Neuro endocrinology

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Neuro endocrinology

  1. 1. Neuro-endocrinology{Pitutary&Thyroid Gland}Mr. Jay Patidarwww.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  2. 2.  Neuro-endocrinology – It is the study of theinteraction between the nervous system andte endocrine system and the effects ofvarious hormones on cognitive emotionaland behavioural functioning. Human endocrine functioning has a strongfoundation in central nervous system underthe direction of hypothalamus which has adirect control over pitutary gland.www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  3. 3.  Pitutary Gland : It has two major lobesnamely – Anterior lobe adenohypophysis Posterior lobe Neurohypophysis Pitutary gland – size of pea – has powers tocontrol over endocrine functioning in humanbeing – called master gland. It’s a regulation have implications forbehavioural functioning.www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  4. 4.  Antidiuretic Hormone : Located in posterior pitutary Release stimulated by dehydration, pai &stress Target organ - Kidney Function – Conservation of body water a &maintenance of blood pressure Behavioural Correlation – Polydypsia, alteredpain, modified sleep pattern.www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  5. 5.  Oxytocin : Located – Posterior pitutary Release stimulated by pregnancy, stress Target organ – Breast Function – Contraction of uterus for labour,release of breast milk Behavioural Correlation with altered secretion– May play role in stress response bystimulation of ACTH.www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  6. 6.  Growth Hormone : Location - Anterior pitutary Release stimulated by – Growth hormonereleasing hormone from hypothalamus Target organs – Bones & tissues Function – Growth in children, proteinsynthesis in adult. Behavioural Correlation with alteredsecretion – anorexia nervosawww.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  7. 7. hoThyroid-Stimulating hormoneAnterior pituitary, release stimulated by thyrotropin releasinghormone from hypothalamus Target organ –Thyroid organ Function-Stimulation of secretion of needed thyroidhormone for metabolism of ,regulation of temperature. Behavioral corelation with alteration-insomia, emotionallability is increased &decreased levels –fatigue depressionADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE Location –Anterior pituitary release stimulating bycorticotropin-releasing hormone from hypothalamus Target Orgamulatn- adrenal cortex Function-stimulation of secretion of cortisol which play rolein stress Behavioral correlation-increased level –mood disorderpsycosis .decreased level –depression ,apathywww.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  8. 8. Gonadotropic hormones Location-anterior pituitarty-releasegonadotrprin-releasing hormone fromhypothalamus Target organ- ovaries, testes Function-stimulation of sectretion of estrogen,progesterone, testosterone Behavioral correlation –decreased level-depression, anorexia nervosa.-increased level Sexual behaviour aggressivenesswww.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  9. 9. MELANOCYTESTIMULATING HOR Anterior pituitary ,stimulated by onset ofdarkness Target organ- pineal gland, Function- stimulation of sectretion ofmelatonin Behavioral correlation-increased level,depressionwww.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  10. 10.  Circadian Rhythms: It is a near 24-hour rhythms cycle, in humansaffected to a large degree by cycles of lightnessand darkness and influences a variety of regulatoryfunctions like, sleep-wake cycle, body temperatureregulation, and patterns of activity. This is due to the pacemaker in the brain(suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus)which receives projections of light through retinaand stimulates electrical impulses toneurotransmitters for various functionswww.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  11. 11.  The sleep-wake cycle is geneticallydetermined rather than learned and isestablished sometime after birth. Sleep can be measured by various types ofbrain waves that occur during various stagesof sleep activity. Types of sleep – Rapid Eye movement sleep Non-Rapid Eye movement sleepwww.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  12. 12. Stages of Sleep : Stage 0 – Alpha Rhythm = Characterized by a relaxed,waking stage with eyes closed. Stage 1 – Beta Rhythm = Characterizes the transitioninto sleep or a period of dozing Stage 2 – Theta Rhythm = Eye movements ad muscularactivity are minimal. About half of the total sleep Stage 3 – Delta Rhythm = Period of deep and restfulsleep. Muscles are relaxed, BP and HR fall, breathingslows and no eye movements. Stage 4 – Delta Rhythm = Stage of deepest sleep eyemovements and muscular activity are minimal. Stage 5 - REM Sleep - Beta Rhythm = Dream cycle.Eyes move rapidly beneath closed eyelids, HR + RR + BPincrease or decrease, Muscles are hypotonic.www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  13. 13. Exercise,stress,sleepHypothalamusThyroid releasing hormone(Anterior lobe of pituitary glandThyroid stimulating hormone(TSH)Thyroid glandThyroxin (T4)Tri iodothyronine (T3)Raised blood levels of T3 & T4Use of hormonesby most body cellsLowered levels of T3 &T4stimulationinhibitionRegulation & secretion of thyroid (T4) & Tri iodothyrinine (T3)www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  14. 14. ABNORMAL SECRETIONHyperthyroidism T 3 & T4 Sec. Hypothyroidism T3 &T4Sec1. Increased basal metabolicrate2. Anxiety, physicalrestlessness, mentalexcitability3. Hair loss4. Tachycardia, palpitation5. Warm sweaty skin, heartintolerance6. Diarrhea7. Weight loss, good appetite Decreased basal metabolicrateDepression, mental slowness,lethargyDry skin, brittle hairBradycardiaDry cold skin prone tohypothermiaConstipationWeight gain, anorexiawww.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  15. 15. Cell responsible for non specific immunereaction include neutrophiles monocytesmacrophages.They work to destroy the invasive organism& facilitate in accomplishing a satisfactoryhealing response, specific-immunemechanism take over.Specific immune mechanism are divided intomajor type 1 humoral response2cellular response- Controlling elements of the cellular responseT lymphocytes & B lymphocyteswww.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  16. 16. Psycho-Immunology:-is the study of immunology as itrelate to emotion & behaviour.The immune system protect the body fromforeign pathogens.- NS regulate immune system.- Immune system dysfunction may resultfrom damage to hypothalamus & pituitarylead to psychiatric symptoms such asdepression.www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  17. 17. Example: SLE (systemic lupus erythematous)autoimmune diseaseExperiences symptoms of depression, insomnia,IMMUNE SYSTEM IN PSYCHIATRIC ILLNESS:-In stress there is increase ofglucocorticoid release from adrenalcortex following stimulation from thehypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axisduring stressful situation. The result is asuppression in lymphocyte proliferation &function.www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  18. 18. -Increased production of epinephrine &nonepinephrine occur in response to stress &may decrease immunity serotonin hasdemonstrated both enhancing & inhibitoryaffects on immunity.Correlation a decrease in lymphocytefunctioning with period of grief & depressionassociating the degree of altered immunity withseverity of the depression.Correlate the onset of schizophrenia toabnormalities of immune system.Immunological abnormalities have beeninvestigated in psychiatric illness likealcoholism. www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  19. 19. IMPLICATION FOR NURSING:-Role of mental health nursing inholistic health care treatment- approachthat focuses psychological & socialfactors.Psychiatric Nurse:-Must integrate the knowledgeof biological science into their practice ifthey are to ensure safe & effective careto people with mental illness.www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  20. 20. Thank youwww.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in

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