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Disaster management Disaster management Document Transcript

  • 1www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.comDISASTER MANAGEMENTINTRODUCTION:Disaster is any occurrence that causes ecological disruption, loss of human life, anddeterioration of health services on a scale sufficient to warrant an extraordinary response fromoutside that affected to community or area. Disaster occurs suddenly and unexpectedly,disrupting normal life and infrastructure of social services including health care system. For thisreason a country’s health system and public health infrastructure must be organized and keptready to act in any emergency situations as well as under normal conditions.To meet the challenges of emergency and disaster situation, the government of India hasidentified the nodel Ministries to earmark responsibilities to the various concerneddepartments/and sectors and to coordinate the entire activities relating to specific types ofdisaster and also support Ministry to develop sectoral contingency planning for implementation,monitoring and evaluation.DEFINATION OF HAZARD-A hazard is a rare or extreme event in the natural or human-made environment that adverselyaffects human life, property or activity to the extent of causing a disaster.DEFINATION OF DISASTER-A disaster is a serious disruption of the functioning of a society, causing widespread human,material, or environmental losses which exceed the ability of affected society to copy using onlyits own resources. Disaster are often classified according to their speed of onset (sudden orslow), or according to their cause (natural or man made)CAUSAL FACTORS OF DISASTER-The magnitude of each disaster, measured in deaths, damage, or costs for a givendeveloping country increases with the increased marginalization of the population. This is causedby a high birthrate, problems of land tenure and economic opportunity, and the lack ormisallocation of recourse to meet the basic human needs of an expanding population.PovertyThe most important single influence on the impact of a disaster. All other factors couldbe lessened if the affected population were not also limited by poverty. Virtually all disasterstudies show that the wealthiest of the population either survive the disaster unaffected orare able to recover quickly. Across the broad spectrum of disaster, poverty generally makespeople vulnerable to the impact of hazards. Poverty explains why people in urban areas are
  • 2www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.comforced to live on hills that are prone to landslides, or why people settle near volcanoes orrivers that invariably flood their banks. Poverty explains why droughts claim poor peasantfarmers as victims an rarely the wealthy, and why famines more other than not are the resultof a lack of purchasing power to buy food rather than an absence of food.Population GrowthThere is an obvious connection between the increase in losses from a disaster and theincrease in population. If there are more people and structures where a disaster strikes, thenit is likely there will be more of an impact. The growth of population has been sospectacular that it is inevitable that more people will be affected by disaster because morewill be forced to live and work in unsafe areas. Increasing numbers of people will becompeting for a limited amount of resources (such as, employment opportunities, and land)which can lead to conflict.Rapid UrbanizationRapid population growth and migration are related to the major phenomenon of rapidurbanization. This process is also accelerated in developing countries. It is chatagarised by therural poor or civilians in an area of conflict moving to metropolitan areas in search of economicopportunities and security. These massive numbers of urban poor increasingly find fewer optionsfor availability of safe and desirable places to build their houses. Here again, competition for scareresources, an inevitable consequence, can lead to human made disaster.Transitions in cultural practicesMany of the inevitable changes that occur in all societies lead to an increase in thesocieties, vulnerability to disaster.Obviously,all societies are constantly changing and in acontinual state of transition. These transitions are often extremely disruptive and uneven,leaving gaps in social coping mechanisms and technology. These transitions includenomadic populations that become sedentary rural people who move to urban areas, and bothrural and urban people who move from one economic level to another. More broadly, theseexamples are typical of a shift from non-industrialized to industrializing societies.Environmental degradationMany disasters are either caused or exacerbated by environmental degradation.Deforestation leads to rapid rain run off, which contributes to flooding. The destruction ofmangrove swamps decreases a coast line’s ability to resist tropical winds and storm surges.Lack of awareness and informationDisaster can also happen because people vulnerable to them simply didn’t know how toget out of harm’s way or to take protective measures. This ignorance may not necessarily bea function of poverty, but a lack of awareness of what measures can be taken to build safestructures on safe locations. Perhaps some people did not know about safe evacuation routesand procedures. Other population may not know where to turn for assistance in times for
  • 3www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.comacute distress.Nevertheless; this point should not be taken as a justification for ignoring thecoping mechanisms of the majority of people affected by disaster. In most disaster pronesocieties, there is wealth of understanding about disaster threats and responses. Thisunderstanding should be incorporated into any efforts to provide external assistance.War and civil strifeIn this text war and civil strife are regarded as hazards that are extreme events thatproduce disaster. War and civil strife often results in displaced people, a target population ofthis training programme.The causal factors of war and civil strife include competition forscarce resources, religious or ethnic intolerance, and ideological differences. Many of theseare also byproducts of the preceding six causal factors of disaster.TYPES OF DISASTERNatural hazards
  • 4www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.comThe discussion about disasters and emergencies resulting from natural and humanmade hazards has been developed in general terms.However,each hazard has its owncharactristics.To understand the significance and implications of a particular type of disasterwe must have a basic understanding about the nature,casuses and efforts of each hazardtype. The list of hazard types is very long. Many occur infrequently or impact a very smallpopulation. Other hazards, such as severe snowstorms, often occur in areas that are preparedto deal with them and seldom become disaster.However, from the perspective of a disastervictim it is not particularly useful to distinguish between minor and major disasters. Somedisasters are now of limited interest to the international community. These includeavalanches, fog, frost, hail, lightning, snowstorms and tornadoes. There are several hazardtypes for which there is widespread concern. They can be categorized as follows:Sudden onset hazards-(geological and climatic hazards) Earthquakes, Tsunamis, Floods,Tropical storms, Volcanic eruptions, Landslides.Slow onset hazards-(environmental hazards) Drought, Famine, Environmental degradation,desertification, Deforestation, Pest infestation.Industrial/Technological-System failures/accidents, Spillages, Explosions, Fires.War and civil strife-Armed aggression, Insurgency, Terrorism and other actions leading todisplaced persons and refugees.Epidemic-Water and/or food-borne diseases, persons-to-persons diseases (conduct andrespiratory spread), vector-borne diseases and complications from wounds.EarthquakesCausal phenomena: Slippage of crusted rock along a fault or area of strain and rebound tonew alignment.General characteristics and effect:Shaking of earth caused by waves on and below the earth’s surface causing: Surface faulting Aftershocks Tsunamis Tremors, vibrations Liquefaction LandslidesPredictability: Probability of occurrence can be determined but not exact timing. Forecasting isbased on monitoring of seismic activity, historical incidance, and observations.Factors contributing to vulnerability: Location of settlements in seismic areas. Structures which are not resistant to ground motion. Dense collections of buildings with high occupancy. Lack of access to information about earthquake risks.
  • 5www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.comTypical adverse effects:Physical damage-Damage or loss of structures or infrastructure. Fires, dam failures,landslides, flooding may occur.Casualties-Often high, particularly near epicenter or in highly populated areas or where buildingsnot resistant.Public health-Fracture injuries most widespread problem. Secondary threats due to flooding,contaminated water supply, or breakdown in sanitary conditions.Water supply-Severe problems likely due to damage of water systems, pollution of open wellsand changes in water table.Possible risk reduction measures: Hazard mapping public awareness programs and trainingassessing and reducing structural vulnerability land use control or zoning, building codesinsurance.Specific preparedness measures: Earthquake warning and preparedness programs.EARTHQUAKE FACT SHEETLearn about an earthquake’s causes and effects. Speak about them in acalm and composed manner, not spreading anxiety about the phenomenon.Keep a torch and a portable transistor radio handy.Keep the corridors in the house clear of furniture and toys, makingmovement easier.Attach shelves, gas cylinders, vases and flowerpots to the walls ofyour home.Place heavy or bulky objects on the floor or on the lowest shelves.Teach all members of your family how to turn off the electricity, water andgas supply.During an earthquakeKeep calm and help others do that.If you are at home or inside a buildingDo not rush to the doors or exits; never use the lifts; keep well away fromwindows, mirrors, chimneys and furniture.Protect yourself by staying under the lintel of an inner door, in the corner
  • 6www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.comof a room, under a table or even under a bed.If you are in the streetWalk towards an open place in a calm and composed manner. Do not runand do not wander round the streets.Keep away from buildings, especially old, tall or detached buildings,electricity wires, slopes and walls, which are liable to collapse.If you are drivingStop the vehicle away from buildings, walls, slopes, electricity wires andcables, and stay in the vehicle.After an earthquakeKeep calm, switch on the radio/TV and obey any instructions you hear on it.Keep away from beaches and low banks of rivers. Huge waves may sweep in.Expect aftershocks. Be prepared.Turn off the water, gas and electricity.Do not smoke and do not light matches or use a cigarette lighter. Do not turn onswitches. There may be gas leaks or short-circuits.Use a torch.If there is a fire, try to put it out. If you cannot, call the fire brigade.If people are seriously injured, do not move them unless they are in danger.Immediately clean up any inflammable products that may have spilled (alcohol,paint, etc).If you know that people have been buried, tell the rescue teams. Do not rush anddo not worsen the situation of injured persons or your own situation.Avoid places where there are loose electric wires and do not touch any metalobject in contact with them.Do not drink water from open containers without having examined it and filteredit through a sieve, a filter or an ordinary clean cloth.Eat something. You will feel better and more capable of helping others.If your home is badly damaged, you will have to leave it. Collect watercontainers, food, and ordinary and special medicines (for persons with heartcomplaints, diabetes, etc.)Do not re-enter badly damaged buildings and do not go near damaged
  • 7www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.comstructures.Do not walk around the streets to see what has happened. Keep clear of thestreets to enable rescue vehicles to pass.TSUNAMISCausal phenomenon: Fault movement on sea floor, accompained by anearthquake. A landslide occurring underwater or above the sea, and thenplunging into the water. Volcanic activity either underwater or near the shore.General characteristics: Tsunami waves are barely perceptible in deep water and may measure160km between wave crests. May consist of ten or more wave crests. Move up to 800km per hour in deep water of ocean, diminishing in speed asthe wave approaches shore. May strike shore in crashing waves or may inundate the land. Flooding effect depends on shape of shorelines and tides.Predictability: Tsunami warning system in pacific monitors seismic activity anddeclares watches and warnings. Waves generated by local earthquakes maystrike nearby shores within minutes and warnings to public may not be possible.Factors contributing to vulnerability: Location of settlements in low lying coastal regions. Lack of tsunami resistant buildings. Lack of timely warning systems and evacuation plans. Unawareness of public to destructive forces of tsunami.Typical adverse effects:Physical damage-The force of water can raze everything in its path but themajority of damage to structure and infrastructure results from flooding.Withdrawal of the wave from shore scours out sediment and can collapseports and buildings and batter boats.Causalities and public health: Deaths occur principally by drowning andinjuries from battering by debris.Water supply: Contamination by salt water and debris or sewage may makeclean drinking water unavailable.
  • 8www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.comCrops and food supplies: Harvests, food stocks, livestock farm implementsand fishing boats may be lost. Land may be rendered infertile due to salt waterincursion.Possible risk reduction measures: Protection of buildings along coast,houses on stilts, buildings barriers such as breakwaters.Specific preparedness measures: Hazard mapping, planning evacuation routes, establishwarning systems, community education.VOLCANOESCausal phenomenon: Magma pushed upward through volcanic vent pressure andeffervescence of dissolved gases.General Charactristics: Types of volcanoes are cinder cones, shield volcanoes, compositevolcanoes and lava domes. Magma flowing out onto surface is lava and all solid particlesejected are tephra.Damage results from type of material ejected such as ash,pyroclasticflows(blasts of gas containing ash and fragments),mud,debris,and lava flows.Predictability: Study of the geological history of volcanoes mainly located in a clearlydefined volcanic belt, along with seismic activity and other observations may indicate animpending volcano. No reliable indicator has been discovered and precursory signs do notalways occur.Factors contributing to vulnerability: Settlements on the flanks of volcanoes, settlements inthe historical paths of mud or lava lows, structure with roof designs not resistant to ashaccumulation, presence of combustible materials, lack of evacuation plan or warningsystems.Typical adverse effects:Causalities and public health: Death from pyroclastic flows, mud flows and possiblylava flows and toxic gases. Injuries from falling rock, burns, respiratory difficultiesfrom gas and ash.Settlements, infrastructure and agriculture: Complete destruction of everything in thepath of pyroclastic, mud or lava flows, collapse of structure under weight of wet ash,flooding, blockage of roads or communication systems.Crops and food supplies: Destruction of crops in path of flows, ash may break treebranches, livestock may inhale toxic gas or ash, grazing lands may be contaminated.Possible risk reduction measures: Land use planning for settlements around volcanoes,protective struct Ural measures, National volcanic emergency plans.
  • 9www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.comSpecific preparedness measures: Volcano monitoring and warning system, training forgovernment officials and community participation in search and rescue, fire fighting.LANDSLIDESCausal phenomenon: Down slope transport of soil and rock resulting from naturallyoccurring vibrations, changes in direct water content, removal of lateral support, loadingwith weight and weathering or human manipulation of water courses and slopecomposition.General Charactristics: Landslides vary in types of movement (falls, slide, topples,lateral spread, flows) and may be secondary effects of heavy storms, earthquake andvolcanic eruptions. Landslides are more widespread than any other geological event.Predictability: Frequency of occurance, extent and consequences of landslides maybe estimated and areas of high risk determined by use of information on areageology, geomorphology, hydrology and climatology and vegetation.Factors contributing to vulnerability: Settlements built on steep slopes, softer soils.Cliff tops, settlements built at the base of steep slopes, on mouths of streams frommountain valleys, roads, communication lines in mountain areas, buildings withweak foundations, buried pipelines, brittle pipes, lack of understanding of landslidehazard.Typical adverse effects:Physical damage-Anything on top of or in path of landslide will suffer damage.Rubble may block roads, lines of communication or waterwayes.Indirect effects mayinclude loss of productivity of agricultural or forest lands, flodding, reduced propertyvalues.Causalities-Fatalities have occurred due to slope failure. Catastrophic debris slides ormudflows have killed many thousands.Possible risk reduction measures: Hazard mapping, legislation and land useregulation, insurance.Specific preparedness measures: Community education, monitoring, warning andevacuation systems.TROPICAL CYCLONESCausal phenomenon: Mixture of heat and moisture forms a low pressure centre overoceans in tropical latitudes where water temperatures are over 26degrees c.Windcurrents spin and organize around deepening low pressure over accelerating towardthe center and moving along track pushed by trade winds. Depression becomes atropical cyclone when winds reach gale force or 117km per hour.
  • 10www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.comGeneral Charactristics: When the cyclone strikes land, high winds, exceptionalrainfall and storm surges cause damage with secondary flooding and landslides.Predictability: Tropical cyclones can be tracked from their development but accuratelandfall forecasts are usually possible only a few hours before as unpredictablechanges in course can occur.Factors contributing to vulnerability: Settlements located in low lying coastalareas(direct impact),settlements in adjacent areas(heavy rains and floods),poorcommunication or warning systems, lightweight structures, older construction, poorquality masonary,infrastructural elements, fishing boats.Typical adverse effects:Physical damage-Structure lost and damaged by wing force, flooding, storm surgeand landslide.Causalities and public health: May be caused by flying debris or flooding,contamination of water supplies may lead to viral outbreaks and malaria.Water supplies-Ground water may be contaminated by floods water.Crops and food supplies: High winds and rains can rain standing crops, treeplantations and food stocks.Possible risk reduction measures: Risk assessment and hazard mapping. Land usecontrol and flood plain management, reduction of structural vulnerabilityimprovement of vegetation cover.Specific preparedness measures: Public warning systems, evacuation plans trainingand community participation.Dos and Don’tsListen to the radio for advance information and advice. Allowconsiderable margin for safety. A cyclone may change direction, speedor intensity within a few hours, so stay tuned to the radio for updatedinformation.If storm-force winds or severe gales are forecast for your area, then…Store or secure loose boards, corrugated iron, rubbish tins or anythingelse that could become dangerous.Tape up large windows to prevent them from shattering.Move to the nearest shelter or vacate the area if this is ordered by the
  • 11www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.comappropriate government agency.When the storm hits…Stay indoors and take shelter in the strongest part of your house.Listen to the radio and follow instructions.Open windows on the sheltered side of the house, if the roof begins tolift.Find shelter if you are caught out in the open.Do not go outside or into a beach during a lull in the storm.FLOODS-Causal phenomenon: Naturally occurring flash, river and coastal flooding fromintense rainfall or inundation associated with seasonal weather patterns, Humanmanipulation of watersheds, drainage basins and floodplains.General characteristics:Flash floods: Accelerated runoff, dam failure, breaks up of ice jam.River floods: Slow buildup, usually seasonal in river system.Coastal floods: Associated with tropical cyclones, tsunami waves, storm surgesfactors affecting degree of danger: Depth of water, duration, velocity, rate of rise,frequency of occurance, seasonality.Predictability: Flood forecasting depends on seasonal patterns, capacity ofdrainage basin, flood plain mapping, surveys of air and land. Warning possiblewell in advance for seasonal floods, but only minutes before in case of stormsurge, flash flood or tsunami.Factors contributing to vulnerability: Location of settlements on floodplains, lackof awareness of flooding hazards, reduction of absorptive capacity of land, onresistant buildings and foundations, high risk infrastructural elements, unprotectedfood stocks and standing crops, livestock.Typical adverse effects:Physical damage-Structure damaged by washing a way, becominginundated,collapsing,impact of floating debris, landslide from saturated soils,damage greater in valleys than open areas.
  • 12www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.comCausalities and public health: Deaths from drowning but few serious injuries,possible outbreaks of malaria, diarrhea and viral infection.Water supplies: Contamination of wells and groundwater possible. Clean water maybe unavailable.Possible risk reduction measures: Flood control (channels, dikes, dams, flood,proofing, erosion control)Specific preparedness measures: Flood detection and warning systems, communityparticipation and education, development of master plan for floodplainmanagement.DROUGHTSCausal phenomenon: Immediate cause-Rainfall deficit, Possible underlying causes-EI Nioo(incursion of warm surface waters into the the normally colder waters ofsouth American Pacific),human induced changes in ground surface and soil, highersea surface temperatures, increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide and greenhousegases.General Charactristics: The reduction of water or moisture availability is temporaryand significant in relation to the norm, meteorological drought is the reduction inrainfall and hydrological drought is the reduction in water resources. Agriculturaldrought is the impact of drought on human activity influenced by various factor:the presence of irrigation systems, moisture retention capacity of the soil, thetiming of the rainfall and adaptive behavior of the farmers.Predictability: Periods of unusual dryness are normal in all weather systems.Rainfall and hydrology data must be carefully analyzed with influencing factors inpredicting drought, however advance warning is usually possible.Factors contributing to vulnerability: Location in an arid area where dry conditionsare increased by drought, farming on marginal lands, subsistence farming, lack ofagricultural inputs to improve yields, lack of seed reserves, areas dependent onanother weather systems for water resources. Areas of low soil moisture retention,lack of recognition and allocation of resources to drought hazard.Typical adverse effects: Reduced income for farmers, reduction of spending fromagricultural sector, increase in price of staple foods, increased inflation rates,deterioration of nutritional status, famine, illness, death, reduction of drinkingwater sources, migration, breakup of communities, and loss of livestock.Possible risk reduction measures: Drought and famine early warning systems.
  • 13www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.comSpecific preparedness measures: Development of inter-institutional response plan.ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTIONCausal phenomenon: Air pollution-pollutants such as sulphur dioxide, nitrogendioxide, particulates, carbon monoxide and lead from industry and transport. Marinepollution-Sewage, industrial effluents, marine litter, petroleum spills and dumpedradioactive sustances.Fresh water pollution-Discharge of human waste and domesticwastewaters into lakes and rivers, industrial effluents, use of irrigation andpesticides, run off of nitrogen from fertilizers. Increased run off from deforestationcausing sedimentation. Possible global warming-Accumulation of carbon dioxidefrom combustion of fossil fuels, deforestation and methane from livestock. Ozonedepletion-Chloroflorocarbons (CFCs) released into the atmosphere deplete ozoneshield against ultraviolet light.Predictability: Pollution is related to per capita consumption so; as countries developpollution will also tend to increase. Deforestation is increasing in some countries.Factors contributing to vulnerability: High levels of industrialization and per capitaconsumption, lack of regulation pollutants, insufficient resources to counter theimpact of pollution.Typical adverse effects:Air pollution: Damages agricultural crops, forests.aquatic systems, structuralmaterials and human health.Water pollution: Spread of pathogens, injury to marine animals, spread of chemicals tothe environment effecting the health of humans, animala and sea life.Global warming: Sea level rise, climate change, temperature rise.Ozone depletion: Increase in skin cancer, cataracts, reduction in immune systemfunctions and damage to marine life.Possible risk reduction measures: Set ambient air quality standards, set emissionlimits for every pollutant, establish protection policies for water supplies, reducethe use of pesticides by integrated management, reduce the rate of deforestation andincrease planting of trees, promote energy efficiency, regulate use of aerosols anddisposal of refrigeration units, prohibit manufacture and use of CFCs.Specific preparedness measures: Establish a national environment safety andprotection plan; create education programs for environmental awareness, training ofgovernment personnel as part of development programs.
  • 14www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.comDEFORESTATIONCausal phenomenon: The spread of farming and grazing, firewood collection timberharvesting.General Charactristics: Contributes to other hazards by by removing root systemswhich stabilize soil, acting as a filter and buffer, allowing percolation of water intosoil and retaining moisture in soil, removal of leaf biomass and forest products,burning and decay of dead wood.Predictability: An increase in global focus on the hazard is expanding data baseleading to an increased awareness of the problem and to identifying where theproblem exists.Overall, the global trend is deceasing as conservation measures areenacted but destruction of forests is rising at alarming rates in some countries.Factors contributing to vulnerability: Underdevelopment, dependence on wood forfuel and income, unregulated logging and land clearance, rapid population growth,rapid expansion of settled or industrialized areas.Typical adverse effects: Deforestration results in loss of free products from the forestsuch as fruits and medicine and decline in traditional cultures. It stresses economieswhich import forest products and are dependent on wood products. It contributes toother hazards such as flooding-Deforestation of watersheds can increase severity offlooding, reduce stream flows, dry up springs in dry seasons and increase sedimententering waterways. Drought-Removal of roots and leaf canopy can alter moisturelevels drying soil and decreasing percipitation.Famine-Decrease in agriculturalproduction due to erosion of topsoil and collapse of hillsides may lead to foodshortage. Environmental pollution-Increase contamination of soil and water andreduces carbon dioxide absorption capacity, burning of forests and decay of treesreleases carbon dioxide to the air, possibly contributing to global warming.Possible risk reduction measures: Protection of forests through management,legislation, conservancies, reforestation.Specific preparedness measures: Education of the communities, promoting alternativesto fuel wood, soil conservation measures.PHASES OF A DISASTERDisasters can be viewed as a series of phases on a time continum.Identifying andunderstanding these phases helps to describe disaster related needs and toconceptualize appropriate disaster management activities.Rapid onset disaster:
  • 15www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.comThe definitions below correspond to the time sequence following the occurrence ofa rapid onset disaster.The relief phase is the period immediately following the occurrence of a suddendisaster(or the late discovery of a negated/deteriorated slow onset situation)whenexceptional measures have to be taken to search and find the survivors as well asmeet their basic needs for shelter,water,food and medical care.Rehabilitation is the operations and decisions taken after a disaster with a view torestoring a stricken community to its formar living conditions, while encouragingand facilitating the necessary adjustment to the changes caused by the disaster.Reconstruction is the action taken to reestablish a community after a period ofrehabilitation subsequent to a disaster. Actions would include construction ofpermanent housing, full restoration of all services and complete resumption of thepre-disaster state.Mitigation is the cooective term used to encompass all action taken prior to theoccurrence of a disaster(pre-disaster measures)including preparedness and long termrisk reduction measures.(Mitigation has been used by some institution or authors in anarrow sense, excluding preparedness.)Preparedness consists of activities designed to minimize loss of life and damage,organize the tempory removal of people and property from a threatened location andfacilitate timely and effective rescue, relief and rehabilitation.Slow onset disasters:The sequence of a disaster continuum for slow onset disaster is similar in frameworkbut has important distinctions. The following terms and definitions reflect thoseadditions or modifications.Early warning is the process of monitoring situations in communities or areas knownto be vulnerable to slow onset hazards. For example, famine early warning may bereflected in such indicators as drought, livestock sales or changes in economicconditions. The purposes of early warning are to enable remedial measures to beinitiated and to provide more timely and effective relief including through disasterpreparedness actions.The emergency phase is the period during which extraordinary measures have to betaken. Special emergency procedures and authorities may be applied to supporthuman needs, sustain livelihoods, and protect property to avoid the onset of disaster.This phase can encompass pre-disaster, disaster alert, disaster relief and recovery
  • 16www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.comperiods. An emergency phase may be quite extensive, as in a slow onset disastersuch as a famine. It can also be relatively short-lived, as after an earthquake.Rehabilitation is the action taken after a slow onset disaster where attention must begiven to the issues of resettlement or returnee programmes, particularly for peoplewho have been displaced for reasons arising out if conflict or economic collapse.The disaster management team-One of the primary purposes of this overall training program is to introduce theconcept of managing disaster as a team. The objectives of disaster managementthrough teamwork include A forum for communication, information exchange and developing consensus. A format for co-ordination, eliminating duplication and reducing gaps in services. The possibility of being more effective through pooled resources.The UN Disaster Management TeamThe United Nations General Assembly believes that the objectives of teammanagement are applicable to the UN agencies oriented to emergencies. They havemandated that a standing, UN Disaster Management Team (UN-DMT) be formed ineach disaster prone country, convened and chaired by the UN resisdent coordinator.The composition of the UN-DMT is determined by taking into account the types ofdisaster to which the country is prone and the organizations present, but shouldnormally include a core group consisting of the country level representatives ofFAO, UNDP/UNDRO, UNICEF, WFP, WHO and where present, UNHCR.It may beenlarged to include additional representatives or project personnel from otherrelevant agencies when an emergency arises. The original and primary purpose of theUN-DMT is to ensure a prompt, effective and concerted response by the UN systemat country level in the event of a disaster. The team should also ensure similarcoordination of UN assistance to the government in respect to post-disasterrehabilitation and reconstruction and relevant disaster mitigation measures throughlong term development programs. It should be emphasized that for all aspect ofdisaster management the UN-DMT is in a support role of the government.Country Disaster Management TeamMost disaster prone countries already have a formal or informal disaster managementteam. It is typically headed by a national disaster focal point body. This bodyfunction in liaison with the office of the president pr prime minister, with civildefense organizations, key government ministeries, the red cross/red crescent and
  • 17www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.comother NGOs and major donors. The UN-DMT needs to interface with this team andwhere practical to be a team member. Where national officials do not participate inUN-DMT meetings or activities, the resident coordinator should ensure that they areconsulted and briefed on all relevant matters. In practice it is vital that the policies ofthe DMT releate to those approved by the government even under the pressure ofevent.Roles and resources of UNDP, UNDRO and other agenciesUNDP focuses primarily on the development related aspects of disaster risks andoccurrences and on providing technical assistance to institution building in realtionto all aspect of disaster management.a) Incorporating long term risk reduction and preparedness measures in normaldevelopment planning and programes.including support for specific mitigationmeasures where required.b) Assisting in planning and implementation of post disaster rehabilitation andreconstruction, including the definition of new development strategies thatincorporate risk reduction measures relevant to the affected area.c) Reviewing the impact of large settlements of refugees or displaced persons ondevelopment and seeking ways to incorporate the refugees and displaced persons indevelopment strategies.d) Providing technical assistance to the authorities managing major emergencyassistance operations of extended duration (especially in relation to displacedpersons and possibilities for achieving durable solutions in such cases.)e) In addition UNDP provides administrative and operational support to the residentcoordinator function, particularly at country level, but also at headquarters.f) In the event of disaster,UNDP may grant a maximum of $50,000 from SPR funds toprovide immediate relief.UNDP is not otherwise involved in the provision of “relief“using only of its own resources or other funds administrative by the program.Where a major emergency substantially affects the whole development processwithin a country, IPF resources may be used to provide technical assistance to planand manage the operation, with the agreement of the Government.Disaster related roles of the core members of the UN-DMTsProvides technical advice in reducing vulnerability and helps in the rehabilitation ofagriculture, livestocks and fisheries with emphasis on local food production.Monitors food production, exports and imports and forecasts any requirements ofexceptional food assistance. Promotes the incorporation of disaster mitigation in developing planning and fundstechnical assistance for all aspects of disaster management.
  • 18www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com Provides administrative support to the resident coordinator and UN-DMT. Mobilizes and coordinates international emergency relief assistance, issuingconsolidated appeals. Assist in assessment and relief management is required. Provides advice andguidance on risk assessments and in planning and implementing mitigationmeasures. Assures the protection of refugees and seeks durable solutions to their problems.Helps to mobilize and assure the delivery of necessary assistance in the country ofasylum if it is a developing country. Attends to the well-being of children and women, especially child health andnutrition. Assistance activities may include: social programs, child feeding(in collaborationwith WFP),water supplies, sanitation and direct health interventions(in collaborationwith WHO) Provides related management and logistical support.Role of other UN organizations and agenciesA number of other UN organizations and agencies have specific responsibilities,organizational arrangements and capabilities relating to disaster mitigation and/orrelief or recovery assistance.UNDP, UNDRO NAD resident coordinators mustrespect the mandates and skills of these agencies and seek to ensure that all worktogether in harmony. All should use their expertise and resources to best effect inhelping people in disaster prone and disaster affected areas.Nursing ResponsibilitiesA. Prevention and mitigationPersonal Preparedness: Nurse assisting in disaster relief efforts must be as healthy aspossible, both physical as well as psychologically. She must be certified in first aidand cardiopulmonary resuscitation.Professional Preparedness: There should be disaster management team of nurses,Psychiatric nurses, physicians, psychologist, surgeons, and social workers to beactive and alert at all time.1. Nurse should know and understand citywide disaster management plan.2. Nurse should update the disaster plan as per need.3. She should develop and provide educational material relevant to disaster specific tothe area.4. She should organize disaster drills with the help of government and non governmentorganization.
  • 19www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com5. Community health nurse keeps up to date records of vulnerable population within thecommunity.6. Nurse should understand what the available community resources are and how thecommunity will work together when disaster strikes.7. Man made disaster particularly preventable by enforcement of good building codes orproper land and water management.8. The disaster which are not preventable their impact can be mitigated by publiceducation to the peoples staying in disaster prone areas.9. Community health nurse must involve in giving instructions regarding proper safetyprecautions, proper storage of emergency supplies and basic first aid course forinjuries in the actual event.10. Public communication systems and how people can obtain information in the event ofan actual disaster situatione.g.Radio, Television etc.B. Rescue and Emergency Medical Care1. Locate the trapped victims and evacuate them to safe place.2. Disaster service personnel and EMS personnel called to respond.Triage or Sorting:3. The goal of triage is to maximize the number of survivors by sorting the treatable fromthe untreatable victims. It determines which client requires immediate treatment.4. Triage must take place during every stage of operation from disaster scene to clientreaches to medical facility.5. Many personnel are involved in the triage operation and each person must know theirexact role.6. Nurses and other emergency personnel are used as triage officers and physician areadministering emergency care to more critical victims.C. Disaster Response1. Nurse working as member of assessment team need to feedback accurate informationto relief managers to facilitate rapid rescue and recovery.2. Assessment report should include following information. Geographical extent of disaster impact. Population at risk. Presence of concurrent hazards. Injuries and death Availability of shelters. Current level of sanitation. Status of health care infrastructure.3. Gather information: Through Interview
  • 20www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com Observation Individual physical examination Survey Record(Census, Vital statistics, Disease reporting)4. Shelter Management:Although voluntary health agency is taking care of sheltermanagement but the nurse because of their comfort with delivering aggregate healthpromotion, disease preventation and emotional support make ideal sheltermanagement as a team member.5. Dealing with stress: Basic measures while working with victims dealing withstress includes.a) Listen carefully victims and retell their feelings related to disaster.b) Encourage victims to share their feelings with one another if it is appropriate.c) Help victims to take their own decision.d) Delegate task to teenagers to avoid boredom.e) Provide basic necessities e.g. food and water.f) Provide basic dignity e.g. Privacyg) Refer the patient to counselor e.g.Psychologist, Psychiatrists and Social worker.h) Provide medical, nursing aid, first aid, meal serving keep records.i) Ensure communication, transporation, safe environment.D.Recovery Stage:1. The main objective of disaster management in this stage is to involve all agenciesand resources to restore the economic and civil life of the community e.g.Construction of tempory as well as permanent house, economical support andepidemiological services.2. There is continuous threat of communicable diseases due to inadequate watersupply and crowed living condition. Nurses must remain vigilant in teachingproper hygiene and making sure immunization record up to date.3. Acute and chronic illnesses can become worse by prolonged effects of disaster.Psychological stress of clean up and moving can cause feeling of severehopelessness, depression and grief. Referral services of mental health professionalshould be continued as long as need exists.4. Nurses need to be alert for environmental health hazards during recovery phase ofdisaster. She must observe continuously faulty housing structure, lack of waterand electricity objects blown by flood may be dangerous must be removed. Thearea should be assessed for live or dead animals, roadents that are harmful to aperson’s health.
  • 21www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com5. In the end, all of the nurses and organizations in the world can only providepartnership with the victims of a disaster. Ultimately; it is up to individual torecovery on their own.Bibliography:1. K.Park, park textbook of preventive and social medicine, Bhanot publishers,Nineteenth edition, 2007, 650-57.2. Stanhope M, Community health nursing, Mosby USA, 6th edition.3. Health for the millions, disaster management, Feb-Mar 2006, vol 30, No 6.4. Disaster preparedness, Nursing journal of Indis,March 2001,vol 24,No 3, pg.505. Kishore’s.J, National health programs of India, century publications, New Delhi,2007, 7th edition, 423-28.6. Kandasamy M, Community health nurse in disaster management, the nursingjournal of India, vol 45, No 10, oct2007, 227-29.