Fundamentals of demography


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Fundamentals of demography

  1. 1. Fundamentals of Demographyby Dr MohdZulkifleHOD Dept of TSTNIUM, Bangalore<br />
  2. 2. Demography- deals with study of population in a given area during a given year with reference to size, composition, behavior and distribution.<br />Size- Total no. of persons obtain by census<br />Composition- Stratification of population- Age, sex, literacy, occupation, income, religion<br />Behavior- Population growth over a period & decade<br />Distribution- Population density, R-U ratio, topographic location<br />
  3. 3. Population dynamic- Study of processes that influence the characteristic of population marriage, births, deaths, migration, social mobilization<br />Population statistics- In statistical study of all components of population and their related factors, study of vital events in vital statistics<br />
  4. 4. Demographic cycle ( stages): Better word in stages, no country ever enter first stage after final. Occurrence of changes in growth of population in various stages. Theory of demographic transition. There are five stages<br />High stationary<br />Early expanding<br />Late expanding<br />Low stationary<br />Stage of decline<br />
  5. 5. Census- Collection, compilation, publication of social, economic and demographic data of all individuals of a country during a particular time.<br />Since census is difficult, massive and stupendous task so carried out once in 10 years. First census in India was conducted on 01.03.1981<br />Defacto system- upto 1931<br />De- yure system- since 1941<br />Deaths and births upto 1st march are included<br />Census commisssioner is incharge of whole processes<br />
  6. 6. Limitations of census<br />Infants are generally under enumerated<br />Exact age cant be known<br />Old persons increase their oldness<br />Information about handicapped is incomplete<br />Information about work status is distorted<br />
  7. 7. Uses of census-<br />Provides social, economic and demographic data of country<br />Provides information on composition<br />Help to estimate mid year population<br />Help to assess the trend of population<br />Help to formulate population policies<br />Help to plan health and welfare measures<br />Help in international comparision<br />Help to formulated social security measures- insurance<br />Help to assess to evaluate population control programme<br />Help to know quality of life<br />
  8. 8. Population trend in India-<br />In first census population was 20 crores, in 1901 it was 23 crores and almost stationary between 1911-1921 at 24-25 crores. After 1921 there was sudden increase so thri year 1921 called year of big divide.<br />Age and sex composition- represented in population pyramid. Male on right and female on left side by horizontal bar. This help in calculation Age- sex specific death rate and age specific sex ratio as well as standardization of death rate.<br />
  9. 9. Literacy level- Ability to read and write. Lowest in Bihar 49%. Literacy is most crucial in etermining progress and development of country.<br />Dependency ratio: ratio between adult of economically productive age and dependent i.e. children below 15 and older above 65 years. It is expressed as per 100 adults. It was 65.5 in 1996.<br />Occupation- professional, managerial, clercial, skilled, semiskilled, unskilled, unemployed.<br />Socioeconomic status- Different workers have given the status considering c.p1 and percapita income. B.G Parsad, Kuppuswami, Pareek classification are in use.<br />Nearly 40 % population are BPL.<br />
  10. 10. Housing- Assessed as good, satisfactory and poor by scoring method based on construction light, ventilation, overcrowding, drainage, source of water, sanitary latrine, breeding<br />Places and live stock. Indraayasyojna working forwards betterment of housing of poor<br />Marital status- Known to implement welfare programmes, married, unmarried, divorce, widow, widower<br />Religion related and language spoken related data are also collected in census<br />
  11. 11. Life expectancy: Average no. of years a person is expected to live according to existing mortality pattern. Expressed as Leo and LE1, max in Japan 80 years, least in Nepal 58 years.<br />Family size- Total no. of children a women has borne at a given point of time. It depends upon age of marriage, duration of married life, literacy rate, availabity of F.W services and preference for male child, least in Japan 1.4, max nepal 4.7. India 3.1<br />
  12. 12. Disribution: Urban, rural, tribal, slum and density /sqkm. Living together may be concentration as in cities or centralization, segregation- same cultural habit. Growth rate and migration determine the density. It is 324/sqkm.<br />Urbanization: Community population more than 5000, at least 75% male working nonagricultural work and density is 400/sqkm. Birthrate and migration determine the size of urban population. Factors are employments, education, facilities, health, transport.<br />1901 U:R= 11:89, 2001 31:69<br />Population more than 10 million make megacity- Delhi, mumbai, kolkatta<br />
  13. 13. Population dynamics- Study of factors responsible for change in population characters. Marriage, birth, death, migration and social mobilization.<br />Marriage- Legally and socially accepted way of entertaining the right of procreation. M.rate is no. of marriage during a given year/1000 MYP. G.M.R- marriage of marriageable/ 1000MYP<br />Fertality- Actual bearing of children and fecundity- capacity to bear children. Factors for fertility- age of marriage, duration, literacy, spacing,economic status, religion, nutritional status, family welfare services.<br />
  14. 14. Measurement of fertility<br />Crude birth rate and general fertility rate<br />General marital fertilty rate (GMFR)<br />Age specific fertility rate (ASFR)<br />Age specific marital fertility rate (ASMFR)<br />Total fertility rate (TFR)<br />Total marital fertility rate (TMFR)<br />Gros reproductive rate (GRR)<br />Net reproduction rate (NRR)<br />Child woman ratio CPR or failure rate of contraception<br />Abortion rate<br />Abortion ratio to live birth<br />
  15. 15. Crude death rate and infant mortality rates are important demographically<br />To obtain precise mortality data death certificate is important document. It issued as per internation std.<br />D.C. provides information about Direct causes of death- Immediate, antecedent and contributory and duration between onset of cause and death e.g M1-HT-obesity, PE- fracture of femur,epilepsy, shock- dehydration due to diarrhoea-malnutrition<br />IMR and BR are closely related<br />
  16. 16. Migration- Movement of population from regular areaof residence into another territorial area temporarily or permanently- immigration and emmigration. Netmigration is equal to immi-emmi.<br />
  17. 17. Population explosion: <br />Depend upon difference between CBR and CDR ( demographic gap in graph) and migration.<br />Till the country resources are sufficient to support the population basic need. It is growth<br />When natural resources fail to support the basic need of population- explosion<br />Present P.G.R is 9.2 crores/ year 37 children second<br />As growth rate increases, doubling time becomes shortes<br />Explosion results from high BR and low DR<br />
  18. 18. Causes of High B.rate<br />Early onset of puberty and early marriage- too early, too many, too frequent pregnancies<br />Universality of marriage<br />Higher proportion of adult<br />Social and cultural factor<br />
  19. 19. Causes of Low death rate<br />Decreased frequency of natural calamities<br />Advancement in medical science<br />Health awareness<br />Availability of better health services<br />Launch of various national programmes<br />Internation aid<br />
  20. 20. Hazard of population explosion:<br />Housing problem<br />Environmental problem<br />Vector problem<br />Alcohlism<br />Broken home<br />Corruption<br />Divorce<br />Drug abuse<br />Gambling<br />Theft<br />Murder and sexcrimes<br />Behavioural disorder <br />Mental illness<br />Anxiety, tension. Worry<br />Malnutrition<br />Infections<br />STDs<br />Accidents<br />Epidemics<br />Hypertension<br />Diabetes<br />
  21. 21. Population stabilization:<br /> Can be achieved by equalizing death and birth rate. Population cant be reduced intentionally but can be stablized.<br />Reduction of birth rate may be obtained by two stratgies.<br /> Non birth contrl measure (S.W.M)<br /> Birth control measure (B.C.M)<br />
  22. 22. Non birth control measures<br />Raising age at marriage<br />Eradicating illeteracy<br />Improvement of economic status<br />Raising housing standard<br />Improving the status of woman<br />Adopting one child norm I.E.C<br />Improving quality of health services. M.C.H- child borne must survive to adulthood.<br />Contribute and share in country development not in self growth<br />
  23. 23. Thanks U<br />