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  • 1. Tutorial Notes Marc Imhotep Cray,M.D. INTERACTIVE OVERVIEW OF CELL BIOLOGYDiagram of a typical animal cell. Organelles are labelled as follows:Source: 1. Nucleolus 2. Nucleus 3. Ribosome IVMS TV- Cell Biology Videos/Animations Grid 4. Vesicle 5. Rough endoplasmic reticulum 6. Golgi apparatus (or "Golgi body") 7. Cytoskeleton 8. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum 9. Mitochondrion 10. Vacuole 11. Cytosol 12. Lysosome 13. Centriole OVERVIEW OF CELL BIOLOGY Page 1
  • 2. Tutorial Notes Marc Imhotep Cray,M.D. Source of text following: Cell biology (formerly cytology, from Companion SCO’s:Cell Biology Illustrated with the Greek kytos, "container") is a Annotations scientific discipline that studies cells – their physiological properties, their structure, the organelles they contain, Kimballs Biology Pages interactions with their environment, their life cycle, division and death. This  Active transport is done both on a microscopic and  Adipose tissue molecular level. Cell biology research  Animal cells (with links to encompasses both the great diversity of the various organelles) IVMS Cellular Biology single-celled organisms like bacteria  Animal tissues Folder and protozoa, as well as the many  Apoptosis Notes, PowerPoints, specialized cells in multicellular  ATP Books and more organisms such as humans.  The Cell Cycle  Cell Junctions Knowing the components of cells and how cells work is  Cell membranes fundamental to all biological sciences. Appreciating the  Cell signaling similarities and differences between cell types is particularly  Cell-specific gene important to the fields of cell and molecular biology as well as expression to biomedical fields such as cancer research and developmental  Cellular Respiration biology. These fundamental similarities and differences provide  Centrosomes and Centrioles a unifying theme, sometimes allowing the principles learned  Chloroplasts from studying one cell type to be extrapolated and generalized to  Chromatophores other cell types. Therefore, research in cell biology is closely  Chromosomes related to genetics, biochemistry, molecular biology,  Cilia immunology, and developmental biology.  Culture media for growing cells  The Cytoskeleton: actin microfilaments, intermediate filaments, microtubules Understanding cells in terms of their molecular components. OVERVIEW OF CELL BIOLOGY Page 2
  • 3. Tutorial Notes Marc Imhotep Cray,M.D. Processes Movement of proteinsKimballs Biology Pages Cont. Endocytosis and Exocytosis Endoplasmic reticulum Facilitated diffusion and membrane channels Fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) G proteins Golgi apparatus Glycolysis Intermediary metabolism Junctions between cells Kinetics of membrane transport Limiting Dilution Analysis Endothelial cells under the microscope. Nuclei are stained Lysosomes and Peroxisomes blue with DAPI, microtubles are marked green by an Mitosis and Meiosis antibody and actin filaments are labelled red with The Nucleus phalloidin. Photosynthesis o Light reactions Each type of protein is usually sent to a particular part of o Calvin cycle ("dark the cell. An important part of cell biology is the reactions") investigation of molecular mechanisms by which proteins o Energy relationships are moved to different places inside cells or secreted from o How its details were cells. discovered Plant cells Most proteins are synthesized by ribosomes in the Polyploidy cytoplasm. This process is known as protein biosynthesis. The Proteasome Biosynthesis (also called biogenesis) is an enzyme- Protein Kinesis: How freshly- catalyzed process in cells of living organisms by which synthesized proteins are sent to substrates are converted to more complex products (also their proper destinations in the simply known as protein translation). Some proteins, such cell as those to be incorporated in membranes (known as Reporter genes membrane proteins), are transported into the "rough" Ribosomes endoplasmic reticulum (ER) during synthesis. This process Second messengers can be followed by transportation and processing in the Sex Chromosomes Golgi apparatus. From the Golgi, membrane proteins can Stem cells move to the plasma membrane, to other sub-cellular Telomeres compartments, or they can be secreted from the cell. The ER and Golgi can be thought of as the "membrane protein synthesis compartment" and the "membrane protein processing compartment", respectively. OVERVIEW OF CELL BIOLOGY Page 3
  • 4. Tutorial Notes Marc Imhotep Cray,M.D.There is a semi-constant flux of proteins through these compartments. ER and Golgi-residentproteins associate with other proteins but remain in their respective compartments. Otherproteins "flow" through the ER and Golgi to the plasma membrane. Motor proteins transportmembrane protein-containing vesicles along cytoskeletal tracks to distant parts of cells such asaxon terminals.Some proteins that are made in the cytoplasm contain structural features that target them fortransport into mitochondria or the nucleus. Some mitochondrial proteins are made insidemitochondria and are coded for by mitochondrial DNA. In plants, chloroplasts also make somecell proteins.Extracellular and cell surface proteins destined to be degraded can move back into intracellularcompartments upon being incorporated into endocytosed vesicles some of which fuse withlysosomes where the proteins are broken down to their individual amino acids. The degradationof some membrane proteins begins while still at the cell surface when they are cleaved bysecretases. Proteins that function in the cytoplasm are often degraded by proteasomes.Other cellular processes  Active transport and Passive transport - Movement of molecules into and out of cells.  Autophagy - The process whereby cells "eat" their own internal components or microbial invaders.  Adhesion - Holding together cells and tissues.  Reproduction - Made possible by the combination of sperm made in the testiculi(contained in some male cells nucleus) and the egg made in the ovary(contained in the nucleus of a female cell). When the sperm breaks through the hard outer shell of the egg a new cell embryo is formed, which, in humans, grows to full size in 9 months.  Cell movement: Chemotaxis, Contraction, cilia and flagella.  Cell signaling - Regulation of cell behavior by signals from outside.  DNA repair and Cell death  Metabolism: Glycolysis, respiration, Photosynthesis  Transcription and mRNA splicing - gene expression. OVERVIEW OF CELL BIOLOGY Page 4
  • 5. Tutorial Notes Marc Imhotep Cray,M.D.Internal cellular structures Electron micrograph.  Chloroplast - key organelle for photosynthesis (only found in plant cells)  Cilia - motile microtubule-containing structures of eukaryotes  Cytoplasm - contents of the main fluid-filled space inside cells  Cytoskeleton - protein filaments inside cells  Endoplasmic reticulum - major site of membrane protein synthesis  Flagella - motile structures of bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes  Golgi apparatus - site of protein glycosylation in the endomembrane system  Lipid bilayer - fundamental organizational structure of cell membranes  Membrane lipid and protein barrier  Mitochondrion - major energy-producing organelle by releasing it in the form of ATP  Nucleus - holds most of the DNA of eukaryotic cells and controls all cellular activities  Organelle - term used for major subcellular structures  Ribosome - RNA and protein complex required for protein synthesis in cells  Vesicle - small membrane-bounded spheres inside cellsTechniques used to study cellsCells may be observed under the microscope. This includes the Optical Microscope,Transmission Electron Microscope, Scanning Electron Microscope, Fluorescence Microscope,and by Confocal Microscopy. OVERVIEW OF CELL BIOLOGY Page 5
  • 6. Tutorial Notes Marc Imhotep Cray,M.D.Several different techniques exist to study cells.  Cell culture is the basic technique of growing cells in a laboratory independent of an organism.  Immunostaining, also known as immunohistochemistry, is a specialized histological method used to localize proteins in cells or tissue slices. Unlike regular histology, which uses stains to identify cells, cellular components or protein classes, immunostaining requires the reaction of an antibody directed against the protein of interest within the tissue or cell. Through the use of proper controls and published protocols (need to add reference links here), specificity of the antibody-antigen reaction can be achieved. Once this complex is formed, it is identified via either a "tag" attached directly to the antibody, or added in an additional technical step. Commonly used "tags" include fluorophores or enzymes. In the case of the former, detection of the location of the "immuno-stained" protein occurs via fluorescence microscopy. With an enzymatic tag, such as horse radish peroxidase, a chemical reaction is carried out that results in a dark color in the location of the protein of interest. This darkened pattern is then detected using light microscopy.  Computational genomics is used to find patterns in genomic information [1]  DNA microarrays identify changes in transcript levels between different experimental conditions.  Gene knockdown mutates a selected gene.  In situ hybridization shows which cells are expressing a particular RNA transcript.  PCR can be used to determine how many copies of a gene are present in a cell.  Transfection introduces a new gene into a cell, usually an expression constructPurification of cells and their parts Purification may be performed using the followingmethods:  Cell fractionation o Release of cellular organelles by disruption of cells. o Separation of different organelles by centrifugation.  Flow cytometry  Immunoprecipitation  Proteins extracted from cell membranes by detergents and salts or other kinds of chemicals. OVERVIEW OF CELL BIOLOGY Page 6
  • 7. Tutorial Notes Marc Imhotep Cray,M.D.IVMS Authoritative Medical Education Links and Animations ICellular Structure and Function  Comparison of Prokaryote, Animal and Plant Cells by Rodney F. Boyer  Flash animations of Biological Processes by John L. Giannini  Organize It by Leif Saul  Stem Cells Sumanas Inc.  Membrane Structure Tutorial  Various Cellular Animations University of Alberta  Cellular Receptor Animations University of Oklahoma  Cell Tutorial from "Cells Alive!"  Simple cell by Terry Brown  Kinesin - Molecular Motor Sinauer Associates Inc., W. H. Freeman Co. and Sumanas Inc.  Kinesin Movie RPI  Cellular Animations by Donald F. Slish  Flagella and Cilia from Northland Community and Technical CollegeMitosis/Meiosis  Cell Cycle Game (CDKs and cyclins) Nobel Prize 2001  Stem Cells GSLC  Cell Cycle Tutorial from "Cells Alive!"  Cell Death Kuby Immunology  Stem Cell Research Dolan DNA Learning Center  Mitosis and Meiosis - Interactive Exercise by Leif Saul OVERVIEW OF CELL BIOLOGY Page 7
  • 8. Tutorial Notes Marc Imhotep Cray,M.D.  Mitosis vs Meiosis from PBS  Mitosis and Meiosis Bill By - The Science Guy  How Cancer Grows from PBS  Cell Cycle and Cyclins + Other Cellular Activities BioCreations  ATRs Function in the Cell Cycle of Normal Cells and Cancer  Mitosis/MeiosisLew-Ports Biology Place  Cell CycleCellomics  Three-Dimensional packing of Nuclear Chromosomes NCBI  DnA Coiling to form ChromosomesCellular Transport  Diffusion, Dialysis and Osmosis Tutorial by RM Chute  Osmosis - Examples Colorada State University  Osmosis by Terry Brown  Interactive Cellular Transport by Rodney F. Boyer  Hypotonic, Isotonic, Hypertonic by June B. Steinberg  Osmosis McGraw-Hill Companies, inc  Symport, Anitport, Uniport by University of Wisconsin  Facilitated Diffusion by University of Wisconsin  Passive and Active Transport from Northland Community and Technical College  The Plasma Membrane Dr JA Miyan at Department of Biomolecular Sciences, UMIST, UK OVERVIEW OF CELL BIOLOGY Page 8
  • 9. Tutorial Notes Marc Imhotep Cray,M.D.DNA Replication, Sequencing, Mutation  Basics Acadia University Powerpoint animation  DNA Replication Animation  DNA Replication by John Kyrk  Recombinat DNA Technology University of Delaware  DNA Microarray Method Davidson College  Animated Karotyping University of Glasgow  Karyotype Activities Genetic Science Learning Center  Sequence For Yourself from PBS  Gel Electrophoresis Dr. Thomas G. Chasteen at Sam Houston State University  Mutation Exercise  DNA Repair Nature  ReplicationLew-Ports Biology Place  Replication, Transcription and Translation (Basic/Advanced) Nobel eMuseum (very extensive)Transcription and Translation  DNA Workshop from PBS  Transcribe and Translate a Gene Genetic Science Learning Center  Animation of Transcription  Transcription Game(Click here to view this site) Thinkquest  Translation Movie University of Colorada  Protein Translation (animation) Robert J. Huskey  Why do firflies glo? Genetic Science Learning Center  Movie of Protein Synthesis Gary Anderson - BSG Courseware  OVERVIEW OF CELL BIOLOGY Page 9
  • 10. Tutorial Notes Marc Imhotep Cray,M.D.  Protein Synthesis Lew-Ports Biology Place  Protein Synthesis WH Freeman & Co. and Sumanas, Inc.  Animation of Translation  Translation Animation Brooks/Cole  What are Ribozymes Ribozyme PharmaceuticalsCellular RespirationWhole Process  Cellular Respiration Thomas M. Terry at Univ. of Conn.  Glycolysis, Krebs, ETC Smith College  Enzyme Tutorial from Northland Community and Technical College  Enzyme Activity Lew-Ports Biology Place  Enzyme Substrate Formation Hong Kong Bio Web  Enzyme Reaction - Simulation BBCi Glycolysis  Gylcolysis by Sue Merkel, Cornell Univ (BEST)  Glycolysis by RM Chute  Glycolysis by John Kyrk  Glycolysis Movie Gary Anderson - BSG Courseware  Anaerobic Respiration-Glycolysis and Fermentation by Sue Merkel, Cornell Univ  Glycolysis Animation from Northland Community and Technical College Acetyl CoA and Krebs (TCA)(Citric Acid) Cycle  TCA (Citric Acid) Cycle by Rodney F. Boyer  Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle (Krebs) Smith College  OVERVIEW OF CELL BIOLOGY Page 10
  • 11. Tutorial Notes Marc Imhotep Cray,M.D.  Fatty Acid Respiration Campbell Interactive Chemistry  The Pruvate Dehydrogenase Complex Campbell Interactive Chemistry  Acetyl CoA and Krebs Cycle by June B. Steinberg Oxidative Phosphorylation  Electron Transport Chain Smith College  ATP Synthase Movie Thomas M. Terry at Univ. of Conn.  Production of ATP by Oxidative Phosphorylation  Electron Transport by June B. Steinberg  Oxidative Phosphorylation Campbell Interactive Chemistry  Oxidative Phosphorlyation (advanced) Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology  Electron Transport by Rodney F. BoyerPlease report any broken links to drcray@imhotepvirtualmedsch.comWEBSITE: NICE ANIMATION AND VIDEO WITH AUDIO AND TEXT NOTES OVERVIEW OF CELL BIOLOGY Page 11