•500,000 women worldwide die of cervical cancerannually•12,200 new cervical cancers diagnosed in theU.S. per year•4,100 deaths from cervical cancer in the U.S. peryear Most cervical cancer can be prevented
It is a cancer of the female reproductive tract It is the most common cause of cancer death in the world where Pap tests are not available It is the easiest gynecologic cancer to prevent through screening Types Two cell types present (squamous and glandular) Cervical cancers tend to occur where the two cell types meet
The central cause of cervical cancer is a virus. This virus is called HPV (human papillomavirus). human papillomavirus or HPV: HPV is sexually transmitted The HPV detected today could have been acquired years ago
NO! In most cases HPV goes away Only women with persistent HPV (where the virus does not go away) are at risk for cervical cancer How common Is HPV? Most men and women who have had sex have been exposed to HPV More than 75% of sexually active women tested have been exposed to HPV by age 18-22
Any women who ever had sexual intercourse
Having multiple sexual partners or having sex with apromiscuous partnerHistory of sexually transmitted disease (STD)Sexual intercourse at a young age (before age 18)Not using condoms with new partners Sexual partners previous partner had cervical cancer orabnormal cervical cells.Sexual partner has or had cancer of the penis.Women who smoke
Age Race Poor diet, and other infections. Abnormal Pap smear. Previous genital or vaginal cancer.Cigarette smoking.Immune defenses are low (e.g., transplants,taking immunosuppressive drugs, or AIDS.Mother took DES when pregnant with thepatient.
Abnormal vaginal bleeding (e.g., spotting aftersexual intercourse, bleeding between menstrualperiods, increased menstrual bleeding). Abnormal (yellow, odorous) vaginal discharge,often of a yellow or green color and foul smelling. Low back pain Cervical Pain, noted when a tampon, finger or penisis inserted into the vagina. Painful sexual intercourse Painful urination is seen with advancing diseaseSome women have no symptoms at all.
PAP SMEARCOLPOSCOPYCERVICAL BIOPSY
A visual examination of the surface of the cervix using a colposcope- an instrument with magnifying lenses and a light.If abnormalities are seen, atissue sample (biopsy) may betaken and sent for evaluation.
May feel like getting a Pap test or like a menstrual cramp that lasts a few seconds
When do I need my first Pap test?Three years after the onset of sexualintercourseNo later than age 21How often do I need a Pap test?Every year until age 30After age 30, if you have only had normalresults, you may have them every two tothree years after discussion with yourphysician and evaluation of your riskfactors
I feel fine, so why do I need a Pap test? A Pap test can find treatable changes of the cervix (precancer) before you have a symptom or notice a problem Once a problem is symptomatic, it is harder to treatWhy do I need to keep getting tested? Changes (abnormalities) may occur since the last test It may take many years for changes to develop or be detected Your risk changes if you have new partners It is the easiest gynecologic cancer to prevent through screening
What is the best time to have a Pap test? Schedule your Pap when you are not having a menstrual period It is best to abstain from intercourse and avoid use of tampons or douches for two days before your Pap test If you have an abnormal result, it is extremely important to follow-up for the recommended testing Even after a normal Pap test, it is still important to report any symptoms of abnormal vaginal bleeding, discharge or pain to your doctor and call to be seen right away
Is there an age when I can stop having Pap tests? The American Cancer Society recommends that screening stop at age 70, if three or more recent tests are normal, and there have been no abnormal results in the last 10 years.
Who should be vaccinated and when? To be most effective, the HPV vaccine should be given before a female has any type of sexual contact with another person. It is given in a series of 3 doses within 6 months. Here are the recommendations for each age group: girls ages 11 to 12 The vaccine should be given to girls ages 11 to 12 and as early as age 9. girls ages 13 to 18 Girls ages 13 to 18 who have not yet started the vaccine series or who have started but have not completed the series should be vaccinated. young women ages 19 to 26 Some authorities recommend vaccination of women ages 19 to 26, but the American Cancer Society experts believed that there was not enough evidence of the benefit to recommend vaccinating all women in this age group. It is recommended that women ages 19 to 26 talk to their doctors about whether to get the vaccine based on their risk of previous HPV exposure and potential benefit from the vaccine
What are the benefits of the vaccine?The vaccine will prevent the 2 types of HPV that cause most cervical cancers (about 70%) and the 2 types of HPV that cause most genital warts (about 90%), but only in women who have not already been exposed to these types of HPV. It also helps prevent vulvar and vaginal cancers related to these 2 types of HPV. The vaccine will not prevent HPV in women who have already had these HPV types. People who get vaccinated will still need Pap tests because the vaccine will not prevent all types of HPV that can cause cervical cancer.
Delay onset of sexual activityKnow your sexual partnerDo not smokeMaintain a healthy diet and lifestylePractice safe sex Get your Pap test
HPV is Uncommon Cervical Cancer Only Occurs in Developing Countries Mostly Promiscuous Women Get Cervical Cancer If You Have HPV, You Will Develop Cervical Cancer Condoms Provide 100% Protection Against HPV Older Women Dont Need Pap Smears Im too young to worry about cervical cancer I had the HPV vaccine, so I dont need to use condoms during sex….