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Assessment of nutritional status and nutritional history
Assessment of nutritional status and nutritional history
Assessment of nutritional status and nutritional history
Assessment of nutritional status and nutritional history
Assessment of nutritional status and nutritional history
Assessment of nutritional status and nutritional history
Assessment of nutritional status and nutritional history
Assessment of nutritional status and nutritional history
Assessment of nutritional status and nutritional history
Assessment of nutritional status and nutritional history
Assessment of nutritional status and nutritional history
Assessment of nutritional status and nutritional history
Assessment of nutritional status and nutritional history
Assessment of nutritional status and nutritional history
Assessment of nutritional status and nutritional history
Assessment of nutritional status and nutritional history
Assessment of nutritional status and nutritional history
Assessment of nutritional status and nutritional history
Assessment of nutritional status and nutritional history
Assessment of nutritional status and nutritional history
Assessment of nutritional status and nutritional history
Assessment of nutritional status and nutritional history
Assessment of nutritional status and nutritional history
Assessment of nutritional status and nutritional history
Assessment of nutritional status and nutritional history
Assessment of nutritional status and nutritional history
Assessment of nutritional status and nutritional history
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Assessment of nutritional status and nutritional history

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  • 1. Assessment of Nutritional Status
    By
    Izhar PG Scholar Dept of TST NIUM Bangalore
  • 2. IntroductionThe nutritional status of an individual is often the result of many interrelated factors.
    Understanding these factors is essential in order to:
    assess malnutrition,
    design programmes which tackle nutrition
    problems, and
    correctly inform programme management
    and evaluation
  • 3. This is the most commonly used framework for understanding the causes of malnutrition.
    (adapted from the UNICEFconceptual framework).
  • 4. Learning Objectives:
    To understand basic anthropometric techniques and the applications
  • 5. Nutritional Assessment Why?
    The purpose of nutritional assessment is to
    Identify individual or population groups who are malnourished.
    Identify individual or population groups at risk of becoming malnourished.
    To develop health care programmes that meet the community needs which are defined by the assessment.
    To measure the effectiveness of the nutritional programmes and intervention once initiated.
  • 6. Methods of Nutritional Assessment
    Direct and Indirect
  • 7. Direct methods of nutritional assessment:
    These are summarized as ABCD.
  • 8. Indirect method of nutritional assessment
    These included three categories.
  • 9. Clinical assessment
    It is the simplest and most practical method of ascertaining the nutritional status of a group of individuals.
    Detection of relevant signs helps in establishing the nutritional diagnosis.
  • 10. Clinical Assessment: Advantages
    Fast and easy to perform
    Inexpensive
    Non Invasive
    Limitations:
  • 11. Clinical Signs of nutritional deficiency
    Hair
  • 12. Mouth
  • 13. Eyes
  • 14. Nails
  • 15. Skin
  • 16. Anthropometric methods
    Anthropometry is the measurement of body height, weight and proportions.
  • 17. Other anthropometric measurements
    Mid arm circumferences
    Skin fold thickness
    Head circumference
    Head/ Chest ratio
    Hip/ Waist ratio
  • 18. Anthropometry for children
    Accurate measurement of height and weight is essential. The results can then be used to evaluate the physical growth of the child.
  • 19. Measurement of adults
    Height: The subject stands erect and bare footed on a stadiometer with a movable head piece. The head piece is leveled with skull vault and height is recorded to the nearest 0.5 cm.
  • 20. Nutritional Indices in adults
    The international standards for assessing body size in adults is the body mass index.(BMI)
    BMI is computed using the following formula.
    BMI = Weight (Kg)/ Height (met)2
  • 21. BMI ( W.H.O Classification)
    BMI < 18.5 = Underweight
    BMI 18.5 – 24.9 = Healthy weight range
    BMI 25 – 30 = Overweight ( Grade 1 obesity)
    BMI > 30 – 40 = Obese ( Grade 2 obesity)
    BMI > 40 = very obese ( morbid or grade 3 obesity)
  • 22. Advantages of anthropometry
    Objective with high specificity and sensitivity.
    Readings are numerical and gradable on standard growth charts.
    Limitations of anthropometry
    Inter observers errors in measurement.
    Limited nutritional diagnosis.
    Problems with reference standards i.e local verus international standards.
  • 23. Dietary Assessment
    Nutritional intake of human is assesses by five different methods. These are
    24 hours dietary recall.
    Food frequency questionnaire.
    Dietary history since early life.
    Food dairy technique.
    Observed food consumption.
  • 24. Initial laboratory assessment
    Hb estimation is the most important test and useful index of the overall state of nutrition.
    Specific lab tests
    Measurement of individual nutrient in body fluids( e.g serum reinol, serum iron, urinary iodine, vit D)
    Detection of abnormal amount of metabolites in urine ( e.g urinary creatinine)
    Analysis of hair, nails and skin for micronutrients.
  • 25. Advantages of biochmical method
    It is useful in detecting early changes in body metabolism and nutrition before the appearance of overt clinical signs.
    It is precise, accurate and reproducible.
    Limitations
    Time consuming
    expensive
  • 26. If you want to know more……………
    Nutrition and development: a global challenge - adapted from Nutrition and development - a global assessment, written by FAO and WHO for the International Conference on Nutrition, 1992.
    United Nations Standing Committee on Nutrition/Administrative Committee on Coordination(ACC/SCN) Second report on the World Nutrition Situation: Vol.1: Global and Regional Results, ACC/SCN Geneva, 1992.
    The double burden of malnutrition – Case studies from six developing countries. FAO Food and Nutrition Paper 84, Rome 2006. http://www.fao.org/docrep/009/a0442e/a0442e00.htm
    Measurement and Assessment of Food Deprivation and Undernutrition - FIVIMS Proceedings, International Scientific Symposium held in FAO, Rome 26-28 June 2002. FAO 2003. http://www.fao.org/DOCREP/005/Y4249E/Y4249E00.HTM
    Conducting small-scale nutrition surveys: A field manual. FAO, 1990, 186p, English, Spanish, French ISBN 202851. http://www.fao.org/docrep/009/a0442e/a0442e00.htm#Contents
    Body mass index - A measure of chronic energy deficiency in adults. FAO Food and Nutrition Paper 56, 1994. http://www.fao.org/docrep/T1970E/T1970E00.htm
  • 27. Thank you….

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