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IVMS -ICM Lymphatic-Hematopoetic System
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  • 1. Lymphatic/Hematopoetic System Website: http://ivmsicm.blogspot.com/ 1
  • 2. Lymphatic / Hematopoetic System Marc Imhotep Cray, M.D. Companion Online Folder: IVMS-Physical Diagnosis Notes and Reference Resources
  • 3. ObjectivesStudent should be able to …• describe location, size, consistency, and other attributes of lymphadenopathy• identify common clinical scenarios involving lymphadenopathy• identify the signs and symptoms of anemia• define the signs and symptoms of bleeding and coagulation disorders 3
  • 4. Overview• This is a short lecture!• A major goal is to synthesize the lymphatic system as a whole…lymph node regions have been discussed individually by specific site…i.e., head, neck, and abdomen, but not put together for systemic illness such as lymphoma.• We will also discuss the signs and symptoms of anemias, leukemias, bleeding disorders, and coagulation disorders 4
  • 5. Lymphatic System 5
  • 6. Lymph Node Examination• Head/neck• Axillary• Inguinal/femoral 6
  • 7. Head andNeck Nodes• Preauricular• Posterior auricular• Occipital• Tonsillar• Submandibular• Submental• Superficial cervical• Posterior cervical• Deep cervical• Supraclavicular 7
  • 8. Axillary• A pectoral (anterior)• L lateral• P posterior• C central• Ap apical 8
  • 9. Inguinal/ Femoral• Horizontal group• Vertical group 9
  • 10. Descriptors of Lymphadenopathy• Location…obvious• Mobility• Size• Texture• Shape• Tender/non-tender• Associated erythema or warmth…signs of inflammation 10
  • 11. Spleen• Left upper quadrant• Palpation most specific for detecting enlarged spleen (89-99% specificity)• Spleen palpable to umbilicus is suggestive of hematologic pathology• Percussion is non-sensitive (dullness in Traube’s space) but can be specific in non- obese patients 11
  • 12. Case• 28 yo man presents with c/o fevers, night sweats and 30 pound weight loss. He develops pruritis when he showers. He also has noted some enlarged “glands” in his neck and armpits. On lymphatic exam he has the following: 12
  • 13. Case• painless lymphadenopathy in anterior axilla and anterior cervical as well as supraclavicular areas bilaterally.• Lymph nodes are not tender, freely mobile and no associated inflammation. They are ovoid (grape-shaped) and measure 2 x 3 cm. There is no splenomegaly by palpation or percussion. 13
  • 14. Differential Diagnosis• Lymphoma• Infection• Cancer—metastatic• Granulomatous disease 14
  • 15. Anemia- Signs/Symptoms– Dyspnea on – Syncope exertion – anorexia– Palpitations – Dizziness/vertigo – Nausea– Angina pectoris – Cold intolerance– Intermittent – Amenorrhea claudication – Decrease– Headache libido/impotence 15
  • 16. Anemia• Blood loss• Hemolysis/sequestration• Deficiencies• Decreased production 16
  • 17. Symptoms• Symptoms based on acuity of HgB drop – Acute blood loss usually creates rapid onset of symptoms – Slow drop in HgB may lead to fewer symptoms 17
  • 18. Anemia of Acute Blood Loss• Trauma or GI tract loss most common• Menstrual/vaginal loss• Urinary tract• Nosebleeds leading to anemia, but not because of it!• Tachycardia and hypotension are common findings• History helps the most for these 18
  • 19. Hemolysis and Sequestration• Causes for hemolytic anemias include: – Autoimmune – Drug induced – Cell membrane disorders – Hereditary• Splenomegaly can lead to sequestration of blood cells 19
  • 20. Scleral Icterus• Yellow sclera• Can be seen in hemolysis 20
  • 21. Deficiencies• Iron deficiency anemia is most common worldwide and in US-spoon nails and pica• Megaloblastic anemias caused by B12 or folate deficiencies-paresthesias and diarrhea• Smooth tongue/glossitis 21
  • 22. Koilonychia (spoon nails) 22
  • 23. Smooth Tongue/Glossitis 23
  • 24. Signs and Symptoms of Coagulation Disorders• Bleeding• Ecchymoses• Petechiae• Hemarthroses• Hematomas 24
  • 25. Platelets versus Coags• Petechiae—platelets low or dysfunctional• Ecchymoses, hematomas, hemarthroses—seen more frequently with low clotting factors or dysfunction• Bleeding can be seen with either 25
  • 26. Petechiae 26
  • 27. Purpura 27
  • 28. Hemarthrosis 28
  • 29. Hematoma 29
  • 30. Ecchymosis 30