Nursing as a profession


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Nursing as a profession

  2. 2. NURSING AS A PROFESSIONCharacteristicsCriteria of a
  3. 3. DEFINING A PROFESSIONPosition: a group of task assigned to oneindividualJob : a group of positions that are similar in natureand level of skill that can be carried out by one ormore individualsOccupation: a group of job that are similar intype of work and that are usually foundthroughout an industry or work environment.Profession: a type of occupation that meets certaincriteria that raise it to a level above that of anoccupationProfessional: a person who belongs to andpractices a profession.Professionalism: demonstration of high level ofpersonal, ethical and high level of skillcharacteristics of a member of a
  4. 4. APPROACHES TO PROFESSION Process approach Power approach Trait
  5. 5. PROCESS APPROACH Continuum of professional developmentposition profession Disadvantages: it lacks criteria onwhich to base the judgment.Finally, the determination of the status ofan occupation or profession dependscompletely upon the public image ofthe activities of that
  6. 6. POWER APPROACH USES TWO CRITERIA TO DEFINE A PROFESSION1. Independence of profession2. Amount Of Power The Occupation Controls Members of these occupations earn high income Practice their skills with great deal of independence Exercise significant power over individuals, the public andthe political communities, both individually and inorganized groups.Law, medicine and politics would clearly be consideredas profession.Ministry is generally perceived of having power
  7. 7. POWER APPROACH TO NURSING Relatively poor salaries Low membership in organizations Perceived lack of political powerDoes not meet the power criteriaFor a
  8. 8. TRAIT APPROACHTrait Approach: Flexner, Bixler AndPavalko Are The Most Widely Accepted Leaders InThis Field( Social Scientists) DeterminesFollowing Few Characteristics : High intellectual level. High level of individual responsibility andaccountability. Specialized body of knowledge. Knowledge that can be learnt in institutions of highereducations. Public service and altruistic
  9. 9. TRAIT APPROACH ( Contd) Public Service Valued Over Financial Gain Relatively high degree of autonomy andindependence of practice. Need for a well organized and strong organizationrepresenting the members of the profession in theirpractice. Strong professional identity and commitment to thedevelopment of profession. Demonstration of professional competency andpossession of a legally recognized
  10. 10. CRITERIA OF THE PROFESSION1. HIGH INTELLECTUAL LEVEL OFFUNCTIONING: Modern nurses use assessment skill and knowledge, have theability to reason and make routine judgment depending onpatient’s condition. Professional nurses functions at a high intellectual level . florence nightingale raised the bar for education andgraduates of her school were considered to be
  11. 11. CRITERIA OF THE PROFESSION2. HIGH LEVEL OF INDIVIDUAL RESPONSIBILITY ANDACCOUNTABILITY:• Nurses must be accountable and demonstrate ahigh level of individual responsibility for the careand services they provide.• The concept of accountability has legal, ethical andprofessional implications that include acceptingresponsibility for action taken to provide client careas well as accepting responsibility for theconsequences of action that are not
  12. 12. CRITERIA OF THE PROFESSION3. SPECIALIZED BODY OF KNOWLEDGE:Nursing has developed into an identifiable separatediscipline a specialized body of knowledge called asnursing science was compiled through the researcheffort of nurses with advanced educational degrees.Although this body of specialized knowledge is relativelysmall, it forms a theoretical basis for the practice ofnursing today.As more nurses obtain advanced degrees , conductresearch and develop philosophies, and theories aboutnursing, this body of knowledge will increase in
  13. 13. CRITERIA OF THE PROFESSION4. Evidenced based practice: almost all theCurrently used nursing theories address thisIssue in some way.Evidenced based practice is the practice ofNursing in which interventions are based on dataObtained from research that demonstrate that,The findings are appropriate and successful.It involves a systematic process of uncovering,Evaluating and using information from researchAs the basis for making decisions about anProviding client
  14. 14. 5. PUBLIC SERVICE AND ALTRUISTICACTIVITIES◊ individual is the focal point of all nursing models andnursing practice◊ Nursing has been viewed universally as being an altruisticprofession composed of selfless individuals who place thelives and well being of their clients above their personalsafety.◊ Dedicated nurses provide care for victims of deadly diseaseswith little regard for their own
  15. 15. 6. WELL ORGANISED AND STRONGREPRESENTATION•Professional organizations represent the members of the professionand control the quality of professional practice•National League of Nursing and the American Nurses Associationsare two organizations that represent nursing in today’s health caresystem.•NLN is primarily responsible for regulating the quality ofeducational programs that prepare nurses for practice of nursing.•ANA is more concerned with the quality of nursing practice in thedaily health care setting.•Both these groups are well organized but neither can be consideredpowerful when compared with other professional organizations•Fewer than 15 % of all nurses are members of the professionalorganizations at the national level.•Many do belong to specialty organizations that represent a specificarea of practice. This lacks sufficient political power to producechanges in health care laws and policies at the national
  16. 16. 7. CODE OF ETHICSNurses have several codes of ethics that are used to guidenursing practice.Code of ethics is recognized by other profession as a standardwith which others are compared.Autonomy : Right of self determination, independence andfreedom. Client’s right to make decision for himself or herself.Justice : Obligation to be fair to all peopleFidelity: obligation of an individual to be faithful to commitmentsmade to himself or herself and to others.Beneficence: One of the oldest requirements for health careproviders, views the primary goal of health care as doing goodfor clients under their care.Nonmaleficence: requirement that health care providers do noharm to their clients either intentionally or
  17. 17. 8. COMPETENCIES AND PROFESSIONALLICENSENurses must pass a national licensure examination to demonstratethat they are qualified to practice nursingOnly after passing the examination the nurses are allowed to practice.The granting of a nursing license is a legal activity conducted by theindividual state under the regulations contained in the state’s nursingpractice
  18. 18. 9. AUTONOMY AND INDEPENDENCE OFPRACTICE◊ In reality nursing is both an independent and inter-dependant discipline.◊ Nurses in all health care setting must work with physicians,hospital administrators, pharmacists and other groups inthe provision of care.◊ In some cases nurses in advanced practice role eg. Nursepractitioners can do establish their independent practices.◊ Nurse practice act allow nurses to practice moreindependence in their practice than they realize.◊ To be considered a true profession, nursing will need to berecognised by other disciplines as having practitioners whopractice nursing
  19. 19. 10. PROFESSIONAL IDENTITY AND DEVELOPMENTJob: group position that are similar in nature and level of skill that canbe carried out by one or more individualsCareer: is viewed as a person’s major life work, which progresses anddevelops as the person grows older.Careers and professions have many of the same characteristics:i. Formal educationii. Full time employmentiii. Dedication to what is being achievedUntil nurses are fully committed to the profession of nursing, identifywith it as a profession and are dedicated to its future development,nursing will probably not achieve professional
  20. 20. Thank