing research quiz series Nursing research quiz series Document Transcript

    • 1www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.comNursing Research (Biostatistics) QuizNOTE: Questions from various medical/nursing entrance examinations conducted in India.1. Random sampling or probability sampling includes all the following techniques,except:A. Simple random samplingB. Stratified random SamplingC. Cluster samplingD. Purposive Sampling2. Gender, age-class, religion, type of disease, and blood group are measured on:A. Nominal scale of measurementB. Ordinal scale of measurementC. Interval scale of measurementD. Ratio scale of measurement3. Which scale of measurement has an absolute zero?A. NominalB. OrdinalC. IntervalD. Ratio4. The variable which is influenced by the intervention of the researcher is called:A. IndependentB. DependentC. DiscreteD. Extraneous5. The statistical approach which helps the investigator to decide whether the outcomeof the study is a result of factors planned within design of the study or determined bychance is called:A. Descriptive statistics
    • 2www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.comB. Inferential statisticsC. Normal distributionD. Standard deviation6. Which of the following methods is a form of graphical presentation of data?A. Line DiagramB. Pie diagramC. Bar diagramD. Histogram7. All the following are measures of central tendency, except:A. MeanB. MedianC. ModeD. Variance8. Which measure of central tendency is Influenced by extreme scores and skeweddistributions?A. Mean Copyright@ http://nursingplanet.com/QuizB. MedianC. ModeD. Range9. A measure of central tendency which is calculated by numbers arranging innumerical order is:A. Standard deviationB. RangeC. Median Copyright@ http://nursingplanet.com/QuizD. Mode10. The proportion of observations fall above the median is:A. 68%
    • 3www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.comB. 50%C. 75%D. 95%11. The indices used to measure variation or dispersion among scores are all, except:A. RangeB. VarianceC. Standard deviationD. Mean12. A measure of dispersion of a set of observations in which it is calculated by thedifference between the highest and lowest values produced is called:A. Standard deviationB. Variance Copyright@ http://nursingplanet.com/QuizC. RangeD. Mode13. A statistic which describes the interval of scores bounded by the 25th and 75thpercentile ranks is:A. Inter quartile rangeB. Confidence IntervalC. Standard deviationD. Variance Copyright@ http://nursingplanet.com/Quiz14. The Median value is the:A. 25th percentileB. 50th percentileC. 75th percentileD. 95th percentile15. Large standard deviations suggest that:A. scores are probably widely scattered.
    • 4www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.comB. there is very little deference among scores.C. mean, median and mode are the sameD. the scores not normally distributed.16. The formula given below is computational formula for:A. VarianceB. Mean Copyright@ http://nursingplanet.com/QuizC. Standard deviationD. t-statistic17. The squire of the standard deviation is the:A. Variance.B. Standard errorC. Z-score Copyright@ http://nursingplanet.com/QuizD. Variance18. Which is NOT a characteristic of normal distribution?A. Symmetric Copyright@ http://nursingplanet.com/QuizB. Bell-shapedC. Mean = median = modeD. Negative skewness19. Skewness is a measure:A. of the asymmetry of the probability distributionB. decides the distribution may have high or low varianceC. of central tendencyD. None of the above
    • 5www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com20. The formula given below is used to calculate:O= Observed frequencyE= Expected frequencyA. t-test statisticB. chi-squire statisticC. correlation coefficientD. Standard deviation21. The variable in an experiment that is known from the start and does not change iscalled the:A. dependent variable.B. extraneous variable.C. independent variable.D. confounding variable.22. Type I errors occur:A. when the null hypothesis is rejected but it should have been retained.B. accepting the null hypothesis when it should have been rejected.C. considering the alternate hypothesis as false when it actually it was true .D. when the obtained p-value is higher than 0.05.23. How many degrees of freedom would a table with 3 rows and 2 columns have?A. 2B. 1C. 3D. 424. Determining the Degrees of Freedom for a 2X2 contingency table for Chi-squiredistribution is:A. 4
    • 6www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.comB. 2C. 0.05D. 125. The degree of flatness or peakedness of a graph of a frequency distribution istermed as:A. standard deviationB. kurtosisC. skewnessD. mode26. In a negatively skewed distribution, the mean generally falls to:A. the left of the median and the median usually lies to the left of the mode.B. the right of the median and the median usually lies to the right of the mode.C. the middle of median and mode.D. the centre of the distribution.27. Which statement about normal distribution is FALSE:A. 50 percent of the observations fall within one standard deviation sigma of the mean.B. 68 percent of the observations fall within one standard deviation sigma of the mean.C. 95 percent of observation falls within 2 standard deviations.D. 99.7 percent of observations fall within 3 standard deviations of the mean.28. A measure used to standardize the central tendency away from the mean acrossdifferent samples is:A. skewnessB. RangeC. Z-scoreD. mode29. Probability values fall on scale between:A. -1 to +1
    • 7www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.comB. 0 and 1.C. -3 to + 3D. 0.05 to 0.0130. Standard error is calculated by:A. dividing standard deviation by the square root of the sample size.B. dividing number of nominated outcome by number of possible outcome.C. adding all the numbers and then dividing by the numbers of observations.D. arranging the numbers in numerical order, then taking the middle one.31. When explaining the direction of the linear association between two numericalpaired variables, a positive correlation is stated when:A. one variable increases and the other variable decreases or vice versa.B. dependent variable increases and independent variable decreasesC. both variables increase and decrease at the same time.D. correlation coefficient is stated close to 0.32. A type of graphical presentation data used to explain correlation betweendependent and independent variable is:A. HistogramB. Frequency polygonC. Frequency curveD. Scatter plot33. Correlation coefficient ranges from:A. 0.01 to 0.05B. 0 to 1C. -1 to +1D. -3 to +334. A contingency table (2x2) is used to calculate:A. t-statistic
    • 8www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.comB. correlation coefficientC. varianceD. chi-squire statistic35. The listed observations- 1,2,3,4,100, suggest the distribution:A. is positively skewedB. is negatively skewedC. has zero skewnessD. is left-skewed36. 95% confidence interval refers to:A. considering 1 out of 20 chances are taken to be wrong.B. considering 1 out of 100 chances are taken as wrong.C. considering 95 out of 100 chances are taken as wrong.D. considering 5 out of 20 chances are taken as wrong.37. A tentative explanation/statement of a declaration of the expected outcome of aresearch study based on observations is called:A. RelationshipsB. AnalysisC. VariablesD. Hypothesis38. In a naturalistic observation, the phenomenon in which the behaviour of thesubjects being observed changes because they are being watched is called:A. Observer biasB. Observer effectC. participant observationD. Representative sampling39. The entire group of people or animals in which the researcher is interested is called:A. Sample
    • 9www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.comB. Experiment groupC. SampleD. Controls40. In the scientific investigation, the first step is:A. Reporting your resultsB. Perceiving a question.C. Drawing conclusion.D. Testing hypothesis.41. Which of the following is NOT a method of quantitative research?A. Grounded Theory ResearchB. Correlational ResearchC. Quasi-Experimental ResearchD. Experimental Research42. The grounded theory approach was developed byA. HeideggerB. Glaser and StraussC. HusserlD. Denzin43. Deductive Reasoning is applied in:A. Qualitative researchB. Quantitative researchC. Action researchD. Applied research44. Which of the following is a qualitative research design where lived experiences ofindividuals are examined in their "life-world"?A. EthnographyB. Ethology
    • 10www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.comC. PhenomenologyD. Grounded theory45. Which of the following is a characteristic of qualitative research?A. Deductive processB. Control over the contextC. Fixed research designD. Inductive process46. Qualitative research design involvesA. Emergent designB. Correlative designC. Experimental designD. Cohort designAnswer Key47. Phenomenological study involves all the following features, EXCEPTA. Bracket outB. IntuitionC. AnalysisD. DescriptionE. Manipulation48. Which of the following qualitative methods focuses on description andinterpretation of cultural behavior?A. PhenomenologyB. Grounded theoryC. EthnographyD. Symbolic interactionism
    • 11www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com49. The area of inquiry in grounded theory approach isA. Holistic view of cultureB. Lived experiencesC. Behaviour observed over time in natural contextD. Social structural processes with in social setting50. The research design in which the area inquiry is the manner by which people makesense of social interactions:A. Grounded theoryB. PhenomenologyC. Symbolic interactionismD. Ethnography51. The term triangulation was coined by:A. Denzin (1989)B. Leininger (1985)C. Glaser and Strauss (1967)D. Heidegger52. In qualitative research, a guiding principle in deciding sample size is:A. Effect sizeB. Number of variablesC. Data saturationD. Sub-group analysis53. The term refers to the use of multiple referents to draw conclusions about whatconstitutes the truth:A. Item analysisB. Factor analysisC. Error measurementD. Triangulation
    • 12www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com54. Characteristics of qualitative research design areA. Flexible and elastic designB. Use of mixed methodologiesC. Ongoing analysis to formulate subsequent strategiesD. Researcher becomes the instrumentE. All of the above55. The tendency in qualitative research to derive a complex array of data from avariety of sources, using variety of methods is termed as:A. TriangulationB. BricolageC. Cross-tabulationD. Confirmability56. Correlation coefficient provides all of the following information, except :A. whether or not there is a relationship between the variables.B. the strength of the relationship between the variables.C. the cause of the relationship between the variables.D. the direction of the relationship between the variables.57. Another name for a bar graph is:A. polygonB. histogramC. normal curveD. line graph58. A table that shows how often different scores appear in a set of scores is called afrequency:A. polygonB. histogramC. normal curve
    • 13www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.comD. distribution59. All the following are components required for estimating power (1-beta) of a study,EXCEPTA. The population effect sizeB. Sample sizeC. Level of significance (alpha)D. Standard deviation60. Using power analysis (Cohen, 1977), the value of estimated effect size (gamma) forlarge effects in two group test of mean difference isA. 0-2B. 0.5C. 0.8D. 1.061. When doing power analysis in ANOVA context, the estimate of effect size isA. Eta-squaredB. Correlation coefficientC. Standard ErrorD. Chi-squire value62. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) test is used toA. Test the difference between two independent group meansB. Test the difference between two related group meansC. Test the difference among the means of 3+ independent groupsD. Test the difference in ranks of scores of 3+ independent groups63. Kruskal-Wallis test is used to:A. Test the difference between two independent group meansB. Test the difference among the means of 3+ related groupsC. Test the difference among the means of 3+ independent groups
    • 14www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.comD. Test the difference in ranks of scores of 3+ independent groups64. Which is the most appropriate inferential analysis to test the difference among themeans of 3+ related groups o sets of scores?A. Repeated-measures ANOVAB. Friedman testC. Paired t-testD. Wicoxon signed-rank test65. Power analysis builds on the concepts of:A. ValidityB. reliabilityC. Internal consistencyD. Effect size66. Effect size is used to calculate:A. ReliabilityB. Sample sizeC. Internal consistencyD. Predictive validity67. The F-statistic is calculated in:A. ANOVAB. T-testC. Correlation analysisD. Chi-squire test68. Which of the following is a nonparametric "Analysis of Variance"?A. Mann-Whitney U testB. Wilcoxon Rank testC. Kruskal-Wallis testD. Friedmans test
    • 15www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com69. Chi-square test is used to test:A. Difference in proportionsB. Difference in means of two independent variablesC. Relationship between two bivariate variablesD. Difference in means of three or more set of variables70. Which of the following is NOT a criteria for Fishers exact test?A. When proportions derived from independent groups are comparedB. When there are cells with a value of 0C. Sample size is small (less than 30)D. When testing difference between three or more group means71. The type of research focused on finding a solution to an immediate practical problemis termed as:A. Basic researchB. Applied researchC. Explanatory researchD. Descriptive research72. The principles of ethics in nursing research include:A. BeneficenceB. Respect for human dignityC. JusticeD. All of the above73. Which of the following is TRUE about features of quasi-experimental research design?A. Manipulation. control group, randomizationB. Manipulation, but no control group or randomizationC. No manipulation of independent variableD. Use of correlational approach74. Carry-over effects are related to:
    • 16www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.comA. Factorial designB. Pretest-posttest designC. Solomon four-group designD. Repeated measures design75. The extent to which it is possible to make an inference that independent variable is trulyinfluencing the dependent variable and relationship is not spurious, refers to:A. External validityB. Internal ValidityC. Internal consistencyD. Reliability76. Which of the following is considered as a threat to internal validity of a research?A. The Hawthorne effectB. Novelty effectC. Experimenter effectsD. MaturationE. Measurement effects77. Which of the following is NOT related to dealing with extraneous variables in aquantitative research?A. RandomizationB. Repeated measuresC. HomogeneityD. BlockingE. Bracketing78. Which of the following is a method of integrating the findings of prior research studiesusing statistical procedures?A. Meta-analysisB. Secondary analysis
    • 17www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.comC. Content analysisD. Grounded theory79. The term used to indicate the placebo effect in which the knowledge of being includedin a study cause people to change their behaviours, thereby obscuring the variable ofinterest:A. Internal validityB. MaturationC. ManipulationD. Hawthorne effect80. Investigations in which samples from a general population are studied over time withrespect to some phenomenon is termed asA. Trend studiesB. Action researchC. Outcome researchD. Meta-anlysis81. Which of the following data collection method has better subjectivity?A. Self-reportsB. ObservationC. Biophysiologic measuresD. Questionnaires82. Basic principles that are accepted as being true on the basis of logic or reason, withoutproof or verification is termed as:A. AssumptionsB. HypothesisC. ConstructsD. Propositions
    • 18www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com83. A fundamental ethical principle that seeks to prevent harm and exploitation of, tomaximize benefits for, study participants is:A. JusticeB. BeneficenceC. NonmalificenceD. Coercion84. A method of data collection in which several rounds of questionnaires are mailed to apanel of experts, focusing on their opinions or judgment concerning a specific topic ofinterest is:A. Focus group interviewB. Meta-analysisC. Delphi techniqueD. Secondary analysis85. The principle of beneficence include all the following, EXCEPTA. Freedom from harmB. Freedom from exploitationC. Benefits from researchD. Risk/benefit ratioE. The right to self-determination86. The degree of consistency with which an instrument measures the attribute it issupposed to be measuring is called:A. ValidityB. ReliabilityC. SensitivityD. Objectivity87. The reliability of a measuring tool has following aspects, except:A. StabilityB. Internal consistency
    • 19www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.comC. EfficiencyD. Equivalence88. The extent to which the same results are obtained on repeated administrations of theinstrument is termed as:A. Internal consistencyB. ValidityC. StabilityD. Sensitivity89. The stability index of a measuring tool is derived through procedures that evaluate:A. Interrater reliabilityB. Internal consistencyC. Crombachs alphaD. Test-retest reliability90. The Spearmans-Brown formula is used to estimate:A. Test-retest reliabilityB. Internal consistencyC. EquivalenceD. Validity91. The degree to which an instrument measures what it is supposed to be measuring isits:A. ValidityB. Internal consistencyC. SensitivityD. Equivalence92. Which of the following is NOT a type of validity index of a research instrument?A. Predictive validityB. Content validity
    • 20www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.comC. Concurrent validityD. Construct validityE. Homogenous validity93. The adequacy of an instrument in differentiating between the performance orbehaviour on some future criterion is termed as:A. Predictive validityB. Cocurrent validityC. Content validityD. Construct validity94. Multi-trait-multi-matrix (MTMM) is a procedure developed to establish:A. Internal consistencyB. Interrater reliabilityC. Construct validityD. Content validity95. Which of the following is NOT a procedure for establishing construct validity of aninstrument?A. Known-group techniqueB. Factor analysisC. MTMMD. Crombachs alpha96. The most common type of composite scale is:A. Likert scaleB. Visual analog scaleC. ChecklistsD. Thurstone scale97. The term “action research” was coined by:A. Kurt Lewin
    • 21www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.comB. Glaser & StraussC. Karl PearsonD. Jacob Cohen98. A careful appraisal of the strengths and weaknesses of the study is:A. Research proposalB. Action ResearchC. Research critiqueD. Evidence-based practice99. The standards of critiquing qualitative research include, except:A. Descriptive vividnessB. Methodological CongruenceC. Analytical and interpretative precisenessD. Heuristic relevanceE. Chance for committing Type-I error100. History as a threat to the internal validity of a particular study (Cook and Campbell)refers to:A. An event that takes place between pretest and posttest.B. Natural change during the period between baseline and posttestC. Groups that are formed not on randomization bases.D. The phenomenon of differential attrition during the course of treatment.101. The phenomenon of those who obtain extreme scores at pretest tending to obtain lessextreme scores at posttest, at both the high and low ends of the measure is:A. Internal validityB. Statistical regressionC. Statistical powerD. Statistical validity
    • 22www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com102. The concept of statistical power in the social and behavioural sciences was firstintroduced by:A. Carl pearsonB. SpearmanC. Jacob CohenD. Kolmogrov103. The probability that a given effect will be detected using a sample of a specified size,with the probability level of the statistical test being set at a predetermined level: isA. Power of a statistical testB. Internal validityC. External validityD. Reliability of a study104 . The four parameters of power analysis are, except:A. The alpha or probability level of the significance testB. The size of the effect hypothesized or to be detected.C. The size of the sample being studied.D. The power of the statistical test.E. Reliability of the rating scale105. The probability of making a Type II error in any statistical testis termed as:A. AlphaB. BetaC. GammaD. ThetaE. Delta106. A pharmacology trial concluded that a new antipsychotic reduced negative symptomswhen in reality it did not; is an example of:A. Type I error
    • 23www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.comB. Type II errorC. Type III errorD. Type IV error107. For a two-group comparison study, standardized measure of effect size is:A. Square of the Pearson correlation coefficient.B. Eta squired valueC. Chi-squire valueD. The difference between the two means, divided by the average of the standarddeviations.108. Kappa coefficient of reliability is related to:A. Ratio scale of measurementB. Interval scale of measurementC. Nominal scale of measurementD. Continuous variables109. The sum of the values of a variable for a set of observations, divided by the number ofthe observations in the set refers to:A. VarianceB. Standard deviationC. MedianD. MeanE. Mode110. The degrees of freedom for the chi-square test isA. ( R + 1) (C - 1 )B. (R − 1) (C − 1)C. (R - 1) (C + 1)D. (R x C) - 1
    • 24www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com111. Which of the following is NOT a multivariate statistical approach?A. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA)B. Multiple RegressionC. Factor AnalysisD. Structural Equation ModelingE. Analysis of variance112. Studies that produce basic estimates of the rates of disorder in a general populationand its subgroups is:A. Qualitative epidemiologyB. Analytic epidemiologyC. Experimental epidemiologyD. Descriptive epidemiology113. The number of new cases that occur within a specific population within a definedtime interval is:A. Point PrevalenceB. IncidenceC. Period prevalenceD. Lifetime Prevalence114. What is the Z-score for 97.5th percentile in a distribution?A. +1.96B. -1.96C. +2.5D. 0.05115. The statistic used to explain the chances of being exposed to a risk among those withthe diagnosis divided by exposure to the risk among those without the diagnosis is:A. Phi coefficientB. Odds ratio
    • 25www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.comC. Chi squareD. Kappa116. The phi coefficient is used for correlations betweenA. Two continuous variablesB. Two set of meansC. Two dichotomous variables.D. Two rating scales117. In biomedical research survival analysis is typically used to evaluateA. Incidence of a diseaseB. Point PrevalenceC. Life expectancyD. Lifetime Prevalence118. A systematic method for continuous monitoring of diseases in a population, in orderto be able to detect changes in disease patterns and then to control them is:A. Conditional probabilityB. ScreeningC. PrevalenceD. Surveillance119. A hypothesis which a researcher tries to disprove is:A. Research hypothesisB. Null hypothesisC. Alternate hypothesisD. Positive hypothesis120. In epidemiology research, If the relative risk is greater than 1.0, the group with thesuspected risk factor:A. have a lower incidence rate of the disorder.
    • 26www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.comB. have a higher incidence rate of the disorder.C. is having no relationship with the risk factor.D. None of the above121. Number of births divided by total population includes men women and children(1000s) is:A. Crude birth rateB. General fertility rateC. Age-specific fertility ratesD. Total period fertility rate122. All of the following diagrams can be draw from quantitative data, except:A. Frequency curveB. Scatter diagramB. Flow diagramD. Histogram123. In a community correlation between infant mortality and socioeconomic status is:A. r = +1 (Strong positive correlation)B. r = -1 (strong negative correlation)C. r = -0.8 (moderate negative correlation)D. r = +0.22 (strong positive correlation)124. Best graph for demonstration of relationship between ages and weight is:A. Bar DiagramB. HistogramC. ScatterD. Pie diagram125. Age and sex representation is best represented by:A. HistogramB. Pie chart
    • 27www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.comC. Bar diagramD. Sketch of photos126. Quantitative data can be best represented by:A. Pie chartB. PictogramC. HistogramD. Bar diagram127. Percentage of data can be shown in:A. Graph presentationB. Pie chartC. Bar diagramD. Histogram128. The average berth weights in a hospital are to be demonstrated by statisticalrepresentation. This is best done by:A. Frequency curveB. PictogramC. HistogramD. Bar diagram129. In a random sample taken for a population, the median is higher than:A. 25B. 50C. 67D. 100130. For determination of which statistical parameter requires quantities to be arrangedin an ascending or descending order?A. MeanB. Median
    • 28www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.comC. ModeD. SD131. In a population of 100 females in the age group of 15-45, the mean systolic BP wasfound to be 120. In a normal curve distribution, the number of people who would have anaverage BP above 120 will be:A. 25B. 50C. 75D. 95132. The two important values necessary for describing the frequency distribution of aseries of observation are:A. Mean and standard deviationB. Mean and rangeC. Median and rangeD. Median and standard deviation133. Arrangement of values in a serial order is to determine:A. MeanB. ModeC. MedianD. Range134. A scatter diagram shows:A. Trends of events with the passage of timeB. Relationship between two variablesC. Proportion of an eventD. Positive relationship between two variables135. In 11 babies born in a hospital is 5 above 2.5 kg and 5 below 2.5 kg. The value 2.5 is:A. Median averageB. Mode average
    • 29www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.comC. Geometrical meanD. Arithmetic average136. Relationship between two variables can be presented by:A. Pie diagramB. Scatter diagramC. Bar diagramD. Histogram137. Calculate the median of trhese ten values.1.9. 1.9, 1.9, 1.9, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.4, 2.4, 2.4A. 1.9B. 2.1C. 2.25D. 2.4138. A number of cases of malaria are collected over 10 years with extreme variation indata. The best measure to calculate average is:A. Arithametic meanB. ModeC. Geometric meanD. Median139. In a population study for malaria over the past few years, the number of casereported were 20, 5000, 100, 80, 60, 70, 40, 60, 80. The average is best represented by:A. Arithemetic menaB. ModeC. Geometric meanD. Median
    • 30www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com140. Malaria incidence in a village in the year 2000 is 430, 500, 410, 160, 270, 210, 300, 350,4000, 430, 480, 450. Which of the following is the best indicator for assessment of malariaincidence in that village by the epidemiologist?A. Arithemetic meanB. Gemetric meanC. MedianD. Mode141. Ten babies are born in a hospital on same day. All weight 208 kg each. Calculate thestandard deviation.A. ZeroB. OneC. Minus oneD. 0.28142. Blood pressure samples from two community are best campared by:A. Paired t-testB. Students t-testC. Chi-square testD. Cohort study143. In statistics, spread of dispersion is described by:A. MedianB. ModeC. Standard deviationD. Mean144. Calculate the mode of 70, 71, 72, 70, 70.A. 70B. 71C. 71.5D. 72
    • 31www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com145. In an epidemiological study, the incubation periods obtained were 2, 5, 8, 10, 25, 10,and 30. The median is calculated to be:A. 50B. 22.5C. 10D. 5146. Among the measure of dispersion which is the most frequently used:A. RangeB. MeanC. MedianD. Standard deviation147. What is the mode in statistics?A. Value of middle observationB. Arithmetic meanC. Most commonly occurring valueD. Difference between the highest and lowest value148. Square root of deviation is called:A. Standard deviationB. Standard errorC. Mean deviationD. Range149. In normal distribution curve, sampling values following:A. Mean=MedianB. Mean=S.DC. Mean=VariantD. Mean= 2 x median
    • 32www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com150. Which is false about normal distribution curve?A. In a normal curve 95% of values in within 1 SDB. Mean, mode and median coincidenceC. Median is mid valueD. Mode is commonest occurring value151. Shape of a normal curve is:A. SymmetricalB. CurvilinearC. LinearD. Parabolic152. The area under normal distribution curve for S.D. of 2 is:A. 68%B. 95%C. 97.5%D. 100%153. In a standard normal curve the area between one standard deviation on either sidewill be:A. 68%B. 85%C. 97.5%D. 99%154. Normal distribution curve is explained using:A. Mean and sampleB. Mean and medianC. Median and standard deviationD. Mean and standard deviation
    • 33www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com155. In a highly skewed distribution central tendency is better explained by:A. ModeB. MedianC. Standard deviationD. Mean156. Which is false about normal distribution curve?A. 95% of values fall within 1 S.D.B. Mean, median and mode coincideC. Median is the midvalueD. Mode is commonest occurring value157. Right sided skewed distribution causes:A. Median is more than meanB. S.D. is more than varianceC. "Tail" to the leftD. "Tail" to the right158. In a normal distribution curve, the true statement is:A. Mean = SDB. Median = SDC. Mean = 2 MedianD. Mean = Mode159. If the mean is 230 and the standard error is 10, the 95% confidence limits will be:A. 210 to 250B. 220 to 240C. 225 to 235D. 230 + or -210
    • 34www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com160. Among the following which is most significant P value?A. 0.005B. 0.05C. 0.01D. 0.1161. The number of degrees of freedom in a table of (4x4):A. 4B. 8C. 9D. 16162. "Confidence limits" are:A. Mean +/- Standard errorB. Median + Standard errorC. Mean + RangeD. Mean standard deviations163. Sum of all squares of deviation from the mean is called:A. MeanB. ModeC. VarianceD. Standard Error164. Limits of confidence of a hypothesis is determined by:A. Power factorB. Level of significanceC. 1-power factorD. 1-level of significance
    • 35www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com165. Which is true about cluster sampling?A. Every month case is chosen fro studyB. A natural group is taken as sampling unitC. Stratification of populationD. Involves use of random numbers166. In a community of 3000 people, 80% are Hindus, 10% Muslims, 5% Sicks, 4%Christians, and 1% Jains. To select a sample of 300 people to analyze food habits, idealsampling method would be:A. Simple random samplingB. Stratified random samplingC. Systematic random samplingD. Inverse sampling167. Mean of 25 variables is 2, Standard deviation is 2, Standard error of mean is:A. 0.4B. 0.2C. 2.0D. 10168. Cholesterol value are obtained in a group of people before and after giving drug A.the appropriate statistical test used to analyze the data is:A. Paired t-testB. Unpaired t-testC. Fischers testD. Chi-square test169. Calculate standard error for population of size of 25 persons suffering from fever ofhistory of 8 days and with standard deviation of 2.A. 0.4B. 0.2C.0.%
    • 36www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.comD. 1.6170. In a population of 100 females the mean hemoglobin concentration was 10 andstandard deviation was 1. The standard error is:A. 0. 01B. 0.1C 0.5D. 1.6171. An investigator was to study the association between maternal intake of ironsupplements (yes or no) and birth weights (in grams) of newborn babies. He collectsrelevant data from 100 pregnant women and their newborns. What is the appropriatestatistical investigation in this context?A. Chi-square testB. Unpaired or independent t-testC. Analysis of varianceD. Paired t-test172. In a drug trial, one group showed 40% response and the group with the test drugshowed 60% response. The two results can be statistically compared for significance by:A. Chi-square testB. Paired testC. t-test with different measuresD. Fischer test173. In a group of 100m children, the weight of child is 15 kg. The standard error is 1.5 kg.Which of the following is true?A. 95% of all children weight between 12 and 18 kgB. 95% of all children weight between 13.5 and 16.5 kgC. 99% of all children weight between 12 and 18 kgD. 99% of all children weight between 12 and 18 kg
    • 37www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com174. The following statistics is used to measure the linear association between twocharacteristics in the same individuals:A. Coefficient of variationB. Coefficient of correlationC. Chi-squareD. Standard error175. Which of the following test of significance can be used to compare unrelated variableswhen values are all binary?A. t-testB. Chi-square testC. Proportion testD. Correlation testE. Regression test176. What is true about Chi-square test?A. Expected and observed values are always equalB. Mutually exclusiveC. Mutually non-exclusiveD. Indicates median177. In Chi-square test degree of freedom 1, Chi-squire value= 6.7, then P-value will be:A. > 0.5B. <. 0.1C. < 1 .0D. < 0. 05178. Regarding paired t-test true is:A. Hypertension in a person before and after treatment can be studiedB. Continuous variables in a single sampleC. Different variables in a single sample
    • 38www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.comD. Unrelated samples can be compared179. Complete correlation between height and weight is best given by:A. -1B. +1C. 0D. Infinity180. Which of the following is a pre-requisite for the Chi-square test compare?A. Measures should be in continuous scaleB. Both samples need not be mutually exclusiveC. Both samples should be mutually exclusiveD.. Samples should follow normal distribution181. The Chi-square test is used to measure the degree of:A. Causal relationship between exposure and effectB. Correlation between two variablesC. Association between two variablesD. Agreement between two observations182. A useful measure of lethality of an acute infectious disease is:A. Attack rateB. Incidence rateC. Case fatality rateD. Mortality rate183. In an outbreak of cholera in a village of 2,000 population, 20 cases have occurred and5 died. Case fatality rate is:A. 1%B. 0.25%C. 5%
    • 39www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.comD. 25%184. Case fatality rate is:A. RatioB. ProportionC. Numerator is always constantD. Numerator and denominator is are two separate quantities185. Virulence of a disease is indicated by:A. Proportional mortality rateB. Specific mortality rateC. Case fatality ratioD. Morbidity rate186. True about prevalence are all, except:A. RateB. Specifically for all old and new casesC. P = Lx DD. Prevalence of two types187. Descriptive epidemiology is study in relation to:A. TimeB. PlaceC. PersonD. All of the above188. Residents of three villages with three different types of water supply were asked toparticipate in a study to identify cholera carriers. Because several cholera deaths hadoccurred in the recent past, virtually everyone occurred in the time submitted toexamination. The proportion of carriers in each village who were carriers was computedand compared. The study is a:A. Cross-sectional studyB. Case-control study
    • 40www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.comC. Concurrent-cohort studyD. Noon-concurrent case control study189. Study of a person who has already contacted the disease is called:A. Case controlB. CohortC. Control cohortD. Longitudinal190. All are true about case control studies, except:A. Relative risk can be calculatedB. Less expensiveC. Suitable for rare diseasesD. Backward study191. The process of "matching" allows:A. The matched variables to evaluatedB. For Selecting the case and control group with the same known confounding variablesC. Matching of factors in doubtD. To avoid focusing on variables desired192. Prevalence is:A. RateB. RatioC ProportionD. Mode193. To compare two population, the best index is:A. Standardized death rateB. Infant mortality rateC. Crude birth rateD. Couple protection rate
    • 41www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com194. All are morbidity indicators, except:A. Period of stay in hospitalB. Doctor population ratioC. Attendance at outpatient departmentD. Notification rates195. Incidence is defined as:A. Number of cases existing in a given population at a given momentB. Number of cases existing in a given periodC. Number of new cases occurring during a specific periodD. Number of old cases present196. Relative risk can be obtained from:A. Case studyB. Cohort studyC. Case control studyD. Experimental study197. In a village of 1 lakh population, among 20,000 exposed to smocking, 200 developedcancer, and among 40,000 people unexposed , 40 developed cancer. The relative risk ofsmocking in the development of cancer is:A. 20B. 10C. 5D. 15198. Calculate the Odds ratio. (ad/bc)Diseased Non-diseasedPositive 30 20Negative 20 30A. 0.44B. 1.5
    • 42www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.comC. 0.8D. 2.25199. Death rate of two countries is compared by:A. Crude death rateB. Proportional crude rateC. Standardized mortality rateD Age specific death200. Case control study is used for:A. Finding rare causeB. Finding multiple risk factorsC. Finding incidence rateD. Finding morbidity rates201. When launching a study many respondent are invited, some of whom fail to come.This is called:A. Response biasB. Volunteer biasC. Selection biasD. Berkesonian bias202. Most important characteristic of case control study is:A. Odds ratio estimationB. Problem biasC .Yields incidence rateD. Expensive203. All are true about cohort studies, except:A. ProspectiveB. Useful for rare diseases
    • 43www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.comC. Necessary for incidenceD. Expensive204. Which is the most appropriate method of research for studying incidence of diarrheain a community?A. Cross-sectional studyB. Cohort studyC. Case control studyD. Double-blind placebo study205. Best method to calculate the incidence rate is:A. Case control studyB. Sentinel surveillanceC. Cohort studyD. Cross-sectional prevalence study206. Relative risk could show an association between:A. Smocking ad cancerB. OCP and pregnancyC. Efficacy of 2 drugsD. Altitude and endemic goiter207. The ratio between the incidence of disease among exposed and non-exposed is called:A. Causal riskB. Attributable riskC. Relative riskD. Odds ratio208. Which is false about cohort study?A. Incidence can be measuredB. Used to study chronic diseasesC. Expensive
    • 44www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.comD. Always prospective209. Prevalence of disease in a community can be found out by:A. Case control studyB. Cohort studyC. Cross-sectional studyD. Experimental study210. True about case control study are all, except:A. Quick resultsB. Incidence rate measureC. Proceeds from effect to causeD. Relatively inexpensive211. Study of lung cancer in non-smokers is:A. UnifactorialB. MultifactorialC. Passive smocking also increases risk of cancerD. Beedi smokers carry higher risk than cigarette smokers212. Temporal association between a risk factor and the disease relates to:A. Does-response relationshipB. Duration - response relationshipC. One to-one relationshipD. Cause and effect relationship213. Percentages in the segments are indicated by:A. Bar chartsB. HistogramC. PictogramD. Pie charts
    • 45www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com214. In a community with prevalence of HIV 5%, if the sensitivity is 95% and specificity is95% of ELISA, what is the predictive value of the test?A. 100%B. 50%C. 25%D. 0%215. Parameters of sensitivity and specificity are used for assessing:A. Criterion validityB. Construct validityC. Discriminant validityD. Content validity216. Secondary attack rate reflects:A. SeverityB. CommunicabilityC. FatalityD. Infectivity217. An index describing the magnitude of relationship between nominal level data, usedwhen the contingency table to which it is applied is larger than 2x2:A. Pearson correlation coeficientB. Cramers VC. Fishers exact testD. Spearman correlation coeficient218. E.g. "An educational porogramme on smocking was implemented to 800 smockers.One month after implementing the programme, 28 out of 300 women smockers and 46 outof 500 men smockers stopped smocking."Which statistical test could be used to test the association between sex of participants andeffectiveness of smocking?A. t-test copyright@ currentnursing.com
    • 46www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.comB. Correlation coefficientC. Chi-squareD. ANOVA219. A nonparametric test statistical significance used to assess wheather a relationshipexists between two nominal variables is:A. Crombach alpha testB. ANOVAC. t-testD. Pearson correaltionE. Chi-square test220. Limitation of carryover effects are related to tests which measure:A. Stability (test-retest)copyright@ currentnursing.comB. Equivalence (parallel form)C. Internal consistencyD. Cronbach alpha221. The cut off points beyond which the researcher does not intent to probe whichincludes those restrictions the researcher placed in the study prior to gathering data:A. ConsistencyB. DelimitationC. ReliabilityD. Limitation copyright@ currentnursing.com222. The term which refers to the extent to which the results of the study can be generalizedto the larger population:A. Internal validityB. Predictive validityC. External validityD. Content validity
    • 47www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com223. When subpopulations within an overall population vary, the best method of datacollection is:A. Simple random samplingB. Stratified random samplingC. Cluster samplingD. Purposive sampling224. An approach to construct validity that involves assesing the degree to which twomethods of measuring a construct are similar:A. Discriminant validityB. Concurrent validityC. Convergent validityD. Divergent validity225. The degree to which scores on an instrument are correlated with some externalcriterion measured at the same time:A. Factor validityB. Construct validityC. Content validityD. Concurrent validity226. The term which refers to the validity of a research in which the difference in thedependent variable is actually a result of the independent variable:A. Construct ValidityB. Conclusion ValidityC. Internal ValidityD. External Validity227. A sampling process where each element of the population that is sampled issubjected to an independent Bernoulli trial which determines whether the elementbecomes part of the sample during the drawing of a single sample:A. Simple Random SamplingB. Stratified Random Sampling
    • 48www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.comC. Poisson samplingD. Multistage Sampling228. Data collection about everyone or everything in group or population and has theadvantage of accuracy and detail:A. CensusB. SurveyC. Probability samplingD. Cluster sampling229. The stages of sampling process comprises: (Multiple Response Question)A. Defining the populationB. Specifying sampling frameC. Specifying sampling methodD. Determining the sample sizeE. Sampling and data collection230. A sampling method which involves a random start and then proceeds with the selectionof every kth element from then onwards (where k= population size/sample size):A. Simple random samplingB. Stratfied random samplingC. Systematic samplingD. Snowball sampling231. Considerations for choosing sample size include:A. The degree of precision requiredB. Method of samplingC. Way in which results will be analyzedD. All of the above
    • 49www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com232. The standard deviation of a sampling distribution is referred to as the:A. Test statisticB. Standard errorC. Confidence intervalD. Test of signaifiance233. Sampling bias or the error resulting from taking a non-random sample of apopulation include:A. Pre-screeningB. Self-Selection BiasC. Selection from a Specific AreaD. Exclusion biasE. All of the above234. "Cardiac patients who receive support from former patients have less anxiety and higherself-efficacy than other patients". This statement is an example of:A. Directional hypothesis=B. Non-directional hypothesisC. Statistical hypothesisD. Null hypothesis235. What is TRUE about research hypothesis?A. States there is no relationship between the variables.B. Statement about the expected relationship of the variables.=C. States a negative relationship between the variablesD. Research hypothesis should always be directional.236. Hypothesis testing is sometimes called:A. Exploratory data analysisB. Power analysisC. Deductive Reasoning
    • 50www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.comD. Confirmatory data analysis =237. The tests probability of correctly rejecting the null hypothesis is stated by:A. Significance level of a test (α)B. Effect SizeC. Power of a test (1 − β)D. z = (xbar - µ) / (σ / √n)238. Type I error refers to:A. Rejecting H0 when it is actually true=B. Accepting H0 when it is actually falseC. Concluding no difference when one does existD. Rejecting research hypothesis when H0 is actually false239. Which statement is FALSE?A. H0 and H1 are mutually exclusiveB. Two-tailed tests are more conservative.C. Probability that the test will lead to a Type I error is Alpha-levelD. Hypothesis is formulated in experimental research.E. Probability of falsely rejecting the true null hypothesis (type II error / alpha error)240. When considering levels of significance, critical value of z corresponding to the alphalevel of .05 is:A. .001B. 1.96C. 2.58D. 3.29241. Declaration of Helsinki (1964/1975) is related to:A. Qualitative research
    • 51www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.comB. Genetics researchC. Ethical standards in researchD. Statistical methods in research242. "Above all, do no harm".This principle encompassed in the ethical dimension of:A. Human dignityB. JusticeC. BeneficenceD. Anonymity243. Three factors are important regarding the rights of the participants include allexcept:A. ConfidentialityB. AnonymityC. Voluntary participationD. Jurisprudence244. When the researcher is not allowed control of the treatment variable and cannotachieve randomization because of ethical considerations, institutional policies or othersituational factors, the researcher chooses:A. True experimental studiesB. Quasi experimental studiesC. Exploratory studiesD. Qualitative studies245. Factors Affecting Power include:A. . Size of the effectB. Standard deviation of the characteristicC. Bigger sample sizeD. Significance level desiredE. All of the above
    • 52www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com246. A descriptive metric that characterizes the standardized difference (in SD units)between the mean of a control group and the mean of a treatment group is:A. Effect sizeB. LSDC. BetaD. Chi-square copyright@ currentnursing.com247. The power of a statistical test is influenced by:A. Size of the effectB. Sample sizeC. Beta (β)D. All of the above248. Which of the following statements about power of a test is FALSE?A. Power of the test refers to probability of detecting a predefined clinically significantdifference.B. Power of a test explains the risk of a false-positive findingC. Power of the test is usually set at (1-20%) 80%D. Power = 1 - βcopyright@ nursingplanet.com/Quiz/nursing_research_quiz20.html249. A statistical expression of magnitude of relationship between two variables ormagnitude of difference between two groups:A. Effect sizeB. EignvalueC. p-valueD. z-score250. Which of the following classification of research designs is based on the dimension ofcontrol over independent variables?A. Structured and flexibleB. Cross-sectional and longitudinalC. Retrospective and prospective
    • 53www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.comD. Experimental/quasi experimental and non-experimental251. A type of longitudinal study in which data are collected from the same people at twoor more points in time:A. Case control studyB. Panel studyC. Prospective studyD. Retrospective study252. The process in which each participant has an equal and known probability of beingassigned to either the control or the experimental group is:A. RandomizationB. ManipulationC. Research controlD.253. The the primary objective of experimental methodology is:A. Ensure external validityB. Improve internal validityC. To eliminate type I errorD. To reduce ethical problems254. A characteristic features of quasi-experimental design are all, EXCEPT:A. Experimental and control groups may be nonequivalentB. Less powerful than true-experimental designC. Limited confidence in the internal validity of the studyD. Random assignment of units to comparison groups
    • 54www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com255. Repeated-measures design is also known as:A. Crossover designB. Solomon four-group designC. Time series designD. With-in subjects design256. The process of maneuvering the independent variable so that its effect on thedependent variable can be observed is:A. Deductive ReasoningB. DelimitationC. ManipulationD. Meta-analysis257. A statistic calculated in ANOVA:A. Chi-squareB. Correlation coefficientC. Eta-squaredD. t-statistic258. A statistical procedure used to test the significant difference in proportions, usedwhen the sample size is small or cells in the contingency table have no observations:A. MANOVAB. McNemar testC. Chi-square testD. Fishers exact test259. Friedmans test is:A. Parametric equivalent test of chi-square testB. Non-parametric analogue of ANOVA in paired/repeated measures designC. Non-parametric procedure used to test the differences between three or moreindependent groupsD. Parametric procedure used when comparing proportions
    • 55www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com260. A correlation coefficient used to indicate the magnitude of a relationship betweenordinal-level data:A. Kendalls tauB. phi coefficientC. Wilks lambdaD. F-ratio261. A statistical index describing the magnitude of relationship between two dichotomousvariables:A. p-valueB. eta-squaredC. t-valueD. phi- coefficient262. Product-moment correlation coefficient is also known as:A. Spearmans rhoB. Pearson r=C. phi coefficientD. Reliability coefficient263. A statistical procedure to test mean differences among groups on a dependentvariable, while controlling for one or more extraneous variables:A. Causal modelB. Analysis of Covariances (ANCOVA)C. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM)D. Path analysis264. A statistical testing procedure for examining the relationship between two or moreindependent variables and two or more dependent variables is:A. Cluster analysisB. Multiple regressionC. Canonical analysis
    • 56www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.comD. Survival analysis265. A variable that is statistically controlled in ANCOVA (analysis of covariance), whichtypically has an extraneous, confounding influence over dependent variable:A. Mediating variableB. Manifest variableC. Latent variableD. Covariate266. In path analysis, a variable whose determinants lie outside the model is:A. Exogenous variableB. Latent variableC. Manifest variableD. Mediating variable267. A multivariate statistical procedure for reducing a large set of variables into asmaller set of variables with common characteristics is:A. Linear regressionB. ANCOVAC. Factor analysisD. MANOVA268. A statistical procedure which typically used for testing causal models:A. LISREL (Linear Structural Relations Analysis)B. Survival analysisC. Logistic regressionD. MANOVA
    • 57www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com269. A multivariate statistical procedure which analyses relationship between multipleindependent variables and categorical dependent variables:A. ANCOVAB. Logistic regressionC. Multiple regressionD. MTMM270. Kaplan–Meier estimator curves are related to:A. Structural equation modelingB. Cluster AnalysisC. Survival analysisD. Canonical Discriminant Analysis271. A general method for fitting and testing path analysis models, based on covariances:A. MTMMB. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM)C. Multiple regressionD. MANOVA272. Cox proportional hazards models are applied in:A. Canonical Discriminant AnalysisB. Correspondence AnalysisC. Cluster AnalysisD. Survival analysis273. A method of analyzing qualitative data that involves an interactive approach totesting research hypothesis:A. Analytic inductionB. Axial codingC. Blind reviewD. Inquiry audit
    • 58www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com274. The process of identifying and holding in abeyance any preconceived beliefs andopinions one has about the phenomena of understanding is:A. BricolageB. Content AnalysisC. BracketingD. Bricoleur275. A design that unfolds in the course of a qualitative study as the researcher makesongoing design:A. Experimental designB. Quasi-experimental designC. Exploratory designD. Emergent design276. The tendency in qualitative research to derive a complex array of data from a varietyof sources, using a variety of methods is referred as:A. Auto-ethnographyB. Snowball samplingC. Recursive abstractionD. Bricolage277. Emic perspective refers to:A. Outsiders viewB. Insiders viewC. Etic perspectiveD. Holistic view278. A branch of qualitative research associated with the field of anthropology:A. EthnographyB. AnthropologyC. EtymologyD. Epistemology
    • 59www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com279. Which of the following is NOT a qualitative method of research?A. EthnographyB. Case StudyC. Survey/SamplingD. Discourse/Text AnalysisE. Meta-Analysis280. Which is a characteristic of qualitative research methods?A. Naturalistic inquiry copyright@ currentnursing.comB. Random samplingC. Introduction of a treatmentD. Use of a control group281. A method of refining a hypothesis or theory in a qualitative study that involves theinclusion of cases that appear to deconfirm earlier hypotheses:A. Negative case analysisB. Open codingC. Quasi-statisticsD. Theoretical sampling282. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic feature of qualitative research?A. Seek to explore phenomenaB. Emergent designC. Positivist paradigmD. Use semi-structured methods283. Which of the following is NOT an assumption made by parametric tests?A. Sample scores a have been drawn from a normally distributed populationB. The samples are assumed to have the same varianceC. DV is measured on an interval scaleD. DV is measured on an ordianal or nominal scale
    • 60www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com284. Methods of checking assumption of normal distribution are:A. Plotting data in the form of a histogramB. Calculating skewness of the distribution (z-score + 1.96)C. Calculating kurtosis of the distribution (z-score + 1.96)D. Applying Kolmogorov-Smirnov testE. All of the above285. Which of the following statements about Box Plot are true?In a Box Plot for variability,A. the box represents the difference between the 25th and 75th percentiles.B. the larger the box, the greater the spread of the data.C. the outliers are cases with the values between 1.5 and 3 box-lengths from the 75thpercentile or 25th percentile.D. the extreme values are cases with the values more than 3 box-lengths from the 75thpercentile or 25th percentile.286. Which of the following statements about normal distribution are true?A. A value of zero for the skewness indicates a symmetric distribution.B. The normal distribution has kurtosis of zero.C. Shapiro-Wilk statistic for normality is calculated when the weighted sample size liesbetween 3 and 50.D. Normal distribution is explained on the basis of mean and S.D287. What is the appropriate sytatistical test for the following research question?"Is there a difference in the confidence levels (measured on interval scale) of men andwomen who fall into one of three different age groups?"A. One-way ANOVAB. 2 by 3 Factorial ANOVAC. Chi-square testD. Multiple regression
    • 61www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com288. Sphericity assumption in repeated measures one-way ANOVA is tested using the(SPSS):A. Mauchlys testB. t-testC. Greenhouse-GeissorD. LSD289. Circularity/sphericity assumption is applicable in:A. t-testB. With-in-group one-way ANOVAC. Between-group one-way ANOVAD. Regression290. What is NOT true about t-test?A. As degrees of freedom increases, critical value of t decreasesB. Critical value for t at 0.10 level of significance for a two-tailed hypothesis is same as thecritical value required for 0.05 level of significance with a one-tailed hypothesisC. Critical value for t decrease as the sample size increasesD. Critical value for t is independent of the sample size.291. What is NOT true about Yates Correction?A. Applied when there is two categorical variable are compared.B. Applied when there is 2X2 contingency table is usedC. Recommended when there is less than 5 numbers are there is contingency cellsD. It is used when normality assumption is not satisfied.292. For calculation of degree of freedom for chi-square test, the formula applied is:A. n-1B. n-2C. (c-1) x (r-1)D. k (n-1)
    • 62www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com293. Which of the following statements are true about survival analysis?A. Survival analysis has a dichotomous (binary) outcomeB. Survival analysis analyzes the time to an eventC. Kaplan-Meier curves applied in survival analysisD. Cox proportional hazards models are used in interpreting results.Answer Key294. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) is also known as:A. LISRELB. Cluster analysisC. Factor analysisD. Correspondence AnalysisAnswer Key295. A regression-based procedure for testing causal models, typically using non-experimental data:A. Cohens kappaB. Factor analysisC. Path analysisD. Multitrait-multimatrix methodAnswer Key296. A correlation present in different groups is reversed when the groups are combinedwhich is often encountered in social-science and medical-science statistics:A. Simpsons paradox (Yule–Simpson effect)=B. Guttman ModelC. Cronbach’s αD. Kendalls Coefficient of Concordance
    • 63www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com297. Which of the following is NOT true about Bland Altman technique?Bland Altman technique,A. suggests that if the differences are within the mean ± 1.96 S.D. are not clinicallysignificant, the two measurement methods may be used interchangeably.B. is employed to assess agreement between two methods of clinical measurements.C. may be constructed to assess agreement between finger stick and earlobe glucose results.D. may be employed to calculate internal consistency of a scale.Answer Key298. What is NOT true about statistical power?A. In Statistical Power, effect size is also known as Cohen’s dB. Statistical power is used to explain the cause of an effect.C. Statistical power reflects the power to detect a genuine effect 80% of the time.D. Statistical power reflects the sensitivity of our test.Answer Key299. What is NOT true about effect size?A. ES is required to determine the sample size.B. Thresholds of >0.2 (small), >0.5 (moderate) & >0.8 (large) are suggested for effect sizefor a two-group comparison (Cohen) .C. Effect size shows us the magnitude of our effect relative to SD.D. Effect size is independent of sample size.Answer Key300. A reliability index that estimates the homogeneity of a measure composed of severalitems or subparts:A. Tukeys Test for NonadditivityB. Spearmans correlation coefficientC. Cronbach’s α
    • 64www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.comD. Intra-class correlation coefficientAnswer Key301. Intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) is calculated:A. Construct ValidityB. Test–Retest ReliabilityC. Criterion ValidityD. Inter-rater ReliabilityAnswer Key302. Kuder-Richardson formula is a method of calculating:A. internal consistency reliability for a rating scale when the items are dichotomous=B. internal consistency reliability for a rating scale when the items are continuousC. inter-rater reliabilityD. test-retest reliabilityAnswer Key
    • 65www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.comAnswer Key1. D 2. A 3. D 4. B 5. B6. D 7. D 8. A 9. C 10. B11. D 12. C 13. A 14. B 15. A16. C 17. D 18. D 19.A 20. B21. C 22. A 23. A 24. D 25. B26. A 27. A 28. C 29. B 30. A31. C 32. D 33. C 34. D 35. A36. A 37. D 38. B 39. C 40. B41. A 42. B 43. B 44. C 45. D46. A 47. E 48. C 49. D 50. C51. A 52. C 53. D 54. E 55. B56. C 57. B 58.D 59. D 60. C61. A 62. C 63. D 64. A 65. D66. B 67. A 68.C 69. A 70. D71.B 72.D 73.B 74.D 75.B76.D 77.E 78.A 79.D 80.A81. C 82.A 83.B 84.C 85.E86. B 87.C 88. C 89.D 90.B91. A 92. E 93. A 94. C 95. D96. A 97. A 98. C 99. E 100. A101. B 102. C 103. A 104. E 105. B106. A 107. D 108. C 109. D 110. B111. E 112. D 113. B 114. A 115. B116. C 117. C 118. D 119. B 120. B121. A 122. C 123. c 124. A 125. A126. C 127. B 128. D 129. B 130. B131. B 132. A 133. C 134. B 135. A136. B 137. C 138. B 139. B 140. C141. A 142. A 143. C 144. A 145. C146. D 147. C 148. A 149. A 150. A151. A 152. B 153. A 154. D 155. A156. A 157. C 158. D 159. A 160. A161. C 162. A 163. C 164. B 165. D166. B 167. A 168. A 169. A 170. B171. B 172. A 173. A 174. B 175. A176. B 177. D 178. A 179. B 180. C
    • 66www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com181. B 182. C 183. D 184. A 185. C186. A 187. D 188. A 189. A 190. B191. C 192. B 193. A 194. B 195. C196. B 197. B 198. D 199. C 200. B201. B 202. A 203. B 204. B 205. C206. A 207. C 208. D 209. A 210. B211. B 212. D 213. D 214. B 215. A216. B 217. B 218. C 219. E 220. A221. B 222. C 223. B 224. C 225. D226. C 227. C 228. A 229. A, B, C, D,E230. C231. D 232. B 233. E 234. A 235. B236. D 237. C 238. A 239. E 240. B241. C 242. C 243. D 244. B 245. E246. A 247. D 248. B 249. A 250. D251. B 252. A 253. B 254. D 255. A256. C 257. C 258. D 259. B 260. A261. D 262. B 263. B 264. C 265. D266. A 267. C 268. A 269. B 270. C271. B 272. D 273. A 274. C 275. D276. D 277. B 278. B 279. E 280. A281. A 282. C 283. D 284. E 285. A,B,C,D286. A,B,C,D 287. B 288. A 289. C 290. D291. D 292. C 293. A, B, C, D 294. A 295. C296. A 297. D 298. B 299. D 300. C301. D 302. A