Imhotep Virtual Medical School Courseware Guidebook

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Imhotep Virtual Medical School Courseware Guidebook

Imhotep Virtual Medical School Courseware Guidebook

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  • 1. Imhotep Virtual Medical School Courseware Guidebook A product of the Institute for Minority Physicians of the Future Designed, Developed and Curated by Marc Imhotep Cray, M.D. … IMPF core strategy is to identify, inform, recruit, assist, advise and educate promising African-American, Native-American, and Hispanic-American, high school and college students in order to increase the number of minority medical students and PhD. candidates in United States medical schools.“Come on and chill with us on the Atlantic Ocean during our annual retreat and at the same time learn what it means to become a physician, healer, medical scientist and scholar in the 21st century” Native-American, and HispanicAmerican, high school and college students in order to increase the number of minority medical students and PhD candidates in United States medical schools…
  • 2. Imhotep Virtual Medical School Courseware Guidebook Institute for Minority Physicians of the Future and IVMS Courseware- Executive Summary The Purpose and Utility of Imhotep Online Medical School (an interactive pdf download) One of my favorite proverbs He, who does not know and knows that he does not know, is lost. Help Him find Himself He, who does not know and knows that he does know, needs love. Love Him He, who knows and does not know that he knows, needs a teacher. Teach Him And he, who knows and knows that he knows, is a master. Listen to and Learn from Him Mission Statement THE INSTITUTE FOR MINORITY PHYSICIANS OF THE FUTURE is a collective voice of African American, Native American, Hispanic American and progressive European American physicians and medical scientists. IMPF believes that the root cause of minority under-representation in United States medical schools is academic disadvantage borne by lack of access to highquality high school and college preparation. Consequently, IMPF mission is to become a leading organizational force for parity in medical education by helping minority students develop the skills that will enable them to compete on a more equal footing in the medical school admission process, and once in medical school, provide them with learning aids from the best medical education communities around the world. The Institute for Minority Physicians of the Future elucidates, distills and fuses educational psychology, information technology and undergraduate medical education data; and then develops programs, projects and products that serve to increase recruitment, admission and retention (RAR) of under-represented minorities (URM) in major United States medical schools. The ultimate goal being for these students to defend, define and develop medical careers that will be committed to the elimination of health disparities in racial/ethnic minorities and the poor. Institute for Minority Physicians of the Future 2
  • 3. Imhotep Virtual Medical School Courseware Guidebook Vision Statement THE INSTITUTE FOR MINORITY PHYSICIANS OF THE FUTURE is a national professional educational organization representing the interest of minority high school and college students with the aptitude and desire to become physicians and medical scientists. Established in 1999, the collective body is committed to the vision of improving the health and well-being of future U.S. generations by increasing the minority physician/medical scientist workforce in such a way that the professions of medicine and biomedical research are reflective of the racial/ethnic profiles of the people physicians and medical scientists will serve. IMPF’s vision is directly linked to the AAMC data minority physicians are four times more likely than are others to practice in underserved communities. Such communities are more frequently than not overwhelmingly populated by racial/ethnic minorities. Core Strategy THE INSTITUTE FOR MINORITY PHYSICIANS OF THE FUTURE’S core strategy is to identify, inform, recruit, assist, advise and educate promising African-American, Native-American, and HispanicAmerican, high school and college students in order to increase the number of minority medical students and PhD candidates in United States medical schools. “Come on and chill with us on the Atlantic Ocean during our annual retreat and at the same time learn what it means to become a healer, medical scientist and scholar in the 21st century “ Who is Dr. Cray? Marc Imhotep Cray is a Physician (UMDNJ-New Jersey Medical School); Pharmacy School trained Pharmacologist / Analytical Chemist, Addiction Medicine Specialist, Basic Medical Sciences (BMS) & Black Studies Master Teacher, Medical Informatics Expert, Webmaster, Medical & Afrikan-Centered Education Researcher. ·He is formerly Director of Office of Medical Education American International School of MedicineGeorgetown, Guyana. ·Formerly Associate Professor of Basic Medical Sciences and Campus Curriculum Coordinator International University of Health Sciences-School of Medicine-Saint Kitts, West Indies (only PBL Medical School in the Caribbean at the time) ·Dr. Cray is an Expert PBL and Case-Based Learning Tutor / Facilitator ·He has a unique integrated fund of knowledge and eloquence in the seven traditional BMS with USMLE Step 1 level proficiency in the “4 P’s”-Physiology, Pathophysiology, Pathology and Pharmacology ·Dr.Cray established the first BMS Curriculum Driven Introduction to Clinical Medicine-Clinical Skills Center (ICM-CSC) in the West Indies ·Dr. Cray is an experienced Medical Web Developer, e-Professor / Online Lecturer Institute for Minority Physicians of the Future 3
  • 4. Imhotep Virtual Medical School Courseware Guidebook ·He is an author of several e-articles, e-books and e-magazines (e-Zine), USMLE Tagged Virtual Medical School Courseware and RBG Communiversity Full CV Below IMPF Background and Significance Link to Our Research Project Page Health disparities across racial and ethnic groups in the United States have been well documented for over a century. These disparities have remained remarkably persistent in spite of the changes in many facets of the society over that period. Despite dramatic improvements in overall health status for the U.S. population in the 20th century, members of many AfricanAmerican populations experience worse health along many dimensions compared with the majority white population (1). Because many minority neighborhoods have a shortage of physicians (2) and less access to medical care, increasing the supply of minority physicians has been proposed as an intervention that may help to ameliorate differences in health status... Medical training for African-Americans first became a topic of policy debate in the United States in the context of the post-Civil War south as a way to address the health needs of the AfricanAmerican community. Disparities between the health status of Whites and African-Americans have been observed throughout American history. In the antebellum South, slave owners documented health problems that threatened productivity, and pointed out health disparities between African-Americans and Whites to reinforce beliefs that “biogenetic inferiority of blacks” justified slavery (3). Conditions in the South after the Civil War were not dissimilar to other post war periods, with many blacks left homeless – refugees in search of a place to live and a way to make a living (4). Lack of food, water and sanitation exacerbated what had already been extremely poor living conditions. The result was major outbreaks of pneumonia, cholera, diphtheria, small pox, yellow fever and tuberculosis. Yet, very few white physicians were willing to see black patients, and very few African-Americans could afford their fees. The education of African-American physicians and other health professionals was seen as a necessary step to improve the health of Blacks and to protect the public health of the communities where AfricanAmericans lived, primarily in the South. African-American medical schools were founded to address this need. Against the backdrop of sociostructural and institutional racism and legal segregation, Flexnor (5) echoed both social justice and public health arguments for training black physicians in his famous report, with the underlying assumption that the best way to meet the great health needs of black communities in the United States was by providing more black physicians. His recommendation was to concentrate resources on two black medicals schools (out of seven) that he believed had the best chance of meeting the standards being set for modern medical training programs, Howard and Meharry. The preface to his recommendation reflects the tension between the societal goals for improving access to care by training more black physicians, while simultaneously maintaining an unstated goal and trend of restricting entry of blacks into the profession (6). As recently as 1965, only 2% of all medical students were black, and three-fourths of these students attended Howard or Meharry. The human rights and civil rights movements, the assassination of Malcolm X, Martin Luther King Jr., and a rash of urban riots and uprisings woke many White Americans up. And academic medicine was one the first to respond to the wake-up call. Dr. Jordan Cohn, AAMC President, in Institute for Minority Physicians of the Future 4
  • 5. Imhotep Virtual Medical School Courseware Guidebook his “Bridging the Gap” address, explains the consequences of these sociopolitical events most eloquently. “This brought about a significant rise in admissions of minorities to medical schools. This wasn’t because of scores on the Scholastic Aptitude Test, grade-point averages and Medical College Admission Test scores of minorities suddenly skyrocketing. Rather, academic medicine began to take affirmative action to increase racial, ethnic and gender diversity in medical school classes. Enrollment of underrepresented minorities in U.S. medical schools rose rapidly to about 8% of all matriculates by early 1970. Then progress stalled in the mid-1970s, with admissions remaining flat for the next 15 years. To make matters worse, the fraction of individuals from the same groups in the U.S. population that were underrepresented in medicine continued to grow during this period¾minority populations increasing from 16% in 1975 to 19% in 1990.” (Source: http://www.smdep.org/ Dr. Jordan Cohn’s AAMC President / Bridging the Gap) "Increasing diversity of physicians might decrease disparities in health by three separate pathways" The first pathway is through the practice choices of minority physicians, which may lead to increased access to care in underserved communities. Since the 1970s and 1980s, when minority students were first admitted to medical schools in large numbers, a number of studies have examined the practice patterns of minority physicians compared with white physicians. Despite their differences, empirical analyses regarding the practice location and patient population of minority physicians have been remarkable consistent. Minority physicians tend to be more likely to practice in underserved areas and to have patient population with a higher percentage of minorities then their white colleague (7-9). Evidence also suggest that minority physicians tend to have a higher percentage of patient populations with lower incomes and worse health status and who are more likely to be covered by Medicaid (1013). The second pathway is through improvement in the quality of health care due to better physician – patient communication and greater cultural competency. The foundation of this hypothesis is that for many minority patients, having a minority physician my lead to better health care because minority physicians may communicate better and provide more culturally appropriate care to minority patients. If minority physicians provide high-quality care to minority patients along the interpersonal dimensions of care, including doctor-patient communications and cultural competence, this could result in higher patient trust and satisfaction. This may in turn facilitate better health outcomes (14-21). The third pathway by which increasing diversity in the health professions might serve to decrease health disparities is through improvements in the quality of medical education that may accrue to medical students as a result of increasing diversity in medical training. This would expose physicians-in-training to a Institute for Minority Physicians of the Future 5
  • 6. Imhotep Virtual Medical School Courseware Guidebook wide range of different perspectives and cultural backgrounds among their colleagues in medical school, residency and in practice. Such exposure may provide physicians with experiences and interactions that will broaden their interpersonal skills and help in their interactions with patients (22).At the same time minority populations are increasing, data from the American Association of Medical Colleges show a marked decline in the number of African-Americans and Hispanics admitted to medical schools (23). These declines coincided with two significant events. First, in 1995, the United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit in Hopwood v. Texas struck down as unconstitutional an affirmative action program that had been placed in the University of Texas law school. In doing so, the court effectively precluded higher education institutions as well as other entities in the Fifth Circuit, which cover Texas, Louisiana and Mississippi, from taking race or ethnicity into account in the admissions process. Secondly, the Regents of the University of California banned the use of race as a factor in admissions. With the passage of Proposition 209, public higher education institutions in California are no longer free to consider race, ethnicity or gender in admissions decisions, in recruiting programs, or even in planning and implementing minority-targeted outreach activities, such as tutoring programs and educational enrichment courses. California, Texas, Mississippi and Louisiana, these four states alone contain 35% of the minority population that remain underrepresented among medical students, and 75% of those from the Mexican-American community. REFERENCES 1. Kington, R.S., & Nickens, H.W. (2001) Racial and ethnic differences in health: Recent trends, current patterns, and future directions. In America becoming: Racial trends and their consequences, NJ Smelser, WJ Wilson, and F Mitchell. (Eds). Washington, DC, National Academy Press. 2. Komaromy, M.; Grumbach, K., et al. (1996). The role of black and Hispanic physicians in providing health care for underserved populations. New England Journal of Medicine; 334, pp. 1305-1310. 3. Savitt, L. (1985). Black health on the plantation: masters, slaves and physicians. In Sickness and health in America, J. Leavitt & R. Numbers (Eds.) University of Wisconsin Press. 4. Summerville, J. Educating Black Doctors: a History of Meharry Medical College. University, Alabama: University of Alabama Press, 1983. 5. Flexnor, A. (1910). Medical Education in the United States and Canada. Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Merrymount Press: Boston, MA. 5. Starr, P. The Social Transformation of American Medicine. New York: Basic Books, 1982. 7. Rocheleau, B. (1978). Black physicians an ambulatory care. Public Health Reports; 93(3):278282. 8. Lloyd, S.M., & Johnson, D.G. (1982). Practice patterns of black physicians: Results of a survey of Howard University College of Medicine Alumni. Journal of the National Medical Association; 74(2), pp. 129-141. 9. Keith, S.N.; Bell, R.M., et al. (1985). Effects of affirmative action in medical schools: A study of the class of 1975. New England Journal of Medicine; 313, pp. 1519-1525. 10. Davidson, R.C., & Lewis E.L. (1997). Affirmative action and other special consideration admissions at the University of California, Davis, School of Medicine. JAMA; 278(14), pp. 1153-1158. Institute for Minority Physicians of the Future 6
  • 7. Imhotep Virtual Medical School Courseware Guidebook 11. Moy, E.; Bartman, B.A.; & Weir, M.R. (1995). Access to hypertensive care. Effects of income, insurance, and source of care. Archives of Internal Medicine; 155(14), pp. 1497-1502. 12. Cantor, J.C.; Miles, E.L., et al. (1996). Physician service to the underserved: Implications for affirmative action in medical education. Inquiry, summer; 33, pp. 167-180. 13. Gray, B. Stoddard, J.J. (1997). Patient-physician pairing: Does racial and ethnic congruity influence the selection of a regular physician? Journal of Community Health; 22(4), pp. 247-259. 14. Department of Health and Human Services OOMH. (2000). Office of Minority Health national standards on culturally and linguistically appropriate services (CLAS) in health care. Federal Register; 65(247). 15. Lavizzo-Mourey, R., & Mackenzie, E.R. (1996). Cultural competence: Essential measurements of quality for managed care organizations. Annals of Internal Medicine; 124, pp. 919-921. 16. Coleman, M.T., Lott, J.A., & Sharma, S. (2000). Use of continuous quality improvement to identify barriers in the management of hypertension. 17. American Journal of Medical Quality; 15(2) pp. 72-77. 17. Chinman, M.J.; Rosencheck, R.A.; & Lam, J.A. (2000). Client-case manager racial matching in program for homeless persons with serious mental illness. Psychiatric Services; 51(10):12651272. 18. Rosenbeck, R., Fontana, A., & Cottrol, C. (1995). Effect of clinician-veteran racial pairing in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry; 152(4), pp. 55505563. 19. Thom, D.H., Ribisl, K.M., Stewart, A.L., et al. Further validation and reliability testing of the trust in physician scale. Medical Care; 37(5), pp. 510-517. 20. Saha, S., Komaromy, M. et al. (1999). Patient-physician racial concordance and the perceived quality and use of health care. Archives of Internal Medicine; 159, pp. 997-1004. 21. Morales, L.S., Cunningham, W.E., & Brown, J.A. et al. (1999). Are Latinos less satisfied with communication by health care providers? Journal of General Internal Medicine; 14, pp. 409-417. 22. Rathore, S.S.; Lenert, L.A. et al. (2000). The effects of patient sex and race on medical students’ ratings of quality life. American Journal of Medicine, 108(7), pp. 561.566. 23. http://www.smdep.org/ For further study and research see: American Health Dilemma: Race, Medicine, and Health Care in the United States. E-mail comments to: Marc Imhotep Cray, M.D. drcray@imhotepvirtualmed.com Institute for Minority Physicians of the Future 7
  • 8. Imhotep Virtual Medical School Courseware Guidebook IMHOTEP VIRTUAL MEDICAL SCHOOL COURSEWARE CAPSULE An Institute for Minority Physicians of the Future Product IVMS Quick Start WHAT: IMHOTEP VIRTUAL MEDICAL SCHOOL A digitally tagged and content enhanced replication of the United States Medical Licensure Examination (Step 1, 2 or 3) Cognitive Learning Objectives. Hyperlinks are authoritative and reliable public domain reusable learning objects(RLOs), along with well-done PowerPointdriven multimedia shows, comprehensive hypermedia basic medical science learning outcomes and detailed, content enriched learning objectives. Tools/methods include: Illustrated HTML Notes and PDF PPT Presentations /PPS Concise, Cogent Word Doc Mini-Tutorials Animations, Simulations and Videos Virtual Lavatories Pictures, Images and Photos Laboratory Slides and Micrographs Concept Maps and Schematics Case-Based Learning (CBL) Exercises USMLE Mirrored Practice Examinations Institute for Minority Physicians of the Future 8
  • 9. Imhotep Virtual Medical School Courseware Guidebook WHY: IMHOTEP VIRTUAL MEDICAL SCHOOL IVMS will serve as a gold standard for undergraduate medical education classroom globalization. ELEVEN (11) UNIQUE FEATURES AND ADVANTAGES that tower over anything available in the contemporary Web 2.0 undergraduate (BMS) medical education community: 1.1. IMHOTEP VIRTUAL MEDICAL SCHOOL is courseware for independent study; amenable to periodic updates as the professor’s IT savvy/teaching sophistication evolves and/or the students’ educational needs oscillate/advance 1.2. IMHOTEP VIRTUAL MEDICAL SCHOOL is interactive, inter-relational and versatile, i.e., capable of being individualized in accordance with teaching objectives, professor preferences and/or student learning styles. 1.3. IMHOTEP VIRTUAL MEDICAL SCHOOL is the ideal medical student independent study companion because it’s multi-tool/methodology design and diverse tutor expert points of view cultivates mastery learning, medical language fluency-building, improved academic performance and long-term retention. 1.4. IMHOTEP VIRTUAL MEDICAL SCHOOL emits a positive energy that provides the student with the zeal to develop and maintain good SDL (self-directed learning) habits. 1.5. IMHOTEP VIRTUAL MEDICAL SCHOOL provides the learner with detailed hypermedia study plans and lessons; which when approached sequentially result in a progressive building of the students’ medical fund of knowledge in an integrated manner. 1.6. IMHOTEP VIRTUAL MEDICAL SCHOOL is developed and designed to facilitate the globalization of the undergraduate medical education classroom for the purpose of internationalizing teaching and learning excellence. 1.7. IMHOTEP VIRTUAL MEDICAL SCHOOL is upgradeable; including Online/E-lectures, Faculty Lecture Archives, E-Board Reviews, Mock Board Exams and Computer-Based Testing (Assessment and Evaluation Management System). 1.8. IMHOTEP VIRTUAL MEDICAL SCHOOL is particularly useful for medical students in subject based pre-clinical curricula medical schools, because it is designed to bring the inter-related nature of the Basic Medical Sciences (BMS) into the clear light of day (horizontal integration). And as a direct extension, the curriculum provides a lens through which the student can clearly see the BMS foundations of clinical medicine (vertical integration). 1.9. IMHOTEP VIRTUAL MEDICAL SCHOOL has created over 1,000 foundational RLOs (Reusable Learning Objects) that serve to introduce core undergraduate medical education subjects, topics, mechanisms and concepts across all basic science and clinical domains. These learning objects concomitantly function as portals of entry into our “global medical school classroom”. These digital classes are to be found all over the world, where all U.S. Medical Schools show-case their contribution to educating and the training medical students. Our products reflects cutting-edge undergraduate medical education methodologies and best evidence research data and resources. Consequently, with proper regards and credits for a colleague’s intellectual property, contents can serve as excellent raw database Institute for Minority Physicians of the Future 9
  • 10. Imhotep Virtual Medical School Courseware Guidebook source for academics to draw from in creating their own lecture notes, slide presentations and evaluations. And, what is most, should you find an object particularly helpful to your personal learning style, information regarding commercial versions is at your fingertips. 1.10. IMHOTEP VIRTUAL MEDICAL SCHOOL finally, and what is Trademark, data is always couched in pearls of wisdom concerning o CULTURAL COMPETENCY IN MEDICINE, o MULTICULTURAL CURRICULUM INFUSION IN UNDERGRADUATE MEDICAL EDUCATION, o MEDICAL ETHIC AND PROFESSIONALISM, o HEALTH DISPARITY DATA AND RACIAL/ETHNIC MINORITIES AND THE POOR and surrounded with pictorial snippets of professional medical education community experiences. 1.11. IMHOTEP VIRTUAL MEDICAL SCHOOL IS available in different versions depending on needs: Premium Services Provided: Individualized Webcam facilitated USMLE Step 1 Tutorials with Dr. Cray starting at $50.00/ hr., depending on pre-assessment. 1 BMS Unit is 4 hr. General Principles and some Organ Systems require multiple units to complete in preparation to successfully sit for USMLE Step 1. An Integrated HIGH YIELD FOCUS in Biochemistry/Molecular/Cell Biology, Microbiology / Immunology, the 4 P’s (Physiology, Pathophysiology, Pathology and Pharmacology) and Introduction to Clinical Medicine is offered. Individualized Webcam facilitated USMLE Step 2 Tutorials (CK and CS). Concepts in EBM (Evidence Based Medicine), all Internal Medicine sub-specialties and Clinical Cores are offered at the clerkship level. All e-books and learning tools are provided at no additional cost. Contact Dr. Cray Today for FREE Demo Session. drcray@imhotepvirtualmedsch.com Click here | in About US for demonstration mp3 and video talks (Review of the Autonomic Nervous System) Demonstration Step 1 Learning / Teaching Folder: Cardiovascular System PowerPoint’s, Notes, Curves and Calculations Join up and let's get to work. Institute for Minority Physicians of the Future 10
  • 11. Imhotep Virtual Medical School Courseware Guidebook VISIT drimhotepTV|for Pre-Med Learning Institute for Minority Physicians of the Future (IMPF) MCAT Preparation Program The Medical College Admission Test, commonly known as the MCAT, is a computer-based standardized examination for prospective medical students in the United States and Canada. It is designed to assess problem solving, critical thinking, written analysis, and writing skills in addition to knowledge of scientific concepts and principles. Prior to August 19, 2006, the exam was a paper-and-pencil test; since January 27, 2007, however, all administrations of the exam have been computer-based. The MCAT today The exam is offered 25 or more times per year at Prometric centers. [4] The number of administrations may vary each year. Ever since the exam's duration was shortened to 4.5-5 hours, the test may be offered either in the morning or in the afternoon. Some test dates have both morning and afternoon administrations. The test consists of four sections, listed in the order in which they are administered on the day of the exam: * Physical Sciences (PS) * Verbal Reasoning (VR) * Writing Sample (WS) * Biological Sciences (BS) The Verbal Reasoning, Physical Sciences, and Biological Sciences sections are in multiplechoice format. The Writing sample consists of two short essays that are typed into the computer. The passages and questions are predetermined, and thus do not change in difficulty depending on the performance of the test taker (unlike, for example, the Graduate Record Examination). Institute for Minority Physicians of the Future 11
  • 12. Imhotep Virtual Medical School Courseware Guidebook The Physical Sciences section assesses problem-solving ability in general chemistry and physics and the Biological Sciences section evaluates these abilities in the areas of biology and organic chemistry. The Verbal Reasoning section evaluates the ability to understand, evaluate, and apply information and arguments presented in prose style. The Biological Sciences section most directly correlates to success on the USMLE Step 1 exam, with a correlation coefficient of .553 vs. .491 for Physical Sciences and .397 for Verbal Reasoning. [5] Predictably, MCAT composite scores also correlate with USMLE Step 1 success. [6] Administration Section Questions Minutes Physical Sciences 52 70 Verbal Reasoning 40 60 Writing Sample 2 60 Biological Sciences 52 70 The Physical Sciences section is administered first (prior to the April 2003 MCAT, Verbal Reasoning was the first section of the exam). It is composed of 52 multiple-choice questions related to general chemistry and physics. Exam takers are allotted 70 minutes to complete this section of the exam. The Verbal Reasoning section follows the Physical Sciences section and an optional 10 minute break. Exam takers have 60 minutes to answer 40 multiple-choice questions evaluating their comprehension, evaluation, and application of information gathered from written passages. Unlike the Physical and Biological Sciences sections, the Verbal Reasoning section is not supposed to require specific content knowledge in order to perform well. Prior to the computerization of the MCAT there was a 60 minute lunch break after the Verbal Reasoning section followed by the Writing Sample? With the new Computer-Based Testing format the 60 minute lunch break has been substituted by an optional 10 minute break. The Writing Sample gives examinees 60 minutes to compose responses to two prompts (30 minutes for each prompt, separately timed). Each essay is graded on a scale of 1 to 6 points twice. The scores from individual essays are added together and then converted to a letter scale of J, the lowest, through T, the highest. After the Writing Samples, there is an optional 10 minute break followed by the Biological Sciences section. Examinees have 70 minutes to answer 52 multiple-choice questions related to organic chemistry and biology. Scoring Scores for the three multiple-choice sections range from 1 to 15. Scores for the writing section range alphabetically from J (lowest) to T (highest). The writing section is graded by a human Institute for Minority Physicians of the Future 12
  • 13. Imhotep Virtual Medical School Courseware Guidebook reader and a computerized scoring system. Each essay is scored twice - once by the human reader and once by the computer - and the total writing sample score is the sum of the four individual scores. The total raw score is then converted to an alphabetic scale ranging from J (the lowest) to T (the highest). The numerical scores from each multiple-choice section are added together to give a composite score. The score from the writing sample may also be appended to the composite score (e.g. 35S). The maximum composite score is 45T but any score over 30P is considered fairly competitive, as this is the average for matriculates to medical school.[7] There is no penalty for incorrect multiple choice answers, thus even random guessing is preferable to leaving an answer choice blank (unlike many other standardized tests). Students preparing for the exam are encouraged to try to balance their subscores; physical, verbal, and biological scores of 12, 13, and 11 respectively may be looked upon more favorably than 14, 13, and 9, even though both amount to the same composite score. The standard deviation is 2.0-2.3 depending on the year and form of the exam. [8] Policies Like some other professional exams (e.g. the Law School Admission Test (LSAT)), the MCAT may be voided on the day of the exam if the exam taker is not satisfied with his or her performance. The decision to void must be made before leaving the test center and before seeing the exam results. The AAMC prohibits the use of calculators, timers, or other electronic devices during the exam. [9] Cellular phones are also strictly prohibited from testing rooms and individuals found to possess them are noted by name in a security report submitted to the AAMC. The only item you may bring into the testing room with you is your photo ID. If you wear a jacket or sweater, it may not be removed in the testing room. [10] It is no longer a rule that students must receive permission from the AAMC if they wish to take the MCAT more than three times total. The limit with the computerized MCAT is three times per year, with no lifetime limit. An examinee can register for only one test date at a time, and must wait two days after testing before registering for a new test date. MCAT exam results are made available to examinees approximately thirty days after the test via the AAMC's MCAT Testing History (THx) Web application. Examinees do not receive a copy of their scores in the mail. MCAT THx is also used to transmit scores to medical schools, application services and other organizations (at no cost). Preparation Like most standardized tests, there are a variety of preparatory materials and courses available. The AAMC itself also offers a select few tests for purchase at their website www.e-mcat.com and one free sample test on their main website at www.aamc.org/mcat. Institute for Minority Physicians of the Future 13
  • 14. Imhotep Virtual Medical School Courseware Guidebook Approximately half of the students taking the MCAT use a test prep company. Prices for these courses are usually from $1500 - $2000. Students who do not use these courses often rely on material from university text books, MCAT preparation books, sample tests, and free web resources, such as My MCAT (A mediawiki powered, open community project to provide free mcat resources for all students). List of MCAT topics cover in IVMS Preparation Course https://www.aamc.org/students/applying/mcat/preparing/ Biology, Chemistry and Physics PowerPoints for Download Compiled by Marc Imhotep Cray, M.D. To guide your studies see: Medical College Admission Test (MCAT)-Content Outline for Biological Science Section Biology Power Points for download Alcohol [2] Blood [2, 3, 4, 5] Bones The Brain [2] Cell division [2] Cell membranes [2] Cell structures [2, 3, 4] Cells [2, 3, 4, 5, 6] Chromosome Circulation [2, 3] Cloning [2] Digestion [2] DNA [2, 3, 4, 5] Ecology [2] Electrophoresis Endocrine and nervous system [2] Environments [2] Enzymes [2, 3, 4] Feeding relationships Fertilizers and Pesticides Fish, Amphibians, Reptiles, & mammals Fungi Gel Electrophoresis Gene Function and Structure Genetics [2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8] Healthy Bodies [2] Heart [2, 3] Hedgerows and Monoculture Hormones HIV and AIDS [2] Homeostasis of the body Human health and disease Inheritance [2, 3] Immune System [2, 3] Kidney Kingdom [2] Life Processes Lipids Lungs Mendel's [2] Meiosis Monohybrid Microbes Microscope [2, 3] Mitosis Natural Selection [2] Nerves [2, 3, 4] Neurons Nitrogen cycle [2, 3] Nutrition [2] Institute for Minority Physicians of the Future Osmosis & Diffusion Photosynthesis [2, 3, 4, 5, 6] Population [2] Plants [2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8] Predators and prey Proteins [2, 3] Reproduction [2, 3, 4] Respiration [2] Scurvy Sex Linkage Sexual Differentiation Simple Animals [2, 3, 4] Smoking Solvents Structure Skeletal Muscle Support and locomotion Symbiosis [2, 3] The Body The Human Genome project Temperature Regulation Tobacco Variation and mutation [2] Vertebrates Viruses [2] Xerophytes 14
  • 15. Imhotep Virtual Medical School Courseware Guidebook Chemistry Power Points for download To guide your studies see: Medical College Admission Test (MCAT)-Content Outline for Physical Sciences Section Acids & Bases [2] Alkali Metals Lab Alkanes and Alkenes Lab [2] Atomic model Atomic Size Atomic Structure Balancing [2] Bohr's Model, Photons Bonding [2] Boyle's Law Calcium Lab Candle Lab Cell Potential Cell Types Charles's Law Chemsketch Combined Gas Law Combustion Common Ion Concentration Conductivity Lab Covalent Bonding Crystals Electro negativity [2] Equilibrium Calculations Equilibrium Law Esters Factor Label Method Foods Lab [2] Functional Groups Galvanic Cells Gas Stoichiometry Heat of Combustion Hess's Law [2] Hybrid Orbitals Hydrates Lab Hydrocarbon Models Hydrocarbon Naming [2] Ideal Gas Law Intermolecular Forces Ionic Bonding Isomers [2] Ka, Acid Ionization Kinetic Molecular Theory Ksp Solubility Kw, pH Lewis Structures Limiting Reagents [2] Lone Pairs Molar Mass Molar Solutions Molar Volume Lab Molecular Formula Naming [2, 3] Naming Groups Net Ionic Equations [2] Neutralization Nuclear Energy Orbital Characteristics Orbitals Organic Synthesis Partial Pressures Percentage Yield Periodic Table [2] Periodic Trends pH of Salts, Buffers Physical Properties Lab Proportions Quantum Mechanics Rates of Reaction Reaction reversibility Redox Significant Digits Solubility Solubility Curves Solubility Rules Solutions Stoichiometry [2] Straw Lab The Activity Series The Collision Theory The Mole Thermo chemical Equations Thermo chemistry [2] Titration [2] Transition State Types of chemical reactions VSEPR Water Treatment Weighing Gases Lab Physics Power Points for download To guide your studies see: Medical College Admission Test (MCAT)-Content Outline for Physical Sciences Section Acceleration [2] Basic space Circuits [2] Color [2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7] How lightening works Infrared Ionizing Radiation [2] LED Institute for Minority Physicians of the Future Reflection Refractions, Lens, and Sight [2, 3, 4] Resultant forces 15
  • 16. Imhotep Virtual Medical School Courseware Guidebook Density Diffraction and Interference Edison's Bright Idea Electric Fields Electrical Circuits [2] Electricity [2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24] Electrostatics Emission spectra Energy [2, 3, 4, 5, 6] Fission and Fusion Flight [2, 3] Fluids Forces and Motions [2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13] Fossil Fuels Friction [2, 3, 4] Gamma-Rays Gravity [2, 3] Heat [2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21] Lenses Light [2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10] Magnetism [2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7] Measuring and Recording Data Microwave Modern Physics Momentum and Impulse [2] Motion [2, 3] Nature of Science Newton's Laws [2] Optical Illusions [2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8] Optics Physics Intro, Kinematics, Graphing Potential & Kinetic Energy Pressure, Momentum, and Impulse Projectile & Circular Motion, Torque [2] Projectile Motion Properties of Matter Quantum Physics General Radio Waves Radioactive Decay Rainbows Rutherford Scattering Simple machines [2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10] Sound [2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12] Sound and light Spectral lines Spherical Mirrors Starter conductors and insulators Static Steps of The Scientific Method Telecommunications [2, 3, 4] Thermodynamics [2] The Universe [2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12] Transport Two Source Interference Two-Dimensional Motion Ultraviolet Vectors [2] Waves [2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11] Work, Power, and Energy Verbal Reasoning Writing Prompts Institute for Minority Physicians of the Future 16
  • 17. Imhotep Virtual Medical School Courseware Guidebook WHO WAS IMHOTEP Imhotep: Doctor, Architect, High Priest, Scribe and Vizier to King Djoser (Full Web Page, including an multimedia and free e-Book download) Background: On Medicine in Old Egypt [Hamed A Ead] Medicine in Ancient Egypt - The Asclepion/U. of Indiana (US) Ancient Egyptian Medicine - Ancient Egyptian Virtual Temple Medicine in Ancient Egypt Daily Life - Minnesota State Univ. at Mankato For Every Malady Cure - (EG) AIDS: Déjà Vu in Ancient Egypt? [RJ Albin] About Horus [S Cass] - Encyclopedia Mythica On the Eye of Horus, What does the pharmacist's symbol "Rx" mean? - The Straight Dope About the Step Pyramid (of Djoser) A selected bibliography of Imhotep [R Rashidi], About The Third Dynasty - TourEgypt About the Physicians of Ancient Egypt - Per Sekhmet Just What the Doctor Ordered in Ancient Egypt [I Springer] - Tour Egypt Objects from the Collection of Ancient Egyptian Art at M.C. Carlos Museum/Emory Univ. (US) Practical Egyptian Magical Spells [RK Ritner] - U of Chicago Some Magical Amulets & Gems - U of Michigan/HTI The Instruction of Ptahhotep (6th dynasty?) The Papyrology Home Page [JD Muccigrosso] The Papyrus Archive, including a Medical Prescription, at Duke Univ. (US) Some brief notes on some famous Medical Papyri (Smith, Ebers, Kahun) ['marrya'] - (IE) About the Hearst Medical Papyrus - Center for the Tebtunis Papyri, Berkeley (US) The Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus - Cyber Museum of Neurosurgery (US) Institute for Minority Physicians of the Future 17
  • 18. Imhotep Virtual Medical School Courseware Guidebook About the Smith and Ebers Papyri – CrystalLinks About the Edwin Smith Sugical Papyrus [RH Wilkins] - via AANS Surgery on papyrus [B Morris] - StudentBMJ An Overview of the Manuscript Collection at the Bibliotheca Alexandrina, and CultNet - Cultural Heritage in the Digital Age A Classified Bibliographical Database of Ancient Egytian Medicine and Medical Practice [PA Piccione] Surgical tools found in 6th dynasty tomb - ArabicNews.com Papyrology Links - UMich [Photo] Brief Note on the Discovery of Raised Bread - ARIGA Earliest Egyptian Chemical Manuscripts [prepared by HA Ead] Electronic Printed/Web-published material - Ruprecht-Karls Universität, Heidelberg (DE) About the Alexandrian School (Herophilos, Erasistratos) - Univ of Virginia (US) Marc Imhotep Cray, M.D. Curriculum Vitae EXPERIENCE 5/2004-Present Institute for Minority Physicians of the Future (IMPF) Founder and Director Office of Medical Education IMPF mission is to become the leading organizational force for parity in medical education by helping minority students develop the skills that will enable them to compete on a more equal footing in the medical school admission process. IMPF elucidates, distills and fuses educational psychology, information technology and undergraduate medical education data. We develop Computer Mediated Medical Education (CMME) programs, projects and products that serve to increase recruitment, admission and retention (RAR) of under-represented minorities (URM) in major United States medical schools. The ultimate goal being for these students to defend, define and develop medical careers that will be committed to the elimination of health disparities in racial/ethnic minorities and the poor. Ø 5/2003-5/2004 International University of Health Sciences-School of Medicine Associate Professor Basic Medical Sciences St Kitts, West Indies • My responsibilities included teaching all the basic medical sciences, curriculum development, conducting educational research and evaluation, faculty development, various student recruitment ¬admission retention (RAR) projects. Specialized training in E-learning, informatics, curriculum development, course management systems i.e. blackboard and webCT Institute for Minority Physicians of the Future 18
  • 19. Imhotep Virtual Medical School Courseware Guidebook Ø 1/1999 5/2003 American International School of Medicine Atlanta, GA and Ocean View, Guyana • Director Office of Medical Education and Associate • Professor of Pharmacology and Medicine • I provided leadership and academic support to the School of Medicine by planning, developing and implementing innovative curricula across the continuum of medical education. My responsibilities also included teaching, conducting educational research and evaluation, faculty development, various student recruitment -admission retention (RAR) projects. Ø 6/1999 3/2002 The Primary Care Center Decatur, GA • Physician & Director of Clinical Diagnostic Services • I provided comprehensive medical care in an ambulatory setting; including diagnosis, treatment, followup and referrals. I was also the Director of Clinical Services. In this capacity, I was responsible for coordinating the execution of all ancillary diagnostic services for the center. Ø 2/1997 8/1998 Morehouse School of Medicine Atlanta, GA • Senior Research Associate • Under a NASA commission grant, I worked in the Clinical Pharmacology Unit/Clinical Analytical Laboratory. My responsibilities included providing research support in the areas of qualitative and quantitative analysis using GC/MS and HPLC. Ø 7/1994 12/1996 Royce Occupational Health Group Milledgeville, GA • Medical Director • At Royce we provided occupational healthcare to employees of companies in the greater Milledgeville area. We also provided comprehensive ambulatory medical services. Institute for Minority Physicians of the Future 19
  • 20. Imhotep Virtual Medical School Courseware Guidebook Ø 6/1993 12/1996 Georgia Regional Hospital of Atlanta Atlanta, GA • Medical Emergency House Physician • I was the weekend hospital physician. My responsibilities included evaluating, admitting, and treating all psychiatric admissions. I lodged on the hospital premises from Friday night to Monday morning. Ø 41990 4/1991 Morehouse School of Medicine Atlanta, GA • Adjunct Instructor Cork Institute • I lectured in the area of Addiction Medicine to medical students and residents at the medical school for the Cork Institute on Black Alcohol and Drug Abuse. Ø 6/1991 4/1992 Morehouse School of Medicine Atlanta, GA • PGY 2 Psychiatry • I trained in the MSM Psychiatry Residency Training Program during it first year in existence. Ø 3/1990 4/1991 Morehouse School of Medicine Atlanta, GA • Research Associate/ Programs Coordinator • I worked for the Department of Community Health and Preventive Medicine/Health Promotion Resource Center. I coordinated all community health awareness programs. Our primary focus was on diseases that most significantly impacted minority and poor communities such as HIV/AIDS, substance abuse and violence Ø 7/1986 1/1989 Committee of Interns and Residents NYC, New York • Educational Coordinator & Lecturer in Pham & Medical Therapeutics • I planned, developed, implemented and coordinated the medical licensure review course and lectured in pharmacology and therapeutics. Institute for Minority Physicians of the Future 20
  • 21. Imhotep Virtual Medical School Courseware Guidebook Ø 7/1986 1/1989 Harlem Community Medical Clinic NYC, New York • General Medicine Private Practice • I provided comprehensive medical care for the Harlem community. I diagnosed and treated the gamut of outpatient medical problems. Ø 7/1984 6/1985 Columbia Presbyterian College of Physicians and Surgeons at Harlem Hospital Medical Center NYC, New York Intern in Internal Medicine This was my postgraduate training experience in medicine. EDUCATION Professional 6/1992 Morehouse School of Medicine/ Cork Institute Atlanta, GA On Black Alcohol and Drug Abuse I trained in and studied Addiction Medicine as it impacts minorities and poor communities. 6/1984 UMDNJ-New Jersey Medical School Newark, NJ Medical Doctor Degree American Medical School education. 6/1984 UMDNJ NJMS Biomedical Research Center Newark, NJ I studied basic and clinical pharmacology research protocols, procedures and modalities. 6/1980 Institute for Minority Physicians of the Future 21
  • 22. Imhotep Virtual Medical School Courseware Guidebook Massachusetts College of Pharmacy Boston, MA I studied pharmaceutical science comprehensively leading to a Bachelor of Science in pharmacy. AFILIATIONS 4/1999 Present Association of Black Cardiologists/Member 12/1986 Present American Medical Association/Member 6/1986 Present National Medical Association/Member SKILLS Microsoft Office Advanced Currently used 10 years Medical Web Master Expert +4 years Medical Infomatics Expert PUBLICATIONS AND TECHNICAL REPORTS Cray, M.I. "Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Among Blacks in Georgia" Medical Association of Georgia New , Fall 1986, Vol. 5, No. 2, pp. 94 98. Cray, M.I. "Approaches in the Prevention of Black Adolescent Substance Abuse" Journal of Minority Health, April 1988, Vol. 14, pp. 14 18. Cray, M.I. "The SMART (Students Making Abstinence Real Tight) Curriculum An Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse and AIDS Prevention Educational Manual" Morehouse School of Medicine/Health Promotion Resource Center, December 1990. Cray, M.I. "Addiction Medicine for Rising Second Year Medical Students" Morehouse School of Medicine/Cork Institute on Black Alcohol and Drug Abuse Prevention, July 1991. Cray, M.I. "Towards Culturally Appropriate Treatment of African Americans" Health News, March/April 1993, Vol. 6. No. 1. Technical Report Relationships Between HIV/AIDS and Atypical Pneumonias at Grady Memorial Institute for Minority Physicians of the Future 22
  • 23. Imhotep Virtual Medical School Courseware Guidebook Hospitals Medical Resource Management . August 1994. Technical Report Heafth Systems Development for Substance Abuse and Mental Health at Charter Hospitals Medical Resource Management , June 1995. Technical Report Tuberculosis Infection and Need for HIV Testing at Fulton County Health Department Medical Resource Management, January 1996. SELECT PROFESSIONAL PRESENTATIONS Cocaine: Pharmacology and Toxicology; Morehouse School of Medicine, Family Practice Residency Training Program, October 1985. Psychoactive Drugs: Mechanisms of Action in Addiction; Morehouse School of Medicine, Family Practice Residency Training Program, January 1986. Substance Abuse and Chemical Dependency in Africa n Americarvs~, A Public Health Approach to Treatment and Prevention; Georgia Minority Health Association Annual Health Education Conference, Hilton Hotel, Atlanta, Georgia, June 1990. Alcoholism and Drug Addiction in Black Americans: An Epidemiologic Review; Georgia Department of Human Resources/Division of Public Health, Allied Health Professionals Training Workshop, Omni International Hotel, Atlanta, Georgia, January 1991. HIV/AIDS in Intravenous Drug Abusers: Strategies for Prevention AIDS Atlanta Educational Training Workshop, Atlanta, Georgia, September 1992. Culturally Appropriate Treatment for African Americans: Morehouse School of Medicine/Health Promotion Resource Center Training Conference, December 1992. Clinical Presentations of Persons with HIV/AIDS: Fulton County Health Department Annual Training Conference, May 1993. Medical Problems Confronting African Arnerican in the 21st Century, Georgia Association of Black Health Professional, Sixth Annual Conference, Hilton Hotel, Atlanta, Georgia, June 1995. ABSTRACTS Abukhalaf IK, Cray MI, Chidebelu Eze E, von Deutsch DA, and Potter DE. Quantitation of clenbuterol in plasma and urine specimens using GC MS. Presented at the joint meeting of the Society of Forensic Toxicologists and The International Association of Forensic Toxicologists (TIAFT), Albuquerque, NM, 1998. Von Deutsch DA, Chen W D, Pitts SA, Wineski LE, Klement BJ, Joseph E, Potter DE, Nokkaew C, George B, Cray MI, Nguyen T, and Paulsen DF. Muscle specific effects of clenbuterol on protein density Institute for Minority Physicians of the Future 23
  • 24. Imhotep Virtual Medical School Courseware Guidebook and wet weight in soleus and plantaris muscles of mature, hindlimb suspended rats. ASGSB Space Biol. Bull. (Abstr), 1998. Von Deutsch DA, Abukhalaf IK, Cray MI, Aboul Enein Hy, Grace T, Oster R, Pitts SA, Wineski LE, Chiclebelu Eze E, Paulsen DF, and Potter DE. Clenbuterol levels in rate plasma and tissue using GC/MS and EIA. ASGSB Space Biol. Bull. (Abstr), 1998. Abukhalaf IK, von Deutsch DA, Cray MI, Potter D, and Mozayani A. A sensitive method for quantifying P¬agonists; in biological fluids clenbuterol as a model. Presented at the annual meeting of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences, Orlando, Fl, 1999. Credentials Institute for Minority Physicians of the Future 24
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