Vector borne diseases in Bangladesh
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Vector borne diseases in bangladesh

Vector borne diseases in bangladesh

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Vector borne diseases in Bangladesh Presentation Transcript

  • 1. WELCOME Capt.Shams (www.facebook.com/dr.imanns)
  • 2. Vector borne diseases in bangladesh Presented by CAPT SHAMS MOBC 77Capt.Shams (www.facebook.com/dr.imanns)
  • 3. Introduction Vector borne diseases is 17% of all infectious diseases. 2.5 billion people in over 100 countries are at risk of these diseases. Every year, more than 1 billion people are infected and more than 1 million die from vector-borne diseases. Among them Malaria causes more than 6,00,000 deaths every year globally. Capt.Shams (www.facebook.com/dr.imanns)
  • 4. Aim To know about the common vector borne diseases in Bangladesh and how to prevent these diseases. Capt.Shams (www.facebook.com/dr.imanns)
  • 5. Scope  What is vector and common vectors.  What is vector borne diseases and common VBD.  Common vector borne diseases in Bangladesh.  Prevention and control. Capt.Shams (www.facebook.com/dr.imanns)
  • 6. Vector A vector is any agent (person, animal or microorganism) that carries and transmits an infectious pathogen into another living organism. Capt.Shams (www.facebook.com/dr.imanns)
  • 7. Common vectors  Mosquitoes (Aedes, Anopheles, Culex, Mansonia)  Fly (Sandfly, Housefly, Tsetse Fly, Black Fly )  Flea (Rat Flea, Sand Flea )  Ticks (Hard Tick & Soft Tick)  Lice / Bugs/ Mites/ Cyclops Capt.Shams (www.facebook.com/dr.imanns)
  • 8. Vector-borne disease An illness caused by an infectious microorganism (pathogen) that is transmitted to humans by a vector, usually arthropods. Capt.Shams (www.facebook.com/dr.imanns)
  • 9. Major vector borne disease in world  Malaria  Filaria  Leishmaniasis  Japanese Encephalitis  Dengue / Dengue Hemorrhagic fevers  Chikungunya  Chagas Diseases (American Trypanosomiasis) Capt.Shams (www.facebook.com/dr.imanns)
  • 10. Contd…  Yellow Fever  Onchocerciasis (River Blindness)  CCHF (Crimean Congo Haemorrhagic Fever)  Lyme Disease  Tick Borne Encephalitis  Schistosomiasis (Bilharzia) Capt.Shams (www.facebook.com/dr.imanns)
  • 11. Common vector borne disease in Bangladesh  Malaria  Filariasis  Leishmaniasis  Dengue Capt.Shams (www.facebook.com/dr.imanns)
  • 12. Malaria  Life-threatening disease  Caused by plasmodium species  Transmitted through bite of female anopheles  Plasmodium - four parasite species Capt.Shams (www.facebook.com/dr.imanns)
  • 13. Malaria Facts  Malaria kills in one year ,what AIDS kills in 15 years  For every death due to HIV/AIDS, there are about 50 deaths due to malaria Capt.Shams (www.facebook.com/dr.imanns)
  • 14. Malaria Burden Globally-2012  Approx 207 million cases & 6,27,000 deaths  97 countries- 3.4 billion people at risk Capt.Shams (www.facebook.com/dr.imanns)
  • 15. Malaria in Bangladesh  13 districts (with the total population of 10.9 million) are in the high endemic areas of malaria transmissions.  In July’2008 to May’2009 total cases are found 74412 and total deaths are 89. Capt.Shams (www.facebook.com/dr.imanns)
  • 16. Capt.Shams (www.facebook.com/dr.imanns)
  • 17. Filariasis  Lymphatic filariasis is infection with the filarial worms, Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi or B. timori.  A wide range of mosquitoes can transmit the parasite, depending on the geographic area. In Africa, the most common vector is Anopheles and in the Americas, it is Culex quilex. Aedes and Mansonia can transmit the infection in the Pacific and in Asia.Capt.Shams (www.facebook.com/dr.imanns)
  • 18. Filaria Burden  A total of 32 districts with an estimated 70 million population are endemic for Lymphatic Filariasis.  About 20 million are already infected. Capt.Shams (www.facebook.com/dr.imanns)
  • 19. Dengue  Dengue is transmitted by several species of mosquito within the genus Aedes, principally A. aegypti.  Most rapidly spreading viral disease in the world. In past 50 years, incidence has increased 30-fold.  Pattern changing from urban to rural settings  There are four known serotypes of dengue virus (DEN 1 to 4).  Recovery from infection by one provides lifelong immunity Capt.Shams (www.facebook.com/dr.imanns)
  • 20. Dengue Burden In Bangladesh there had been Dengue outbreaks in 2000 (5,555 cases and 93 deaths); 2001 (2,430 cases and 44 deaths) and 2002 (6,104 cases and 58 deaths). Cases were reported from the metropolitan cities (Dhaka, Chittagong, Khulna, Rajshahi) Capt.Shams (www.facebook.com/dr.imanns)
  • 21. Leishmaniasis  Caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania.  Spread by the bite of sandflies.  The disease can present in three main ways as: cutaneous leishmaniasis, mucocutaneous leishmaniasis and visceral leishmaniasis. Capt.Shams (www.facebook.com/dr.imanns)
  • 22. Disease Burden  In Bangladesh cases are reported from 45 districts (130 upaziala) and an estimated 51.2 million populations are in endemic areas. Capt.Shams (www.facebook.com/dr.imanns)
  • 23. Prevention and Control New strategies have taken by WHO to control vector borne diseases. No single measure can control these diseases. It needs multiple approach both from government and non government institutes. Capt.Shams (www.facebook.com/dr.imanns)
  • 24. Strategies  Needs sound knowledge of the Bionomics Distribution Seasonal prevalence Vectorial capacity Insecticide susceptibility status Role of arthropods in disease transmission Capt.Shams (www.facebook.com/dr.imanns)
  • 25. Integrated vector management  The utilization of all appropriate technological & management techniques to bring about an effective degree of vector suppression in a cost effective manner.  Best approach to strengthen vector control in a way that is compatible with national health systems Capt.Shams (www.facebook.com/dr.imanns)
  • 26. Key Elements of IVM  Evidence-based decision-making  Monitoring & Evaluation  Advocacy & Social mobilization  Intra & intersectoral Collaboration  Capacity-building  Legislation & Regulation Capt.Shams (www.facebook.com/dr.imanns)
  • 27. Methods of control Capt.Shams (www.facebook.com/dr.imanns)
  • 28. Environmental control  Eliminate their breeding places  Known as "source reduction"  Results are generally permanent Capt.Shams (www.facebook.com/dr.imanns)
  • 29. Source reduction  Filling Levelling & drainage of breeding places Water management (intermittent irrigation) Capt.Shams (www.facebook.com/dr.imanns)
  • 30. Waste management  Empty tins, plastic bottles, unused drums, coconut shells & used car tyres can serve as important breeding sites Capt.Shams (www.facebook.com/dr.imanns)
  • 31. Chemical control Oiling (diesel oil,fuel oil, kerosene oil) Paris green Synthetic Insecticides (Fenthion, malathion, chlorpyrifos, abate) Capt.Shams (www.facebook.com/dr.imanns)
  • 32. Biological control  Introduction of bacterial larvicides & larvivorous fish  Target vector larvae without generating ecological impacts of chemical use  Regular monitoring & restocking is important Capt.Shams (www.facebook.com/dr.imanns)
  • 33. Genetic control  "Use of any treatment that reduce the reproductive potential by replacing the hereditary material"  Sterile male technique  Hybrid male technique  Sex distortion  Gene replacement Capt.Shams (www.facebook.com/dr.imanns)
  • 34. Personal Protective measures  Acheived by wearing long sleeved, light- coloured shirts, trousers, socks, shoes & by the use of repellents like Benzyl benzoate, DEET  Insecticidal net are most efficient & cost-effective method. Capt.Shams (www.facebook.com/dr.imanns)
  • 35. House modification  Door & window screens  Plaster walls & concrete floors in good condition  Cracks & entry points sealed up Capt.Shams (www.facebook.com/dr.imanns)
  • 36. Indoor residual spray  Most widely used method  Effective way to reduce sandflies & bugs inside homes  80% of houses in targeted area need to be sprayed.  Effective for 3–6 months, depending on the insecticide used & type of surface Capt.Shams (www.facebook.com/dr.imanns)
  • 37. Outdoor spraying Spraying outer surfaces of - Domestic animal shelters, - Outdoor latrines & - Damp places Aerial spraying -- control mosquitoes during epidemics of dengue & yellow fever. Capt.Shams (www.facebook.com/dr.imanns)
  • 38. Recommendation  Apply Integrated vector management to control the diseases.  Awareness among the people.  Best approach to strengthen vector control in a way that is compatible with national health systems. Capt.Shams (www.facebook.com/dr.imanns)
  • 39. Conclusion Vector-borne diseases are one of the greatest contributors to human mortality and morbidity in tropical settings and beyond. Although significant progress is being made in combating some diseases such as malaria, lymphatic filariasis and Chagas disease, other diseases such as dengue continue to spread at an alarming pace. Governments, local authorities, community groups, and individuals should work togather to prevent disease. Capt.Shams (www.facebook.com/dr.imanns)
  • 40. ? Capt.Shams (www.facebook.com/dr.imanns)
  • 41. THANK YOU Capt.Shams (www.facebook.com/dr.imanns)