An Analytic Approach
to Optimizing Well Spacing
and Completions in the
Bakken/Three Forks Plays
M. Roth, M. Roth, C.
Rodri...
How can Analytics help optimize field development?

Analytics Impact:
- Vertical sweetspots
- Lateral sweetspots
- Well sp...
Major Bakken/Three Forks Producing Wells
Mean IP 666 b/d
Maximum IP > 7000 b/d
Daily > 800,000 b/d - >1% World
7.3 Billion...
Williston/Bakken-Three Forks Stratigraphy

Copyright © 2013 Drilling Info, Inc. All rights reserved. All brand names and t...
Paleo-Williston/Bakken-Three Forks

Copyright © 2013 Drilling Info, Inc. All rights reserved. All brand names and trademar...
Bakken/Three Forks

9800

Lodgepole
U Bakken Shale
Middle
Bakken

9900

50’

L Bakken Shale
Three
Forks

10000

Copyright ...
Braaflat 11-11H Lithofacies – Cluster Analysis

Copyright © 2013 Drilling Info, Inc. All rights reserved. All brand names ...
Braaflat 11-11H Lithofacies – Cluster Analysis

4 - fine ss, siltstone, mudstone
Primary Target

3 - medium-grained ss
CBF...
Bakken/3-Forks Hierarchical Facies Classification

Copyright © 2013 Drilling Info, Inc. All rights reserved. All brand nam...
Bakken/3-Forks Hierarchical Facies Classification

Analytics Impact:
- Vertical sweetspots
- Lateral sweetspots
- Well spa...
Three Forks Benchs

Copyright © 2013 Drilling Info, Inc. All rights reserved. All brand names and trademarks are the prope...
West-East Traverse through Verticals

Copyright © 2013 Drilling Info, Inc. All rights reserved. All brand names and tradem...
West-East Traverse through Verticals

Copyright © 2013 Drilling Info, Inc. All rights reserved. All brand names and tradem...
West-East Traverse through Verticals

Copyright © 2013 Drilling Info, Inc. All rights reserved. All brand names and tradem...
Traverse Flattened Top Upper Bakken

Middle Bakken

Three Forks

Copyright © 2013 Drilling Info, Inc. All rights reserved....
Traverse Flattened Top Upper Bakken

Middle Bakken

Three Forks

Copyright © 2013 Drilling Info, Inc. All rights reserved....
Base Bakken Surface – Across Borders
CANADA
MONTANA
NORTH DAKOTA

Nesson Anticline

Copyright © 2013 Drilling Info, Inc. A...
Regional Mapping (Bakken/Three Forks)
Depth

Thickness

Thermal Maturity

Total Organic Carbon
Upper Bakken

Oxygen Index
...
Hierarchical Map-Based Classification

Analytics Impact:
- Vertical sweetspots
- Lateral sweetspots
- Well spacing optimiz...
But how much can Sweetspots be Drilled?

Analytics Impact:
- Vertical sweetspots
- Lateral sweetspots
- Well spacing optim...
Is there Bakken/Three Forks Interaction?

Copyright © 2013 Drilling Info, Inc. All rights reserved. All brand names and tr...
Is there Bakken/Three Forks Interaction?

45 bbl/d increase

100 bbl/d
increase

90 bbl/d increase

Copyright © 2013 Drill...
Is there Bakken/Three Forks Interaction?
TTT Ranch 11-6H
TTT Ranch 12-6H

TTT Ranch 11-6H
TTT Ranch 12-6H

45 bbl/d increa...
There IS Bakken/Three Forks Interaction!
TTT Ranch 11-6H
TTT Ranch 12-6H
TTT Ranch 4-6TFH

TTT Ranch 11-6H
TTT Ranch 12-6H...
What is the optimal well spacing to use?
Production Profile Comparison

Production Analytics

Microseismic Analysis

Copyr...
What is the optimal well spacing to use?
Production Profile Comparison

Production Analytics

Microseismic Analysis

Copyr...
Oil Production Profile Comparison
#1 Rick Clair 25-36H
Spacing = 10,000ft
Open Hole
#2 Myhra 28-33H
Spacing = 4,432ft
9 St...
Daily Oil Production Rates
#1 Rick Clair 25-36H
Spacing = 10,000ft
Open Hole
#2 Myhra 28-33H
Spacing = 4,432ft
9 Stages
#2...
Daily Oil Production Rates (Relative Time)
#1 Rick Clair 25-36H
Spacing = 10,000ft
Open Hole
#2 Myhra 28-33H
Spacing = 4,4...
What is the optimal well spacing to use?
Production Profile Comparison

Production Analytics

Microseismic Analysis

Copyr...
Production Normalization
Long wells bad?
-0.011 Correlation

In order to understand the
relationship between well spacing
...
Middle Bakken Geology: Water Cut
Regional Water Cut Map

-.450 Correlation

Regional water cut shows geologic
“sweetspots”...
Multi-Variate 6 Month Cum Oil Model
Using a non-linear, multi-variate
technique, the 6 Month Cumulative Oil
production was...
Multi-Variate Parameter Transformations
Multi-variate model determines
relationships between each input
variable and produ...
What is the optimal well spacing to use?
The well spacing relationship was
simulated for differing completion
designs to e...
Microseismic Event Analysis

Surface microseismic data
acquired by the DOE for a
Middle Bakken well with 6
hydraulic fract...
Microseismic Energy Density
Based on microseismic
magnitude and event
density, a geocellular model
of microseismic energy ...
Stimulated Reservoir Volume Estimate
Stimulated reservoir volume
can be estimated based on
the extents of the
microseismic...
Stimulated Reservoir Volume Overlap
Assuming Stimulated
Reservoir Volume HalfWidth = 600ft
Neighboring Middle Bakken
well ...
Stimulated Reservoir Volume Overlap
Assuming Stimulated
Reservoir Volume HalfWidth = 600ft
Neighboring Middle
Bakken well ...
Stimulated Reservoir Volume Overlap
Assuming Stimulated
Reservoir Volume HalfWidth = 600ft
Neighboring Middle Bakken
well ...
Stimulated Reservoir Volume Overlap
Assuming Stimulated
Reservoir Volume HalfWidth = 600ft
Neighboring Middle Bakken
well ...
Summary (part 1)

The Bakken/Three Forks petroleum system currently produces over 1% of World oil, with an
estimated 7.3 B...
Summary (part 2)

• Multi-variate analytics can normalize the impact of variable completions and geology to
isolate well s...
Thanks!

•DrillingInfo for access to production and well data and Transform
Software
•Peter Emanuel for specialized progra...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Optimizing Well Spacing and Completions in the Bakken/Three Forks Plays

2,237 views

Published on

A deep technical analysis for optimizing field development by focusing on well spacing.
For more info visit: http://info.drillinginfo.com/well-spacing-bakken-shale-oil/

Published in: Technology
0 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
2,237
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
16
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
92
Comments
0
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Optimizing Well Spacing and Completions in the Bakken/Three Forks Plays

  1. 1. An Analytic Approach to Optimizing Well Spacing and Completions in the Bakken/Three Forks Plays M. Roth, M. Roth, C. Rodriguez 2014
  2. 2. How can Analytics help optimize field development? Analytics Impact: - Vertical sweetspots - Lateral sweetspots - Well spacing optimization Copyright © 2013 Drilling Info, Inc. All rights reserved. All brand names and trademarks are the properties of their respective companies. 2
  3. 3. Major Bakken/Three Forks Producing Wells Mean IP 666 b/d Maximum IP > 7000 b/d Daily > 800,000 b/d - >1% World 7.3 Billion barrels technically recoverable (USGS-04/13) • • • • ~6,000 producing Middle Bakken and Three Forks wells Most development consists of infill wells in the Middle Bakken and Three Forks formations Operators are expanding drilling programs to multiple benches (levels) of the Three Forks Optimizing oil recovery depends on optimizing well spacing for reservoir quality Copyright © 2013 Drilling Info, Inc. All rights reserved. All brand names and trademarks are the properties of their respective companies. 3
  4. 4. Williston/Bakken-Three Forks Stratigraphy Copyright © 2013 Drilling Info, Inc. All rights reserved. All brand names and trademarks are the properties of their respective companies. 4
  5. 5. Paleo-Williston/Bakken-Three Forks Copyright © 2013 Drilling Info, Inc. All rights reserved. All brand names and trademarks are the properties of their respective companies. 5
  6. 6. Bakken/Three Forks 9800 Lodgepole U Bakken Shale Middle Bakken 9900 50’ L Bakken Shale Three Forks 10000 Copyright © 2013 Drilling Info, Inc. All rights reserved. All brand names and trademarks are the properties of their respective companies. 6
  7. 7. Braaflat 11-11H Lithofacies – Cluster Analysis Copyright © 2013 Drilling Info, Inc. All rights reserved. All brand names and trademarks are the properties of their respective companies. 7
  8. 8. Braaflat 11-11H Lithofacies – Cluster Analysis 4 - fine ss, siltstone, mudstone Primary Target 3 - medium-grained ss CBF - very fine-grained ss, siltstone 2 - limy/dolomitic siltsonte 1 - lime mudstone Copyright © 2013 Drilling Info, Inc. All rights reserved. All brand names and trademarks are the properties of their respective companies. 8
  9. 9. Bakken/3-Forks Hierarchical Facies Classification Copyright © 2013 Drilling Info, Inc. All rights reserved. All brand names and trademarks are the properties of their respective companies. 9
  10. 10. Bakken/3-Forks Hierarchical Facies Classification Analytics Impact: - Vertical sweetspots - Lateral sweetspots - Well spacing optimization Copyright © 2013 Drilling Info, Inc. All rights reserved. All brand names and trademarks are the properties of their respective companies. 10
  11. 11. Three Forks Benchs Copyright © 2013 Drilling Info, Inc. All rights reserved. All brand names and trademarks are the properties of their respective companies. 11
  12. 12. West-East Traverse through Verticals Copyright © 2013 Drilling Info, Inc. All rights reserved. All brand names and trademarks are the properties of their respective companies. 12
  13. 13. West-East Traverse through Verticals Copyright © 2013 Drilling Info, Inc. All rights reserved. All brand names and trademarks are the properties of their respective companies. 13
  14. 14. West-East Traverse through Verticals Copyright © 2013 Drilling Info, Inc. All rights reserved. All brand names and trademarks are the properties of their respective companies. 14
  15. 15. Traverse Flattened Top Upper Bakken Middle Bakken Three Forks Copyright © 2013 Drilling Info, Inc. All rights reserved. All brand names and trademarks are the properties of their respective companies. 15
  16. 16. Traverse Flattened Top Upper Bakken Middle Bakken Three Forks Copyright © 2013 Drilling Info, Inc. All rights reserved. All brand names and trademarks are the properties of their respective companies. 16
  17. 17. Base Bakken Surface – Across Borders CANADA MONTANA NORTH DAKOTA Nesson Anticline Copyright © 2013 Drilling Info, Inc. All rights reserved. All brand names and trademarks are the properties of their respective companies. 17
  18. 18. Regional Mapping (Bakken/Three Forks) Depth Thickness Thermal Maturity Total Organic Carbon Upper Bakken Oxygen Index Total Organic Carbon Lower Bakken Copyright © 2013 Drilling Info, Inc. All rights reserved. All brand names and trademarks are the properties of their respective companies. 18
  19. 19. Hierarchical Map-Based Classification Analytics Impact: - Vertical sweetspots - Lateral sweetspots - Well spacing optimization Copyright © 2013 Drilling Info, Inc. All rights reserved. All brand names and trademarks are the properties of their respective companies. 19
  20. 20. But how much can Sweetspots be Drilled? Analytics Impact: - Vertical sweetspots - Lateral sweetspots - Well spacing optimization Copyright © 2013 Drilling Info, Inc. All rights reserved. All brand names and trademarks are the properties of their respective companies. 20
  21. 21. Is there Bakken/Three Forks Interaction? Copyright © 2013 Drilling Info, Inc. All rights reserved. All brand names and trademarks are the properties of their respective companies. 21
  22. 22. Is there Bakken/Three Forks Interaction? 45 bbl/d increase 100 bbl/d increase 90 bbl/d increase Copyright © 2013 Drilling Info, Inc. All rights reserved. All brand names and trademarks are the properties of their respective companies. 22
  23. 23. Is there Bakken/Three Forks Interaction? TTT Ranch 11-6H TTT Ranch 12-6H TTT Ranch 11-6H TTT Ranch 12-6H 45 bbl/d increase 100 bbl/d increase 90 bbl/d increase Copyright © 2013 Drilling Info, Inc. All rights reserved. All brand names and trademarks are the properties of their respective companies. 23
  24. 24. There IS Bakken/Three Forks Interaction! TTT Ranch 11-6H TTT Ranch 12-6H TTT Ranch 4-6TFH TTT Ranch 11-6H TTT Ranch 12-6H TTT Ranch 4-6TFH 45 bbl/d increase 100 bbl/d increase 90 bbl/d increase Copyright © 2013 Drilling Info, Inc. All rights reserved. All brand names and trademarks are the properties of their respective companies. 24
  25. 25. What is the optimal well spacing to use? Production Profile Comparison Production Analytics Microseismic Analysis Copyright © 2013 Drilling Info, Inc. All rights reserved. All brand names and trademarks are the properties of their respective companies. 25
  26. 26. What is the optimal well spacing to use? Production Profile Comparison Production Analytics Microseismic Analysis Copyright © 2013 Drilling Info, Inc. All rights reserved. All brand names and trademarks are the properties of their respective companies. 26
  27. 27. Oil Production Profile Comparison #1 Rick Clair 25-36H Spacing = 10,000ft Open Hole #2 Myhra 28-33H Spacing = 4,432ft 9 Stages #2 Chad Alan 25-36H Spacing = 1,830ft Open Hole #2 Craft 27-34H Spacing = 4,067ft 9 Stages #2 William Richard 35-26H Spacing = 2,438ft Open Hole #6 Joy 26-35H Spacing = 2,812ft Open Hole #7 TTT Ranch 33-28H Spacing = 1,760ft 30 Stages #8 TTT Ranch 34-27XH Spacing = 1,629ft 23 Stages #9 Lucas 36-25H Spacing = 1,187ft 37 Stages #10 Katherine Mariah 26-35H Spacing = 1,273ft 37 Stages Copyright © 2013 Drilling Info, Inc. All rights reserved. All brand names and trademarks are the properties of their respective companies. 27
  28. 28. Daily Oil Production Rates #1 Rick Clair 25-36H Spacing = 10,000ft Open Hole #2 Myhra 28-33H Spacing = 4,432ft 9 Stages #2 Chad Alan 25-36H Spacing = 1,830ft Open Hole #2 Craft 27-34H Spacing = 4,067ft 9 Stages #2 William Richard 35-26H Spacing = 2,438ft Open Hole #6 Joy 26-35H Spacing = 2,812ft Open Hole #7 TTT Ranch 33-28H Spacing = 1,760ft 30 Stages #8 TTT Ranch 34-27XH Spacing = 1,629ft 23 Stages #9 Lucas 36-25H Spacing = 1,187ft 37 Stages #10 Katherine Mariah 26-35H Spacing = 1,273ft 37 Stages Copyright © 2013 Drilling Info, Inc. All rights reserved. All brand names and trademarks are the properties of their respective companies. 28
  29. 29. Daily Oil Production Rates (Relative Time) #1 Rick Clair 25-36H Spacing = 10,000ft Open Hole #2 Myhra 28-33H Spacing = 4,432ft 9 Stages #2 Chad Alan 25-36H Spacing = 1,830ft Open Hole #2 Craft 27-34H Spacing = 4,067ft 9 Stages #2 William Richard 35-26H Spacing = 2,438ft Open Hole #6 Joy 26-35H Spacing = 2,812ft Open Hole #7 TTT Ranch 33-28H Spacing = 1,760ft 30 Stages #8 TTT Ranch 34-27XH Spacing = 1,629ft 23 Stages #9 Lucas 36-25H Spacing = 1,187ft 37 Stages #10 Katherine Mariah 26-35H Spacing = 1,273ft 37 Stages The first well, with older completion technique, still one of the best producers which could be due to not having to compete for production With the high variability of engineering and completions, direct comparison of decline curves is misleading. Differences in engineering and completions must be normalized out to isolate the impact of well spacing on production Copyright © 2013 Drilling Info, Inc. All rights reserved. All brand names and trademarks are the properties of their respective companies. 29
  30. 30. What is the optimal well spacing to use? Production Profile Comparison Production Analytics Microseismic Analysis Copyright © 2013 Drilling Info, Inc. All rights reserved. All brand names and trademarks are the properties of their respective companies. 30
  31. 31. Production Normalization Long wells bad? -0.011 Correlation In order to understand the relationship between well spacing and production, the production must first be normalized None of the engineering or completion attributes have higher than a 0.26 correlation with 6 month oil production 0.237 Correlation Because of the low correlations of individual engineering/completion parameters with production, the production cannot be normalized using a single attribute Production must be normalized by the combination of key engineering and completions parameters Copyright © 2013 Drilling Info, Inc. All rights reserved. All brand names and trademarks are the properties of their respective companies. 31
  32. 32. Middle Bakken Geology: Water Cut Regional Water Cut Map -.450 Correlation Regional water cut shows geologic “sweetspots” that are driving improved performance 6 Month Cumulative Oil Production (bbl) To understand the impact of well spacing, the influence of the geology, the production must be normalized for the regional geology in addition to the engineering and completions variability Water Cut Copyright © 2013 Drilling Info, Inc. All rights reserved. All brand names and trademarks are the properties of their respective companies. 32
  33. 33. Multi-Variate 6 Month Cum Oil Model Using a non-linear, multi-variate technique, the 6 Month Cumulative Oil production was modeled using a combination of key engineering, completions, and geologic attributes: • Horizontal Length • Stage Spacing (Length/#Stages) • Proppant per Length • Water Cut • Average Well Spacing at the time of well first production Predicted 6 Month Cumulative Production 0.709 Correlation The resulting model has a 0.709 correlation coefficient between actual and prediction production Actual 6 Month Cumulative Oil Production (bbl) Copyright © 2013 Drilling Info, Inc. All rights reserved. All brand names and trademarks are the properties of their respective companies. 33
  34. 34. Multi-Variate Parameter Transformations Multi-variate model determines relationships between each input variable and production The relationships for well length, stage spacing, proppant per foot, and water cut are used to normalize the production and isolate the impact of well spacing on production Well spacing relationship indicates: • Wells begin seeing the effects of well spacing at 1,200ft • For an average engineered well in average geology, the impact of decreasing spacing from 1,200ft to 800ft is a 15% decrease in 6 Month Oil Copyright © 2013 Drilling Info, Inc. All rights reserved. All brand names and trademarks are the properties of their respective companies. 34
  35. 35. What is the optimal well spacing to use? The well spacing relationship was simulated for differing completion designs to estimate how the effects of well spacing relate to completions The effects are well spacing are predicted to be lessened by increasing the number of stages and the amount of proppant Copyright © 2013 Drilling Info, Inc. All rights reserved. All brand names and trademarks are the properties of their respective companies. 35
  36. 36. Microseismic Event Analysis Surface microseismic data acquired by the DOE for a Middle Bakken well with 6 hydraulic fracture stages Copyright © 2013 Drilling Info, Inc. All rights reserved. All brand names and trademarks are the properties of their respective companies. 36
  37. 37. Microseismic Energy Density Based on microseismic magnitude and event density, a geocellular model of microseismic energy can be created Higher microseismic energy should correlate to greater fracture conductivity Copyright © 2013 Drilling Info, Inc. All rights reserved. All brand names and trademarks are the properties of their respective companies. 37
  38. 38. Stimulated Reservoir Volume Estimate Stimulated reservoir volume can be estimated based on the extents of the microseismic energy Based on the extents of high energy density, the stimulated reservoir volume appears to have an average half-width of 600ft Copyright © 2013 Drilling Info, Inc. All rights reserved. All brand names and trademarks are the properties of their respective companies. 38
  39. 39. Stimulated Reservoir Volume Overlap Assuming Stimulated Reservoir Volume HalfWidth = 600ft Neighboring Middle Bakken well spacing: 1,500ft Stimulated Reservoir Volume Overlap = 0% Copyright © 2013 Drilling Info, Inc. All rights reserved. All brand names and trademarks are the properties of their respective companies. 39
  40. 40. Stimulated Reservoir Volume Overlap Assuming Stimulated Reservoir Volume HalfWidth = 600ft Neighboring Middle Bakken well spacing: 1,200ft Stimulated Reservoir Volume Overlap = 0% Copyright © 2013 Drilling Info, Inc. All rights reserved. All brand names and trademarks are the properties of their respective companies. 40
  41. 41. Stimulated Reservoir Volume Overlap Assuming Stimulated Reservoir Volume HalfWidth = 600ft Neighboring Middle Bakken well spacing: 1,000ft Stimulated Reservoir Volume Overlap = 17% Copyright © 2013 Drilling Info, Inc. All rights reserved. All brand names and trademarks are the properties of their respective companies. 41
  42. 42. Stimulated Reservoir Volume Overlap Assuming Stimulated Reservoir Volume HalfWidth = 600ft Neighboring Middle Bakken well spacing: 800ft Stimulated Reservoir Volume Overlap = 33% Copyright © 2013 Drilling Info, Inc. All rights reserved. All brand names and trademarks are the properties of their respective companies. 42
  43. 43. Summary (part 1) The Bakken/Three Forks petroleum system currently produces over 1% of World oil, with an estimated 7.3 Billion barrels recoverable • The Middle Bakken and multiple benches of the Three Forks are viable but not isolated producing zones • Optimizing oil recovery in the Middle Bakken and Three Forks petroleum system depends upon optimizing well spacing • Direct comparisons of decline curves and crossplots of data can be misleading and should be augmented by more advanced analytical techniques Copyright © 2013 Drilling Info, Inc. All rights reserved. All brand names and trademarks are the properties of their respective companies. 43
  44. 44. Summary (part 2) • Multi-variate analytics can normalize the impact of variable completions and geology to isolate well spacing relationships •Based on regional analysis of Middle Bakken wells, decreasing spacing from 1,200ft to 800ft appears to reduce well performance by 15 to 25% •Outside of 1,200ft spacing, Middle Bakken wells do not display negative effects on production •Effect of decreasing well spacing is less for more modern completions (more stages and proppant) than for older completions • Microseismic stimulated reservoir volume half-widths of 600 ft supports 1,200 ft spacing to avoid negative effects on production • Well spacing decisions must be made based on economics, but can be better guided using advanced statistical techniques Copyright © 2013 Drilling Info, Inc. All rights reserved. All brand names and trademarks are the properties of their respective companies. 44
  45. 45. Thanks! •DrillingInfo for access to production and well data and Transform Software •Peter Emanuel for specialized programming •North Dakota Industrial Commission Copyright © 2013 Drilling Info, Inc. All rights reserved. All brand names and trademarks are the properties of their respective companies. 45

×