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Human cell & it's function
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  • 1. Cell Structure and FunctionJayesh Patidarwww.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  • 2. Cells• Smallest living unit• Most are microscopicwww.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  • 3. Discovery of Cells• Robert Hooke (mid-1600s)– Observed sliver of cork– Saw “row of empty boxes”– Coined the term cellwww.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  • 4. Cell theory• (1839)Theodor Schwann & Matthias Schleiden“ all living things are made of cells”• (50 yrs. later) Rudolf Virchow“all cells come from cells”www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  • 5. Principles of Cell Theory• All living things are made of cells• Smallest living unit of structure andfunction of all organisms is the cell• All cells arise from preexisting cells(this principle discarded the idea ofspontaneous generation)www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  • 6. Cell Sizewww.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  • 7. Cells Have Large SurfaceArea-to-Volume Ratiowww.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  • 8. Characteristics of All Cells• A surrounding membrane• Protoplasm – cell contents in thick fluid• Organelles – structures for cell function• Control center with DNAwww.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  • 9. Cell Types• Prokaryotic• Eukaryoticwww.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  • 10. Prokaryotic Cells• First cell type on earth• Cell type of Bacteria and Archaeawww.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  • 11. Prokaryotic Cells• No membrane bound nucleus• Nucleoid = region of DNA concentration• Organelles not bound by membraneswww.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  • 12. Eukaryotic Cells• Nucleus bound by membrane• Include fungi, protists, plant,and animal cells• Possess many organellesProtozoanwww.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  • 13. Representative Animal Cellwww.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  • 14. Representative Plant Cellwww.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  • 15. Organelles• Cellular machinery• Two general kinds– Derived from membranes– Bacteria-like organelleswww.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  • 16. Bacteria-Like Organelles• Derived from symbiotic bacteria• Ancient association• Endosymbiotic theory– Evolution of modern cells fromcells & symbiotic bacteriawww.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  • 17. Plasma Membrane• Contains cell contents• Double layer of phospholipids & proteinswww.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  • 18. Phospholipids• Polar– Hydrophylic head– Hydrophobic tail• Interacts with waterwww.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  • 19. Movement Across the Plasma Membrane• A few molecules move freely– Water, Carbon dioxide, Ammonia, Oxygen• Carrier proteins transport some molecules– Proteins embedded in lipid bilayer– Fluid mosaic model – describes fluid nature ofa lipid bilayer with proteinswww.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  • 20. www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  • 21. Membrane Proteins1. Channels or transporters– Move molecules in one direction2. Receptors– Recognize certain chemicalswww.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  • 22. Membrane Proteins3. Glycoproteins– Identify cell type4. Enzymes– Catalyze production of substanceswww.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  • 23. Cell Walls• Found in plants, fungi, & many protists• Surrounds plasma membranewww.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  • 24. Cell Wall Differences• Plants – mostly cellulose• Fungi – contain chitinwww.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  • 25. Cytoplasm• Viscous fluid containing organelles• components of cytoplasm– Interconnected filaments & fibers– Fluid = cytosol– Organelles (not nucleus)– storage substanceswww.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  • 26. Cytoskeleton• Filaments & fibers• Made of 3 fiber types– Microfilaments– Microtubules– Intermediate filaments• 3 functions:– mechanical support– anchor organelles– help movesubstanceswww.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  • 27. A = actin, IF = intermediate filament, MT = microtubulewww.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  • 28. Cilia & Flagella• Provide motility• Cilia– Short– Used to move substancesoutside human cells• Flagella– Whip-like extensions– Found on sperm cells• Basal bodies likecentrioleswww.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  • 29. Cilia & Flagella Structure• Bundles of microtubules• With plasma membranewww.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  • 30. Centrioles• Pairs of microtubular structures• Play a role in cell divisionwww.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  • 31. Membranous Organelles• Functional components within cytoplasm• Bound by membraneswww.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  • 32. Nucleus• Control center of cell• Double membrane• Contains– Chromosomes– Nucleoluswww.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  • 33. Nuclear Envelope• Separates nucleus from rest of cell• Double membrane• Has poreswww.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  • 34. DNA• Hereditary material• Chromosomes– DNA– Protiens– Form for cell division• Chromatinwww.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  • 35. Nucleolus• Most cells have 2 or more• Directs synthesis of RNA• Forms ribosomeswww.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  • 36. Endoplasmic Reticulum• Helps move substances within cells• Network of interconnected membranes• Two types– Rough endoplasmic reticulum– Smooth endoplasmic reticulumwww.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  • 37. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum• Ribosomes attached to surface– Manufacture protiens– Not all ribosomes attached to rough ER• May modify proteins from ribosomeswww.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  • 38. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum• No attached ribosomes• Has enzymes that help build molecules– Carbohydrates– Lipidswww.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  • 39. Golgi Apparatus• Involved in synthesis of plant cell wall• Packaging & shipping station of cellwww.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  • 40. Golgi Apparatus Function1. Molecules come in vesicles2. Vesicles fuse with Golgi membrane3. Molecules may be modified by Golgiwww.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  • 41. Golgi Apparatus Function(Continued)4. Molecules pinched-off in separate vesicle5. Vesicle leaves Golgi apparatus6. Vesicles may combine with plasmamembrane to secrete contentswww.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  • 42. www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  • 43. Lysosomes• Contain digestive enzymes• Functions– Aid in cell renewal– Break down old cell parts– Digests invaderswww.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  • 44. Vacuoles• Membrane bound storage sacs• More common in plants than animals• Contents– Water– Food– wasteswww.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  • 45. Bacteria-Like Organelles• Release & store energy• Types– Mitochondria(release energy)– Chloroplasts(store energy)www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  • 46. Mitochondria• Have their own DNA• Bound by double membranewww.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  • 47. Mitochondria• Break down fuel molecules (cellular respiration)– Glucose– Fatty acids• Release energy– ATPwww.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  • 48. Chloroplasts• Derived form photosynthetic bacteria• Solar energy capturing organellewww.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  • 49. Photosynthesis• Takes place in the chloroplast• Makes cellular food – glucosewww.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  • 50. Review of Eukaryotic Cellswww.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  • 51. Review of Eukaryotic Cellswww.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  • 52. www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  • 53. Molecule Movement & Cells• Passive Transport• Active Transport• Endocytosis(phagocytosis & pinocytosis)• Exocytosiswww.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  • 54. Passive Transport• No energy required• Move due to gradient– differences in concentration, pressure, charge• Move to equalize gradient– High moves toward lowwww.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  • 55. Types of Passive Transport1. Diffusion2. Osmosis3. Facilitated diffusionwww.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  • 56. Diffusion• Molecules move to equalize concentrationwww.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  • 57. Osmosis• Special form of diffusion• Fluid flows from lower solute concentration• Often involves movement of water– Into cell– Out of cellwww.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  • 58. Solution Differences & Cells• solvent + solute = solution• Hypotonic– Solutes in cell more than outside– Outside solvent will flow into cell• Isotonic– Solutes equal inside & out of cell• Hypertonic– Solutes greater outside cell– Fluid will flow out of cellwww.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  • 59. www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  • 60. Facilitated Diffusion• Differentially permeable membrane• Channels (are specific) help moleculeor ions enter or leave the cell• Channels usually are transport proteins(aquaporins facilitate the movement ofwater)• No energy is usedwww.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  • 61. Process of Facilitated Transport• Protein binds with molecule• Shape of protein changes• Molecule moves across membranewww.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  • 62. Active Transport• Molecular movement• Requires energy (against gradient)• Example is sodium-potassium pumpwww.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  • 63. Endocytosis• Movement of large material– Particles– Organisms– Large molecules• Movement is into cells• Types of endocytosis– bulk-phase (nonspecific)– receptor-mediated (specific)www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  • 64. Process of Endocytosis• Plasma membrane surrounds material• Edges of membrane meet• Membranes fuse to form vesiclewww.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  • 65. Forms of Endocytosis• Phagocytosis – cell eating• Pinocytosis – cell drinkingwww.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  • 66. Exocytosis• Reverse of endocytosis• Cell discharges materialwww.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  • 67. Exocytosis• Vesicle moves to cell surface• Membrane of vesicle fuses• Materials expelledwww.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  • 68. www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  • 69. Thank Youwww.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in