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IVMS- INTEGRATED HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY OVERVIEW-The Study of Body Function
IVMS- INTEGRATED HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY OVERVIEW-The Study of Body Function
IVMS- INTEGRATED HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY OVERVIEW-The Study of Body Function
IVMS- INTEGRATED HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY OVERVIEW-The Study of Body Function
IVMS- INTEGRATED HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY OVERVIEW-The Study of Body Function
IVMS- INTEGRATED HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY OVERVIEW-The Study of Body Function
IVMS- INTEGRATED HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY OVERVIEW-The Study of Body Function
IVMS- INTEGRATED HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY OVERVIEW-The Study of Body Function
IVMS- INTEGRATED HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY OVERVIEW-The Study of Body Function
IVMS- INTEGRATED HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY OVERVIEW-The Study of Body Function
IVMS- INTEGRATED HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY OVERVIEW-The Study of Body Function
IVMS- INTEGRATED HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY OVERVIEW-The Study of Body Function
IVMS- INTEGRATED HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY OVERVIEW-The Study of Body Function
IVMS- INTEGRATED HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY OVERVIEW-The Study of Body Function
IVMS- INTEGRATED HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY OVERVIEW-The Study of Body Function
IVMS- INTEGRATED HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY OVERVIEW-The Study of Body Function
IVMS- INTEGRATED HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY OVERVIEW-The Study of Body Function
IVMS- INTEGRATED HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY OVERVIEW-The Study of Body Function
IVMS- INTEGRATED HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY OVERVIEW-The Study of Body Function
IVMS- INTEGRATED HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY OVERVIEW-The Study of Body Function
IVMS- INTEGRATED HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY OVERVIEW-The Study of Body Function
IVMS- INTEGRATED HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY OVERVIEW-The Study of Body Function
IVMS- INTEGRATED HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY OVERVIEW-The Study of Body Function
IVMS- INTEGRATED HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY OVERVIEW-The Study of Body Function
IVMS- INTEGRATED HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY OVERVIEW-The Study of Body Function
IVMS- INTEGRATED HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY OVERVIEW-The Study of Body Function
IVMS- INTEGRATED HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY OVERVIEW-The Study of Body Function
IVMS- INTEGRATED HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY OVERVIEW-The Study of Body Function
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IVMS- INTEGRATED HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY OVERVIEW-The Study of Body Function

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IVMS- INTEGRATED HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY OVERVIEW-The Study of Body Function

IVMS- INTEGRATED HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY OVERVIEW-The Study of Body Function

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  • 1. INTEGRATED HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY OVERVIEW The Study of Body Function Prepared by Marc Imhotep Cray, M.D. Professor Basic Medical SciencesIVMS Intro to Anat. & Physio. Basics/ Video-Animations Anatomy and Physiology Tutorial http://www.le.ac.uk/pathology/teach/va/anatomy/frmst.htm 1
  • 2. Human Physiology• Study of how the human body functions.• How organisms accomplish tasks essential for life.• Pathophysiology: – How physiological processes are altered in disease or injury. 2
  • 3. Scientific Method• Confidence in rational ability, honesty and humility.• Specific steps in scientific method: – Formulate hypothesis: • Observations. – Testing the hypothesis: • Quantitative measurements. – Analyze results: • Select valid statistical tests. – Draw conclusion. 3
  • 4. Development of New Drugs• Cellular research: – Cells in tissue culture used to develop new drugs.• Animal models: – Laboratory animals, genetically susceptible to a particular disease, are given doses of new drug.• Phase I clinical trials: – Drug tested on healthy human volunteers. • Determine pharmacokinetics. 4
  • 5. Development of New Drugs (continued)• Phase II clinical trials: – Drug tested on target population.• Phase III clinical trials: – Occur in research centers across country to increase number of participants. • If passes trials, goes to FDA for approval.• Phase IV: – Test for other uses of the drug. 5
  • 6. Homeostasis• Maintaining constancy of internal environment. – Dynamic constancy. • Within a certain normal range.• Maintained by negative feedback loops.• Regulatory mechanisms: – Intrinsic: • Within organ being regulated. – Extrinsic: • Outside of organ, such as nervous or hormonal systems. • Negative feedback inhibition. 6
  • 7. Feedback Loops• Sensor: – Detects deviation from set point.• Integrating center: – Determines the response.• Effector: – Produces the response. 7
  • 8. Negative Feedback• Defends the set point.• Reverses the deviation.• Produces change in opposite direction.• Examples: – Insulin decreases plasma [glucose]. – Thermostat. – Body temperature. 8
  • 9. Negative Feedback (continued) 9
  • 10. Positive Feedback• Action of effectors amplifies the changes.• Is in same direction as change.• Examples: – Oxytocin (parturition). – Voltage gated Na+ channels (depolarization). 10
  • 11. Primary Tissues• The body composed of 4 different primary tissues: – Muscle, nervous, epithelial, connective.• Organs: – Composed of at least two primary tissues. – Serve different functions of the organ.• Systems: – Organs that are located in different regions of the body and perform related functions. 11
  • 12. Muscle Tissues• Specialized for contraction.• 3 types of muscle tissue: – Skeletal. – Cardiac. – Smooth.• Skeletal and cardiac muscle have similar mechanisms of contraction. 12
  • 13. Skeletal Muscles• Voluntary, striated.• Attached to bones by tendons: – Produce skeletal movement.• Muscle fibers arranged in bundles, fibers arranged in parallel.• Produce graded contractions. 13
  • 14. Cardiac Muscles• Striated, found only in the heart.• Myocardial cells are interconnected to form continuous fabric.• Intercalated discs couple cells together mechanically and electrically. – Syncytium. 14
  • 15. Smooth Muscles• Not striated.• Do not contain sarcomeres.• Ca2+ combines with calmodulin, activating contraction process.• Contain gap junctions.• Found in GI tract, blood vessels, bronchioles, ducts of urinary and reproductive systems. 15
  • 16. Nervous Tissue• Neurons (nerve cells): – Specialized for action potential conduction.• Dendrites: – Receive input.• Cell body: – Nucleus. – Metabolic center.• Axon: – Conducts nerve impulses.• Supporting cells (neuroglia/glia): – Provide anatomical and functional support. 16
  • 17. Epithelial Tissue• Cells that form membranes: – Provide barrier between external and internal environments. – Classified according to number of layers and shape of the cells in upper layer. • Simple: – One cell layer thick. – Specialized for transport. • Stratified membranes: – Composed of a number of layers. – Specialized for protection. – Squamous, columnar, cuboidal. – Glands: • Exocrine, endocrine glands. 17
  • 18. Epithelial Membranes• Squamous cells: – Flattened in shape. – Function: • Diffusion and filtration. –Line all blood vessels, pulmonary alveoli. 18
  • 19. Epithelial Membranes• Cuboidal cells: – Cube-shaped cells. – Function: • Excretion, secretion and absorption. –Line kidney tubules, salivary and pancreatic ducts. 19
  • 20. Epithelial Membranes • Columnar cells: – Taller column shaped cells. – Function: • Excretion, secretion and absorption. • May contain cilia. – Line digestive tract, uterine tubes, and respiratory passageways. 20
  • 21. Epithelial Membranes 21
  • 22. Exocrine Glands• Derived from cells of epithelial membranes.• Secretions are released through ducts. – Simple tubes or modified as acini.• Examples: – Tear glands. – Sweat glands. – Prostate glands. 22
  • 23. Endocrine Glands• Lack ducts.• Secrete hormones into capillaries/lymphatic system within the body.• May be discrete organs: – Primary functions are the production and secretion of hormones. 23
  • 24. Connective Tissue• Large amounts of extracellular material in the spaces between connective tissue cells.• 4 types of connective tissue: – Connective tissue proper. – Cartilage. – Bone. – Blood. 24
  • 25. Connective Tissue Proper• Loose connective tissue: – Scattered collagen and tissue fluid. • Dermis of skin.• Dense fibrous connective tissue: – Regularly arranged. • Collagen oriented in same direction. – Tendons. – Irregularly arranged. • Resists forces applied in many directions. – Capsules and sheaths. 25
  • 26. Connective Tissue (continued)• Cartilage: – Chondrocytes. • Supportive and protective tissue. • Elastic properties to tissues. • Precursor to many bones. • Articular surfaces on joints. 26
  • 27. Connective Tissue (continued)• Bone: – Hydroxyapatite crystals. • Osteoblasts: – Bone-forming cells. – Osteocytes: • Trapped osteoblasts: less active. – Osteoclasts: • Bone resorbing cells. Rubin, Essentials of Pathophysiology,2001• Blood: – Classified as connective tissue. • Half its volume is plasma. 27
  • 28. Body-Fluid Compartments• 65-75% of total body weight is H20.• Intracellular compartment: – Fluid inside the cell. • 2/3 of H20.• Extracellular compartment: – 2 Subdivisions: • Blood plasma. • Interstitial fluid. • 1/3 H20. 28

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