‘Ayurveda’, the science of life is constituted by two words, ‘ayus’ and ‘Veda’ meaning the science of ayus or the knowledge of life. ‘Ayus’ in this context denotes the continuity of consciousness or unified state of physical body, cognitive organs, mind, and soul. The physical body ‘sareera’ represents the gross structural and anatomical component of ‘ayu’ upon which the abnormalities of even the other subtle elements of ayus manifest.
The body and cognitive organs are perceptible only in the combination of ‘ayus’. The father of general medicine in ayurveda, Acharya Charaka explains the body; the seat of ‘chetana’ as an equilibrated combination of the modification of the five gross elements –‘Panchabhutavikara’. As per the principles of ayurveda, Panchamahabutas are involved right from the beginning of the development of fetus (fetal developments). the tridoshãs ‘vata’, ‘pitta’and ‘kapha’ performing the coordinating, transformative and generative functions of the body are also made up of panchmahabhutas (five elements). The entire body is constituted by ‘Paŕmanus”; the minutest units of panċhabhutas according to the philosophy of vaisheshika. The theory of tridoshã explains the process of health and diseases. Vata is predominantly constituted by Akashabhuta and vayubhuţa, Pitha by Agni bhuţa and Kapha by apbhuta and pŕthvibhuta. These somatic humors in a state of equilibrium work complimentary to each other, performing and controlling all physiological process of the body and mind to maintain health.
The entire human body is constituted by panchabhutas. This fact has been asserted by all Acharyas of Ayurveda. However the on the basis of predominance of bhuta composition the srothrendiya, sabdha and the conducting system in the body has been attributed to akasha bhuta, the sparsanedriya, the tactile sensations and all the movements of the body to Vayubhuta, the chakshurindriya the perception of vision, luster and metabolism to agnibhuta, rasanendriya the nutritive faculty and the various fluids in the body to the apyabhuta and the ghranendriya, the faculty of smell and the still grosser components of body like asthi, mamsa etc to prithvibhuta. This clearly demonstrates that all the components of sareera that is dosha , dhathu, mala etc are fundamentally panchabhoutika in nature.
Satwa, raja and thama are the trigunas. The satva guna predominance in human constitution leads to pure knowledge and health while the rajoguna and thamoguna predominance leads to ignorance, vitiation of tridoshãs and illhealth.
Acharya Suśhruta, the father of Indian surgery has defined ‘maŕma’ as primary seat of trigunas , tridoshãs and prâna. He has stated that the fatality attributed to maŕmagata is due to the vitiation of the three factors leading to deadly manifestation or even death.
Relevance of topic – maŕma
Muskulo-skeletal disorders are one of the chief challenges en