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Sporogenous Bacilli
Aerobic Bacilli

1.Bacillus anthracis
2.Bacillus cereus
3. Anthracoid bacilli

Anaerobic Clostridia

1...
-First pathogenic bacteria to be observed under microscope
-First bacilli to be isolated in pure culture
-First bacilli in...
Morphology
Cultural characteristics

Biochemical reactions
Resistance
Pathogenicity
Lab diagnosis
Epidemiology
Pro...
-One of the largest pathogenic bactera;4-8x1-1.5 mm in size
-Gram +ve, rod shaped, non-motile and non acid-fast
-Bamboo st...
-Aerobic ,Facultative anaerobic
-On NA : Colonies are round, grayish white,irregular,raised
with “frosted glass” appearanc...
-Glucose, Maltose, Sucrose fermented with ACID production
-Nitrate reduction test
-Gelatin liquefaction test

All positive...
Virulence factors:
1.Capsular polypeptide – inhibits phagocytosis
2.Anthrax toxin –a complex of 3 fractions:
-Edema factor...
Clinically three forms of Human anthrax occur
1.Cutaneous anthrax
2.Pulmonary anthrax
3.Intestinal anthrax
Broadly can be ...
1.Cutaneous Anthrax(95-99% human anthrax)
•Mainly in professionals( Veterinarian, butcher, Zoo keepers,

persons handling ...
Different locations & morphology of lesion in cutaneous anthrax
2.Pulmonar Anthrax- wool sorter's/Ragpicker’s disease:
-Acquired with inhalation of spores(bioterrorism-aerosol)
-Requires...
3.Intestinal Anthrax

-Rare in man and is found in primitive communities eating
dead carcasses of infected animal
-Present...
EPIDEMIOLOGY(INDIA)
-Anthrax is enzootic in India
-An epizootic of anthrax in sheep active AP,TN borders
-Largest live sto...
LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS
A. Hematological investigation-not significant
B.Bacteriological investigation:
Specimen- swabs, pus,...
2.Culture: Suitable culture media for selective isolation
3.Animal inoculation : done in guinea pigs, mice & rabbits.
3.Se...
PROPHYLAXIS
Humans protected by preventing disease in animals

-Veterinary supervision
-Trade restrictions
-Proper steril...
VACCINATION:
-Active immunization with Pasteur’s anthrax vaccine
-Salvo immune serum in serious toxic cases
-Cell free vac...
BIOTERRORISM-anthrax as a bioweapon
-Anthrax was used by Scandinavian rebels against Russians
-Operation vegetarian by Roy...
-Important cause of food poisoning
-Distributed widely in nature(soil, vegetables & foods)
-Non-Capsulated but Motile (few...
ANTHRACOIS /PSEUDOANTHRAX
-Saprophytic ,spore-forming, non-pathogenic species
-They are most common laboratory contaminant...
Bacillus anthrax ,a potent bioweapon
Bacillus anthrax ,a potent bioweapon
Bacillus anthrax ,a potent bioweapon
Bacillus anthrax ,a potent bioweapon
Bacillus anthrax ,a potent bioweapon
Bacillus anthrax ,a potent bioweapon
Bacillus anthrax ,a potent bioweapon
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Bacillus anthrax ,a potent bioweapon

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Microbiology of anthrax

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Transcript of "Bacillus anthrax ,a potent bioweapon"

  1. 1. Sporogenous Bacilli Aerobic Bacilli 1.Bacillus anthracis 2.Bacillus cereus 3. Anthracoid bacilli Anaerobic Clostridia 1. Cl.perfringens 2. Cl. tetani 3. Cl.botulinum
  2. 2. -First pathogenic bacteria to be observed under microscope -First bacilli to be isolated in pure culture -First bacilli in which spores were demonstrated -First bacterium used for preparation of attenuated vaccine -First bacterium to be shown cause of disease -First bacterium that evolved as a potent weapon in bioterrorism
  3. 3. Morphology Cultural characteristics Biochemical reactions Resistance Pathogenicity Lab diagnosis Epidemiology Prophylaxis Treatment BIOTERRORISM
  4. 4. -One of the largest pathogenic bactera;4-8x1-1.5 mm in size -Gram +ve, rod shaped, non-motile and non acid-fast -Bamboo stick appearance of long chains -Polypeptidal capsule -Central or sub terminal oval spores
  5. 5. -Aerobic ,Facultative anaerobic -On NA : Colonies are round, grayish white,irregular,raised with “frosted glass” appearance,2-3 mm in diameter. Medusa head /Barrister's wig appearance of colonies under low magnification -On BA: Non-hemolytic colonies -Gelatin stab culture: “Inverted fir tree" appearance -PLET medium: for selective isolation
  6. 6. -Glucose, Maltose, Sucrose fermented with ACID production -Nitrate reduction test -Gelatin liquefaction test All positive -Catalase test RESISTANCE -Spores survive for many years(dry state & soil) -vegetative cells 60 0C x 30 min. -spores 1000C x 10 min. -4% FD & KMnO4 kills spores Duckering: 2% formaldehyde at 30-40 0C for 20 min. disinfects wool & 0.25% at 60 0C for 6 hrs. for animal hair & bristles. -Moist heat kills :
  7. 7. Virulence factors: 1.Capsular polypeptide – inhibits phagocytosis 2.Anthrax toxin –a complex of 3 fractions: -Edema factor(OF or Factor I) whole complex -Protective antigen factor(PA or Factor II) produces local edema -Lethal factor(LF or Factor III) & generalized shock Edema factor + protective antigen = Edema toxin Lethal factor + protective antigen = Lethal toxin
  8. 8. Clinically three forms of Human anthrax occur 1.Cutaneous anthrax 2.Pulmonary anthrax 3.Intestinal anthrax Broadly can be classified into Non Industrial/Agricultural ( Through infected animals): Cutaneous anthrax Rarely intestinal anthrax Industrial Anthrax ( Through animal products): Mostly through animal products( wools, hair, hides, bones) Likely to develop Cutaneous and pulmonary anthrax
  9. 9. 1.Cutaneous Anthrax(95-99% human anthrax) •Mainly in professionals( Veterinarian, butcher, Zoo keepers, persons handling carcasses/hides/hair, loading skin on bare backs-hide porters disease . • Spores infect skin- a characteristic gelatinous edema & congestion develops at the site (Papule- pustule-black ulcer(eschar) .Later a ring of vesicle containing serous fluid surrounds eschar termed as Malignant pustule. •Face ,neck,arms and back are common sites • 80-90% heal spontaneously ( 2-6wks) • 10-20% progressive disease – develop fatal septicemia, death
  10. 10. Different locations & morphology of lesion in cutaneous anthrax
  11. 11. 2.Pulmonar Anthrax- wool sorter's/Ragpicker’s disease: -Acquired with inhalation of spores(bioterrorism-aerosol) -Requires very high infective dose(10,000 t0 20,000 spores) -Inflammatory reaction occurs in trachea, bronchi with hemorrhagic bronchospasm -Presents initially with non -specific symptoms but later with symptoms of severe respiratory infection & severe respiratory collapse -Hemorrhagic meningitis sometimes occurs as complication -Progress to septicemia very rapidly -Mortality rate is very high
  12. 12. 3.Intestinal Anthrax -Rare in man and is found in primitive communities eating dead carcasses of infected animal -Presents with serious severe enteritis, bloody or hemorrhagic diarrhoea,bloody vomit -Fatality rate is 25-60% depending upon treatment
  13. 13. EPIDEMIOLOGY(INDIA) -Anthrax is enzootic in India -An epizootic of anthrax in sheep active AP,TN borders -Largest live stock population in the world -Pondicherry ( JIPMER) - 30 human cases reported ( Mostly Cutaneous, Septicemic or Meningeal) -Vellore ( CMC)- 49 human cases -Chittor ( Rajasthan)- 30 human cases -Tirupati ( Andhrapradesh)- 25 human cases -Midnapur ( WB)- 22 human cases
  14. 14. LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS A. Hematological investigation-not significant B.Bacteriological investigation: Specimen- swabs, pus, pustules, blood ,sputum, feces etc. 1.Microscopy:Gram staining & spore staining Characteristic Mc’ Fadyean’s reaction Immunofluorescent microscopy
  15. 15. 2.Culture: Suitable culture media for selective isolation 3.Animal inoculation : done in guinea pigs, mice & rabbits. 3.Serology(Ascoli’s thermoprecipitation test) 4.Molecular methods : PCR with specific primers 5.Molecular typing: MLVA & AFLL for epidemiological studies
  16. 16. PROPHYLAXIS Humans protected by preventing disease in animals -Veterinary supervision -Trade restrictions -Proper sterilization & disinfection of animal products -Deep burial or cremation of carcasses  Improved industry standards  Safety practices in laboratories  Post-exposure antibiotic prophylaxis
  17. 17. VACCINATION: -Active immunization with Pasteur’s anthrax vaccine -Salvo immune serum in serious toxic cases -Cell free vaccine in high risk groups -Inactivated /killed vaccine for veterinarians & Agri-workers -Sterne vaccine used effectively in livestock's -Alum precipitated toxoid found safe in professionals  3 doses given intramuscularly TREATMENT Effective antibiotics in humans: Sulphonamides,ciprofloxacin,penicillin,erythromycin, Vancomycin,doxycyline,chloramphenicol FDA -approved ciprofloxacin,doxycycline and penicillin
  18. 18. BIOTERRORISM-anthrax as a bioweapon -Anthrax was used by Scandinavian rebels against Russians -Operation vegetarian by Royal Air Force against Germany in 1944 ,an anti-livestock operation -In 1997-accidental release of anthrax spores from biological weapons complex in Russia infected 94 people ,68 died -In Oct.2001 anthrax attacks in USA termed Amerithrax(FBI) 22 cases- 11 inhalation(5 deaths),11 cutaneous(no deaths)
  19. 19. -Important cause of food poisoning -Distributed widely in nature(soil, vegetables & foods) -Non-Capsulated but Motile (few non-motile strains ) -Two patterns of food borne disease are produced: 1.Diarrhoeal type: -caused by serotypes 2,6,8,9,10 & 12 -associated with wide range of foods -characterized by diarrhea & abdominal pain 2.Emetic type(fried rice syndrome) caused by STs 1,3 & 5 - associated with consumption of cooked rice - characterized by acute nausea & vomiting For isolation MYPA medium is used 10,00000 bacilli/gram of stool is significant
  20. 20. ANTHRACOIS /PSEUDOANTHRAX -Saprophytic ,spore-forming, non-pathogenic species -They are most common laboratory contaminants (e.g. B.subtilis contaminating blood transfusion bottles -They are opportunistic & may cause septicemia
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