Examination of Urine1) Physical Examination – Normal findings of urineColour – Pale Yellow or Amber ColourAppearance/ turbidity – ClearVolume – 1000 to 2000 ml in 24 hrs.Reaction – AcidicPH -4.6- 8Odor – aromatic odor Smells Like ammonia due to presence ofvolatile acids.www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
2) Chemical ExaminationKetones - NegativeSugar -NegativeBile salt – NegativeBlood - NegativeProtein - NegativeBile pigment - Negativewww.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
• Test tube 4 to 6, along withtest tube stand.• Test tube holder 1.• Spirit Lamp Match box.• Kidney tray.• Benedict solution, Nitric acidor sulphosalic acid.• Acetic acid• Red and blue litmus paper• Urinometer• Ammonium sulphate crystal,sodium nitroprusside crystal• Liquor ammonia, Weaksolution of Tr. Iodine• Sulphur powder• Measuring cup• Pipette• Bottle brush• To put urine in that.• To hold the test tube.• To heat the urine.• To discard the waste.• To check urine sugare.• To test urine for albumin.• to test urine for reaction.• to measure specific gravity ofurine.• to test urine for acetone• to test for bile pigment.• to test for bile salt• to measure the amount ofurine. to measure the dropsof urinewww.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
Urine Tests• Urine for sugar or Benedict’s test• Purposes – Screening to detect diabetes• Confirmation diagnosis of diabetes• Monitoring the effectiveness ofdiabetes controlwww.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
procedure• Heat 5ml of benedict’ssolution over the spiritlamp.Holding test tube away fromface.• Add 8 drops of urine withdropper and heat for twominutes.• Again cool & observe theColour changes.• Record the date time nameof investigation, and theresult, in the patient’srecord file.• To check the solutionwhether it is clear or not .• To protect yourself.• To check urine sugar.• To see the result.• Proper documentation willhelp for the references andfor accurate treatment tothe patient.www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
• Colour Changes Urine glucoseLevel• Absence of Colour Change Nil• Light Green Trace• Dark Green 1 +• Yellow 2 +• Orange 3 +• Brick Red 4 +www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
Urine for Albumin- Hot test• Take urine up to 2/3 of the test tube and heat theupper 1/3, rotate test tube constantly.• Then add few drops of acetic acid along the sidesof the test tube and observe for precipitation.• If the cloud disappears, it is due to phosphate Ifthe cloud still remain it indicate the presence ofalbumin, it will not disappear with acetic acid.• If urine is highly acidic or highly alkaline, thereading will be false.www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
• PrecipitationAlbumin level• No precipitate Nil• Slightly cloudy Trace• One finger breadth or translucent 1+• Two finger breadth or translucent 2+• Three finger breadth or opaque 3+• Thick Precipitate 4+www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
Cold Test• Add 2 ml of sulphosalicylic acid or nitricacid to 2 ml of urine in a test tube.• If albumin is Present white precipitate willbe seen where two fluids meet.• protein is indicated by cloudy Precipitate.www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
Test For Acetone / Roth era’sTest• Purposes – Screening for ketonuria- routinehospital urine test, pre-surgery, pregnant women,• Glycosuria- testing for ketone body• To check for control of diabetes• To differentiate between diabeticcoma and insulin shock.www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
• When heavy sugar is found in the urine test foracetone is done.• 1) Take 3 cm of ammonium Sulphate crystals in atest tube.• 2) Add equal amount of urine to it.• 3) Put one crystal of sodium nitroprusside.• 4) Close the test tube with Cork and shake thetest tube.• 5) Add 1.5 cm of concentrate ammonia• 6) Read the Result immediately. It acetone ispresent a permanganate Purple colored ring isformed at the junction of urine and ammonia• 7) Discard the urine and clean the articles.• www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
Hey’s test / Test for bile salt.Take 5 ml of urine in the test tube.Sprinkle Sulphur Powder on thesurface of the urine.If the powder sinks down to the testtube, it indicates the presence of bilesalt in the urine.
Simth’s test / test for bile pigments.Take ¾ of a test tube with urine.Add a weak solution of iodine by dropper tofrom a layer on the surface of urine .If green Colour develops at the junction of theiodine and urine it indicates the presence ofbile pigment in the urine.Discard the urine and clean the articles.
ReactionTo test reaction.Dip one end of a litmus into the urine.If urine is acidic, blue litmus turn intored.It urine is alkaline, red litmus turn intoblue.No change in both litmus papers.Indicates neutral reaction.Normal urine is acidic in reactionwww.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
SPECIFIC GRAVITY• Take conical glass fill 20-30 ml urine• Allow a urinometer to floatin the urine• Take reading just beforespinning stops• Read the specific gravityat the eye level.• To check for specificgravity• See that the urinometerdoes not touch the bottomand sides of the conicalglass.• To prevent error• Take the lower meniscus toprevent error in readingwww.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
• Normal specific gravity is 1.003 to 1.030•• Urinometer scale is 1.000 to 1.060•• It is high in diabetes mellitus due to thepresence of sugar , and it can be low inkidney disease due to the inability of thekidneys to concentrate the urine.www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in