Neuro endocrinology


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Neuro endocrinology

  1. 1. Neuro-endocrinology{Pitutary&Thyroid Gland}Mr. Jay
  2. 2.  Neuro-endocrinology – It is the study of theinteraction between the nervous system andte endocrine system and the effects ofvarious hormones on cognitive emotionaland behavioural functioning. Human endocrine functioning has a strongfoundation in central nervous system underthe direction of hypothalamus which has adirect control over pitutary
  3. 3.  Pitutary Gland : It has two major lobesnamely – Anterior lobe adenohypophysis Posterior lobe Neurohypophysis Pitutary gland – size of pea – has powers tocontrol over endocrine functioning in humanbeing – called master gland. It’s a regulation have implications forbehavioural
  4. 4.  Antidiuretic Hormone : Located in posterior pitutary Release stimulated by dehydration, pai &stress Target organ - Kidney Function – Conservation of body water a &maintenance of blood pressure Behavioural Correlation – Polydypsia, alteredpain, modified sleep
  5. 5.  Oxytocin : Located – Posterior pitutary Release stimulated by pregnancy, stress Target organ – Breast Function – Contraction of uterus for labour,release of breast milk Behavioural Correlation with altered secretion– May play role in stress response bystimulation of
  6. 6.  Growth Hormone : Location - Anterior pitutary Release stimulated by – Growth hormonereleasing hormone from hypothalamus Target organs – Bones & tissues Function – Growth in children, proteinsynthesis in adult. Behavioural Correlation with alteredsecretion – anorexia
  7. 7. hoThyroid-Stimulating hormoneAnterior pituitary, release stimulated by thyrotropin releasinghormone from hypothalamus Target organ –Thyroid organ Function-Stimulation of secretion of needed thyroidhormone for metabolism of ,regulation of temperature. Behavioral corelation with alteration-insomia, emotionallability is increased &decreased levels –fatigue depressionADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE Location –Anterior pituitary release stimulating bycorticotropin-releasing hormone from hypothalamus Target Orgamulatn- adrenal cortex Function-stimulation of secretion of cortisol which play rolein stress Behavioral correlation-increased level –mood disorderpsycosis .decreased level –depression ,
  8. 8. Gonadotropic hormones Location-anterior pituitarty-releasegonadotrprin-releasing hormone fromhypothalamus Target organ- ovaries, testes Function-stimulation of sectretion of estrogen,progesterone, testosterone Behavioral correlation –decreased level-depression, anorexia nervosa.-increased level Sexual behaviour
  9. 9. MELANOCYTESTIMULATING HOR Anterior pituitary ,stimulated by onset ofdarkness Target organ- pineal gland, Function- stimulation of sectretion ofmelatonin Behavioral correlation-increased level,
  10. 10.  Circadian Rhythms: It is a near 24-hour rhythms cycle, in humansaffected to a large degree by cycles of lightnessand darkness and influences a variety of regulatoryfunctions like, sleep-wake cycle, body temperatureregulation, and patterns of activity. This is due to the pacemaker in the brain(suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus)which receives projections of light through retinaand stimulates electrical impulses toneurotransmitters for various
  11. 11.  The sleep-wake cycle is geneticallydetermined rather than learned and isestablished sometime after birth. Sleep can be measured by various types ofbrain waves that occur during various stagesof sleep activity. Types of sleep – Rapid Eye movement sleep Non-Rapid Eye movement
  12. 12. Stages of Sleep : Stage 0 – Alpha Rhythm = Characterized by a relaxed,waking stage with eyes closed. Stage 1 – Beta Rhythm = Characterizes the transitioninto sleep or a period of dozing Stage 2 – Theta Rhythm = Eye movements ad muscularactivity are minimal. About half of the total sleep Stage 3 – Delta Rhythm = Period of deep and restfulsleep. Muscles are relaxed, BP and HR fall, breathingslows and no eye movements. Stage 4 – Delta Rhythm = Stage of deepest sleep eyemovements and muscular activity are minimal. Stage 5 - REM Sleep - Beta Rhythm = Dream cycle.Eyes move rapidly beneath closed eyelids, HR + RR + BPincrease or decrease, Muscles are
  13. 13. Exercise,stress,sleepHypothalamusThyroid releasing hormone(Anterior lobe of pituitary glandThyroid stimulating hormone(TSH)Thyroid glandThyroxin (T4)Tri iodothyronine (T3)Raised blood levels of T3 & T4Use of hormonesby most body cellsLowered levels of T3 &T4stimulationinhibitionRegulation & secretion of thyroid (T4) & Tri iodothyrinine (T3)
  14. 14. ABNORMAL SECRETIONHyperthyroidism T 3 & T4 Sec. Hypothyroidism T3 &T4Sec1. Increased basal metabolicrate2. Anxiety, physicalrestlessness, mentalexcitability3. Hair loss4. Tachycardia, palpitation5. Warm sweaty skin, heartintolerance6. Diarrhea7. Weight loss, good appetite Decreased basal metabolicrateDepression, mental slowness,lethargyDry skin, brittle hairBradycardiaDry cold skin prone tohypothermiaConstipationWeight gain,
  15. 15. Cell responsible for non specific immunereaction include neutrophiles monocytesmacrophages.They work to destroy the invasive organism& facilitate in accomplishing a satisfactoryhealing response, specific-immunemechanism take over.Specific immune mechanism are divided intomajor type 1 humoral response2cellular response- Controlling elements of the cellular responseT lymphocytes & B
  16. 16. Psycho-Immunology:-is the study of immunology as itrelate to emotion & behaviour.The immune system protect the body fromforeign pathogens.- NS regulate immune system.- Immune system dysfunction may resultfrom damage to hypothalamus & pituitarylead to psychiatric symptoms such
  17. 17. Example: SLE (systemic lupus erythematous)autoimmune diseaseExperiences symptoms of depression, insomnia,IMMUNE SYSTEM IN PSYCHIATRIC ILLNESS:-In stress there is increase ofglucocorticoid release from adrenalcortex following stimulation from thehypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axisduring stressful situation. The result is asuppression in lymphocyte proliferation &
  18. 18. -Increased production of epinephrine &nonepinephrine occur in response to stress &may decrease immunity serotonin hasdemonstrated both enhancing & inhibitoryaffects on immunity.Correlation a decrease in lymphocytefunctioning with period of grief & depressionassociating the degree of altered immunity withseverity of the depression.Correlate the onset of schizophrenia toabnormalities of immune system.Immunological abnormalities have beeninvestigated in psychiatric illness likealcoholism.
  19. 19. IMPLICATION FOR NURSING:-Role of mental health nursing inholistic health care treatment- approachthat focuses psychological & socialfactors.Psychiatric Nurse:-Must integrate the knowledgeof biological science into their practice ifthey are to ensure safe & effective careto people with mental
  20. 20. Thank