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Nonexperimental research design



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  • 1. MR. JAYESH
  • 2. INTRODUCTION… Nonexperimental research design is one of thebroad categories of research designs, in which theresearcher observes the phenomena as they occurnaturally, & no external variables are introduced. It is a research design in which variables are notdeliberately manipulated, nor is the settingcontrolled. In nonexperimental research, researchers collectdata without making changes or
  • 3. NEED OF NONEXPERIMENTAL DESIGN Nonexperimental designs can be used to conduct a studyare as follows: The studies in which the independent variables cannot bemaintained. The studies in which it is unethical to manipulate theindependent variable, i.e. manipulation may causephysical or psychological harm to subjects. The studies or research situations where it is notpractically possible to conduct experiments. Descriptive-type studies that do not require anyexperimental
  • 4. TYPES OF NONEXPERIMENTAL RESEARCHDESIGNDescriptive DesignUnivariant descriptive designExploratory descriptive designComparative descriptive designCorrelational designProspective designRetrospective designDevelopmental Research DesignCross-sectional designLongitudinal designSurvey Research
  • 5.
  • 6. INTRODUCTION… The purpose of descriptive studies is toobserve, describe, & document aspects of asituation as it naturally occurs, & sometimesto serve as a starting point for hypothesisgeneration or theory
  • 7. MAIN FEATURES… Descriptive designs are used to observe, document, &describe a phenomenon occurring in its naturalsetting without any manipulation or control. The descriptive studies are designed to gain moreinformation about characteristics within a particularfield in the real world. Descriptive studies provide an impression of asituation as it occurs in natural settings. Descriptive studies do not involve the manipulationof variables, & variables are studies as they exist in thereal
  • 8. Count… Descriptive design may be used to develop theories,identify problems with current practices, justifycurrent practices, make judgments, or determineother practices in similar situations. In descriptive studies, bias is prevented throughoperational definitions of variables, large sample size,random sampling techniques, valid & reliableresearch tools, & formal data collection methods. Descriptive designs include identification ofphenomenon of interest, identifying the variableswithin the phenomenon, developing operationaldefinitions of the variables, & describing thevariables.
  • 9. TYPES OF DESCRIPTIVE DESIGN1. Univariant descriptive design2. Exploratory design3. Comparative
  • 10. 1. Univariant descriptive design Univariant descriptive designs are undertaken to describethe frequency of occurrence of a phenomenon. This design does not necessarily focus on the study of asingle variable; there may be one or more variablesinvolved in the study. For example, a researcher is interested in assessing theexperiences of patients suffering from rheumatoidarthritis. In this study, the researcher may describe thefrequency of different symptoms experienced by thepatients & the type of treatment they received during thecourse of disease, etc. There are multiple variables in thisresearch
  • 11. 2. Exploratory design: Exploratory design is used to identify, explore, &describe the existing phenomenon & its relatedfactors. In other words, it is not only a simple description orthe frequency of occurrence of a phenomenon, butits in-depth exploration & a study of its relatedfactors to improve further understanding about aless-understood phenomenon. For example, an exploratory study to assess themultifactorial dimensions of falls & home safetymeasures for elderly people living in selectedcommunities in the city
  • 12. 3. Comparative design: Comparative design involves comparing &contrasting two or more samples of study subjects onone or more variables, often at a single point of time. This design is used to compare two distinct groups onthe basis of selected attributed such as knowledgelevel, perceptions, & attitudes; physical orpsychological symptoms; & so on. For example, ‘A comparative study on healthproblems among rural & urban older people indistrict Mehsana,
  • 13.
  • 14. INTRODUCTION… This is a nonexperimental design, where researcherexamines the relationship between two or morevariables in a natural setting without manipulation orcontrol. In other words, it is a research design whereresearchers study the relationship of two or morevariables without any intervention. For example, this design was used for ‘A correlationalstudy on the effect of smoking on lung cancer amongpeople in
  • 15. MAIN FEATURES… In correlational studies, the researchersexamine the strength of relationshipsbetween variables by determining howchange in one variable is correlated withchange in the other variable. Generally, correlational studies haveindependent & dependent variables, but theeffect of independent variable is observedon dependant variable withoutmanipulating the independent
  • 16. Count… In some correlational studies, identification of theindependent & dependent variables is difficult; however, inmost correlational studies, the independent variable isidentified, which, without any intervention, influences thedependent variable. For example, this design was used in ‘acorrelational investigation of the study habits & visual acuityamong school children studying in selected schools in thecity of Mehsana’. In this study, study habits are theindependent variable, while visual acuity is the dependentvariable. In epidemiological language these studies are known as cause& effect study, where cause & effect relationship is investigatein natural settings without imposing experimentalinterventions. This cause & effect relationship can beinvestigated either in forward manner, i.e. from cause toeffect (prospective) or backward manner, i.e. effect to cause(retrospective)
  • 17. TYPES OF CORRELATIONALRESEARCH DESIGN1. Prospective research design2. Retrospective research
  • 18. 1. Prospective research design: A design in which the researcher relates thepresent to the future is a prospective researchdesign . Prospective studies start with a presumed cause &then go to presumed effects. In this research design , researcher observesphenomenon from cause to effect. Prospective designs are often longitudinal, butmay also be cross
  • 19. Count… for example, a researcher conducting ‘a prospectivecorrelational study on effect of maternal infectionduring pregnancy on foetal development &pregnancy outcome .’ In this study, the researcher starts by collecting datafrom pregnant women regarding any history ofinfection among women during their currentpregnancies, next observes foetal development &pregnancy outcome, & finally analyses therelationship of maternal infection during pregnancy& foetal development & pregnancy
  • 20. 2. Retrospective research design: A design in which the researcher studies thecurrent phenomenon by seeking informationfrom past is a retrospective research design. In this the researcher links the presentphenomenon with the past events. In other words, the researcher has a backwardapproach to study a phenomenon, where he orshe moves from effect to identify the
  • 21. Count… For example, this design was used in ‘aretrospective correlational study on substance-abuse-related high-risk factors amongtraumatic head injury patients admitted inneurosurgery ICU of Geetanjali MedicalCollege & Hospital, Udaipur’. In this study, the researcher first approachedhead injury patients, & then tried to identifythe number of head injuries that occurredunder the influence of substance
  • 22.
  • 23. INTRODUCTION… Developmental research design examines thephenomenon with reference to time. Developmental research designs are generally used asadjunct research designs with other research designssuch as cross-sectional-descriptive, longitudinal-correlational research
  • 24. TYPES OF DEVELOPMENTALRESEARCH DESIGN1. Cross-sectional design2. Longitudinal
  • 25. 1. Cross-sectional design: Cross-sectional research design is one in whichresearcher collects data at particular point of time(one period of data collection). These studies are easier & more convenient to carryout. For example, a researcher is interested in assessingthe awareness on swine flu among people of an area. Here the researcher interacts only once to collectawareness-related data from
  • 26. 2. Longitudinal design: Longitudinal research design is used to collect data over anextended time period (long-time study). Its value is in its ability to demonstrate change over a periodof time. For example, a researcher in interested in the perception ofnursing students towards nursing profession from thebeginning of nursing programme to its end. In this example, it is appropriate to use the longitudinalresearch design to study this phenomenon. Longitudinal studies are generally classified into three types:I. Trend studiesII. Panel studiesIII. Follow-up
  • 27. Count…I. Trend studies: These help to investigate a sample from ageneral population over a time withrespect to some phenomenon. Trend studies permit researchers toexamine pattern & rate of changes & tomake prediction about future directionbased on previously identified patterns &rates of
  • 28. Count…II. Panel studies: A panel in research is referred to the sample ofpeople involved in a study. In panel studies, same people are involved & over aperiod of time they become more informative onthe phenomenon than the subjects in trends studiesbecause the researcher can not only examine thepatterns of change, & but also the reasons forchange. The same selected people are contacted for two ormore times to collect further
  • 29. Count…III.Follow-up studies: These are undertaken to determine thesubsequent states of subject(s) with aspecific condition or those who havereceived a specific
  • 30.
  • 31. CONCEPT… Epidemiology is the study to investigate thedistribution & causes of the diseases inpopulation. Therefore, epidemiological studies are generallyconducted to investigate causes of differentdiseases in either prospective approaches(causes to effect) or retrospective designs. Prospective studies are known as cohort studies& retrospective studies are called
  • 32. Count…Cohort studies:• In this design, a longitudinal approach is used toinvestigate the occurrence of a disease in existingpresumed causes.• For example, a researcher longitudinally observes thesmokers for development of lung cancer.Case-control studies:• In this design, causes of a disease are investigated afterthe occurrence of a disease.• For example, a researcher investigates the history ofsmoking in patients diagnosed with lung
  • 33. ADVANTAGE OF NONEXPERIMENTALRESEARCH DESIGN Nonexperimental research designs tend to be closest toreal-life situation. Nonexperimental research designs are most suitable forthe nursing research studies.. Numerous human characteristics are inherently notsubject to experimental manipulation (e.g. blood type,personality, health beliefs, medical diagnosis, etc.) There are many variable that could technically bemanipulated, but manipulated is forbidden on
  • 34. DISADVANTAGES OF NONEXPERIMENTALRESEARCH DESIGN The major disadvantage of nonexperimental researches isthat the results obtained & the relationship between thedependent & independent variable can never beabsolutely clear & error-free. Nonexperimental studies are conducted for comparativepurposes using nonrandomly selected groups, which maynot be homogeneous & tend to be dissimilar in differenttraits or characteristics, which may affect the authenticity& generalizability of the study
  • 35.