Nursing practice


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Nursing practice

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  2. 2.  DEFINITIONNursing practice isdefined as ―Nursing as the diagnosis &treatment of human responses to actual &potential health problems.‖ A.N.A.Nursing practice is defined as ―Nursing as the diagnosis & treatment ofhuman responses to actual or potentialhealth problems.‖
  3. 3. Advanced nursing practice is anumbrella term describing anadvanced level of clinical nursingpractice that maximizes the use ofgraduate educational preparation,in depth nursing knowledge&expertise in meeting the healthneeds ofindividuals, families, groups, communities & populations. C.N.A.DEFINITIONAdvanced nursing practice is anumbrella term describing an advancedlevel of clinical nursing practice thatmaximizes the use of graduateeducational preparation ,in depthnursing knowledge &expertise inmeeting the health needs ofindividuals, families, groups, communities & populations.
  4. 4. DEFINITIONIt involves: Analyzing synthesizing knowledge. Understanding, interpreting &applying nursing theory &research. Developing & advancing nursingknowledge & the profession as
  5. 5. CHARACTERISTICSIn advanced nsg. Practice nursesbuild on their expertise in a specialtyarea, integrating & consistentlydisplaying the following features &characteristics. 1]Provision of effective & efficient caredelivered with high degree ofautonomy to an identified population.2] Demonstration of leadership &initiation of change to improve clientorganization & system
  6. 6. CHARACTERISTICS3] Deliberate, purposeful & integrateduse of in depth nursing knowledge .4] Depth &breadth of knowledge thatdraws on a wide range of strategies tomeet the needs of clients & to improvequality of care.5] Ability to explain & apply thetheoretical, empirical, ethical &experimental foundations of
  8. 8. THE ART OF NURSINGNurses demonstrateethical, insightful, caring practice byfocusing on the health & wellbeing ofindividuals, families,& communities inhealth &during episode of illness.Professional nursing practice isgrounded in the art ofnursing, described as taking aholistic, client centered, being caring &ethical in
  9. 9. COMPETENCE Nurses competence is groundedupon nursing theory, scientificknowledge & experience.It is reflected in every day practice.Professional practice demandscompetence is relation to knowledge &technical
  10. 10. ATTRIBUTES OF PRACTICEAutonomous professional practice innsg. Requires taking personalresponsibility for excellence in practice& effective collaboration withmultidisciplinary team members inmeeting the health needs of thepopulation.Professional practice reflects aparticular approach to one’s work withcollaboration by far the most
  11. 11. PERSONAL COMMITMENT Nurses demonstrate commitment to theprofession by valuing nurses & nsg.Contributing to the advancement of theprofession & continually striving forexcellence in patient care. This element of professionalpractice, respondents referred to theimportance of having confidence in action&sound understanding of the boundaries &limitations of nsg.
  12. 12. VALUES & PROFESSIONALPRACTICEThe frame work is congruent with thevalues of the nurse as likeHonesty, integrity, dignity, trust, respect, responsiveness, creativity learning.The framework reinforces theprerequisites for the promotion ofsafe, competent & ethical nursingpractice that are inherent in thestandards of practice & code ofconduct of the registered
  13. 13. VISION & MISSION Vision for nursing is excellent healthcare through professional nursingpractice. Nurses are committed to professionalnursing practice that promotesquality, family centered care & efficient&effective delivery of integratedservices provided in collaboration withcommunity partners &members of themultidisciplinary health care
  14. 14. SCOPEProviding comprehensive nursingassessment of the health status of theclient.Collaborating with a health care team todevelop an integrated client centeredhealth care plan.Developing plan of nsg. Strategies tointegrated client centered health care
  15. 15. SCOPEDelegating & assigning nsg. Interventionsto implement the plan of care.Providing for the maintenance of safe &effective nsg. Care rendered directly orindirectly. Promoting a safe & therapeuticenvironment.Providing health teaching &counseling topromote attention &maintain optimum levelof health.Advocate to
  16. 16. SCOPEEvaluating responses to interventions& the effectiveness of the plan of care.Communicating &collaborating withother health care professionals.Acquiring & applying critical newknowledge & technologies of practice.Teaching the theory &practice of
  17. 17. SCOPEParticipating in the development ofpolicies.Allowing for the advancement ofnursing &midwifery practice.Allowing education providers toincorporate the guiding principals toexpand the scope of practice.Integrating the development of
  18. 18. SCOPEIn three tier health care deliverysystem, health is concern of all.It is not only for sick & disabled, but forhealthy beings as well.People seek health care not only incrisis, but for anticipated potential risksalso.In primary health care concept, nurseperforms in expanded role-diseaseprotection, prevention, rehabilitation, community health, referral services
  19. 19. FUTURE TRENDS IN NURSINGExpansion of employmentopportunitiesNursing’s public perceptionNursing’s impact on polities & healthpolicy.Characteristic of
  20. 20. EXPANSION OF EMPLOYMENTOPPORTUNITIESNursing practice trends includes agrowing variety of employment settingin which nurses have greaterindependence, autonomy & respect asa member of health care team.Nursing roles to continue to expand &develop broadening the focus of nsg.Care & providing a more holistic & allencompassing
  21. 21. TRENDS Nursing therapies are not onlydrawing from traditional nursing &medicine ,spiritual & emotionalrealms but also expanding in toalternative therapies such as healingtouch, massage therapy & use ofnatural herbs &
  22. 22. NURSING’S PUBLIC PERCEPTIONS Any member of society who hasbeen ill, hospitalized or visited anemergency department hasexperienced nursing care. Nursing is a pivotal health careprofession as front line health careprovider’s nurses practice in all healthcare settings & constitute the largestnumber of
  23. 23. TRENDSNurses are essential to provideskilled specialized, knowledgeablecare, to improve the health statusof the public & to ensuresafe, effective quality
  24. 24. NURSING’S IMPACT ON POLITICS &HEALTH POLICYNurses involvement in politics is receivinggreater emphasis in nursingcurricula, professional organizations &health care settings.Political activism & commitment are a partof professionalism however & politics arean important aspect of the delivery ofhealth
  25. 25. TRENDSThe plan for reform focuses on primaryhealth care services & the promotion,restoration & maintenance of
  26. 26. CHARACTERISTIC OF POPULATIONPatterns of nursing care should change inpositive way to meet the new trends & newsituations as they arise.Birth rate, mortality &morbidity rate are indescending trend while life span &longevity show opposite trend. This isdemographic transition.Geriatric problem is serious. Industrial &occupational health problems are in
  27. 27. CHARACTERISTIC OF POPULATIONNeeds of population are also changingits dimentions.This is epidemiologicaltransition.So nursing practices are also searchingways to take responsibilities of thesenew &different health problems.Much more wider role of nurses are inpipeline with the changing outlook
  28. 28. ALTERNATIVE MODALITIES OF CAREReflexologyReikiRolfingAlexander techniqueAroma therapyBioenergeticsPolarity therapy
  30. 30. AYURVEDAThe origin &Nature: Ayurveda is anancient system of medicine practiced inIndia. The word (Ayur+veda) implies thescience of life. The origin of Ayurveda islinked with the origin of universe & it isdeveloped from the hymns fromAtharvaveda describing philosophiesabout the world of life, diseases &
  31. 31. AYURVEDAAround 1000BC,the comprehensivedocumentation of the knowledge of Ayurvedawas done by Charak in charaka samihita &by sushruta in sushruta samihita.Charakasamhita is the treatise on medicine &sushruta samhita is the treatise on surgery.Theoretical basis:-The practice of Ayurveda isbased on the theory of punch mahabhutas.Diagnosis & treatment:-Diagnosis inAyurveda system is done on the basis ofhistory taking & examination ofpulse, urine, faces, tongue, eyes
  32. 32. AYURVEDATreatment includes preventive &curative measures.Specialties:-Ayurveda developed eightbranches of specialties during charak& sushruta period.Education & research workPractice & Drugs
  33. 33. SIDDHAORIGIN & NATURE Siddha is one of the oldest systems ofmedicine in India. The term siddha implies achievement. Itwas practiced by ―Siddharas‖ who aimed tomaintain perfect health in order to achievesiddhi or heavenly
  34. 34. SIDDHASiddha is largely practiced in Tamilspeaking areas of India & abroad.Siddha literature is in Tamil.Basic philosophyDiagnosis & treatment methodEducation & research
  35. 35. UNANI ORIGIN & NATURE The Unani system of medicine has itsorigin in Greece before Christ underthe patronage of Hippocrates & Galen.It was introduced in India around theeleventh century by the Arabs &Persians.Theoretical basis Diagnosis & Treatment Education &
  36. 36. HOMEOPATHY SYSTEMORIGIN & NATUREHomeopathy has been in practice for170 years by thousands of practitioners &there are over 100 homeopathy
  37. 37. HOMEOPATHY SYSTEMHomeopathy is based on the theory of―Similia Similibus Curentis‖ or let likebe treated by like which means thatany substance capable of producingartificial symptoms on healthyindividuals can cure the samesymptoms in a natural disease.Basic Laws, Diagnosis & treatmentmethodEducation & research
  38. 38. NATUROPATHYNaturopathy system is not only therapeuticbut also it is a way of life.It is based mainly on application of simplelaws of nature.Naturopathy is holistic system & it helpspromote physical, mental, emotional, social&spiritual health by self regulation of lifeactivities on a normal & natural
  39. 39. NATUROPATHYThe advocates of naturopathy payparticular attention to regulation ofeating & living habits, adoption ofpurificatory measures, use ofhydrotherapy, cold packs, mud packs,baths, massage & a variety ofmethods/measures based on variousinnovations depending upon thedisease & its root causations.Educational
  40. 40. YOGAYoga is a science which helps to co-ordinatebody & mind more effectively.It promotes mental, physical, social & spiritualhealth.It also helps in prevention & cure of variouspsychosomatic disorders, psychic & physicaldisorders.Yoga is an ancient science. It has beendescribed in
  41. 41. YOGAIt consists of eight components.these are Restraint in every sphere of life; Austerity in every sphere of life; Maintaining physical posture; Breathing exercises; Restraining of sense of organs; Contemplation; Mediation; Samadhi. These yogic practices have potential forimprovement of personal & social
  42. 42. ACCUPRESSUREAcupressure is based on the principalthat the body contains energychannels or meridians through whichflows a vital life energy.It stimulating the energy points in the,acupressure aims to remove energyblocks which produce health problems.It is non invasive technique thatapplies the pressure of thepractitioner’s fingers to acupuncturesites to cure or ameliorate
  43. 43. ACCUPRESSURE It applies on specific sites of the body tocontrol symptoms such as pain or nausea.This therapy is also used to stop bleeding. It is derived from traditional Chinesemedicine, which is a form of treatment forpain that involves pressure on particularpoints in the body known as ―acupressurepoints.‖ A practitioner use this therapy to relivediscomfort, prevent tension& promote goodhealth. This treatment is gaining popularity in India& several private practitioners have abooming
  44. 44. ACCUPUNCTURE A technique based on an ancient Chinesebelief that the entire universe is composed oftwo types of energy; the positive yang, whichcontracts & stimulates & the negative yinwhich sedates & expands. Heath is believed to exist when equilibriumbetween yang & yin in the vital life forcemoves along meridians as it flows through thehuman body. Disease is believed to resultfrom an imbalance of yang & yin. Acupunctureis believed to restore balance.
  45. 45. ACCUPUNCTURE Long, fine needles inserted through the skinat specific acupuncture sites, along themeridians ,to cure disease associated witheach site. In the past the needles were oftentwisted now they may be stimulated with aweak electrical current. It is used for the treatment of chronic painconditions such asarthritis, bursitis, headache, athleticinjuries, post traumatic & post surgicalpain, immune function, dysfunction such aspsoriasis, allergies&asthma, alcoholism, addition smoking &eating
  46. 46. TELE-MEDICINE The concept of Telemedicine was introduced in30yr’s ago. Telemedicine generally refers to the use ofcommunication & information technologies forthe delivery of clinical
  47. 47. TELE-MEDICINE It may be simple as two health professionalsdiscussing a case over the telephone or ascomplex as using satellite technology andVideo- conferencing equipment to conduct areal time consultation between medicalspecialties in two different countries. Telemedicine system consist of customizedmedical software integrated with computerhardware, along with medical diagnosticinstruments connected to the
  48. 48.  Impact of Telemedicine Improve the quality. Increase the efficiency. Expand the access of the health care delivery system to therural population & developing countries. Third generation wireless cellular systems will offer videotelephony that can facilitate the transfer. Tele-surgery helps to jump-start
  49. 49. COMPLIMENTARY THERAPIESHerbalismOsteopathySpiritual healingHypnotherapyMusic therapyDance therapyArt therapyBiofeedbackRelaxation
  50. 50. EXPANDED AND EXTENDED ROLE OFNURSE Promotive care - 1) Health education2)Environmental modification3)Nutritional interventions4)Life style modification Preventive care - 1)Premordial prevention2) Specific health protection3)Protection against – Occupationalhazards- Accidents4)Use of specific nutrients for
  51. 51. Curative care-1) Primary care - Early detection &routine care2) Secondary care (Acute care)a) Emergency treatmentb) Critical care (Intense & elaboratediagnosis & treatment)3)Tertiary care (Special care)a) Special care (Highly technicalservices for patients in a largegeographical area)
  52. 52. ROLERestorative care —Intermediatefollow-up care (Surgical post operativeroutine care, routine medical care) Rehabilitation Home careContinuing care--- Long term care----Chronic care-----Hospice care-----Personal
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  55. 55. BIBLIOGRAPHY Stanhope M, Lancaster J. community healthnursing. Fifth edition .Mosby;1996. Joan L Crfasfa, Barbara Parker. ConceptualFoundations of professional nursing practice;copy right 1991 by mosbe year book. Soreson, Luckmanns. Basic nursing. A psychophysiologic approach 3rd edition, Verobynracbolande Page no.38-41. JB Lippincot. Textbook of Basic nursing.6thedition. Caroline Bunkar Rosdahl. Kozier,Erbblais, Wilkinson. Fundamentals ofnursing.8th edition, Page no.284-94. Potter Perry. Fundamentals of nursing.6thedition,
  56. 56. BIBLIOGRAPHY Kamlam,Community Health NursingPrinciples & Practices. Reprint 2004,pageno.689-700. Prospectus & syllabus of EducationalProgrammes;Naturopathy,2008-2009. The Nursing Journal of India, Vol. XCIXNo:12, Dec 2008.
  57. 57. THE