The Brazilian Pipeline Community II

                     Brazil oil & ga
The Brazilian Pipeline Community II
4          The Brazilian Pipeline Community

  an Innovator in the global Pipel...
The Brazilian Pipeline Community                              5

Transpetro’s gas
pipeline network
Marcelo Renno, Natural...
The Brazilian Pipeline Community                                                      Natural gas

are nearly one hundred ...
Natural gas                                           The Brazilian Pipeline Community                              
The g...
8           The Brazilian Pipeline Community

Free standing Hybri
water Depth
Francisco E. Roveri, Petrobras Research  D...
The Brazilian Pipeline Community                                

id Riser for 1800m
   Two years ago Petrobras contracte...
10          The Brazilian Pipeline Community                                               Free standing Riser

and offset...
Free standing Riser                                    The Brazilian Pipeline Community                             11
12         The Brazilian Pipeline Community                                            Free standing Riser

Free standing Riser                                     The Brazilian Pipeline Community                             13
14         The Brazilian Pipeline Community                                           Free standing Riser

nitrogen filled...
Free standing Riser                                    The Brazilian Pipeline Community                             15
1         The Brazilian Pipeline Community                                             Free standing Riser

Along the vert...
Free standing Riser                                     The Brazilian Pipeline Community                            1
18           The Brazilian Pipeline Community

        Improving pipelin
  The PRODUT program helps Petrobras improve o...
The Brazilian Pipeline Community                             1

ne performance
iability, increase capacity, and maintain ...
20         The Brazilian Pipeline Community Improving Pipeline Performance

pipeline system, and is developing        Risk...
Brazilian Pipeline Community 2
Brazilian Pipeline Community 2
Brazilian Pipeline Community 2
Brazilian Pipeline Community 2
Brazilian Pipeline Community 2
Brazilian Pipeline Community 2
Brazilian Pipeline Community 2
Brazilian Pipeline Community 2
Brazilian Pipeline Community 2
Brazilian Pipeline Community 2
Brazilian Pipeline Community 2
Brazilian Pipeline Community 2
Brazilian Pipeline Community 2
Brazilian Pipeline Community 2
Brazilian Pipeline Community 2
Brazilian Pipeline Community 2
Brazilian Pipeline Community 2
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Brazilian Pipeline Community 2

  1. 1. The Brazilian Pipeline Community II Brazil oil & ga EPRASHEED signature series Supplement to Brazil oil & gas
  2. 2. The Brazilian Pipeline Community II Contents INTRODUCTION Brazil: An Innovator in the Global Pipeline Community 4 João Carlos de Luca President, IBP TRaNsPeTRO´s gas PIPelINe NeTwORk By Marcelo Renno, Natural Gas Director of Transpetro 5 The Brazilian Institute of Petroleum and Gas (IBP) with the support of its Pipe- line Commission has been working to FRee sTaNDINg HYBRID RIseR FOR 1800 M waTeR DePTH By Francisco E. Roveri, Petrobras Research & Development Center - 8 develop Brazil’s pipeline industry by CENPES and Paulo Ricardo F. Pessoa, Petrobras Subsea Engineering helping companies in this sector oper- Services - E&P - SERV and Francisco Henrique, Petrobras ate in a profitable, efficient, ethical and socially responsible way. In this context, the Commission pro- IMPROvINg PIPelINe PeRFORMaNCe The PRODUT program helps Petrobras improve operational reliability, 18 motes the exchange of ideas and ex- increase capacity, and maintain environmental safety. By Ney Passos, Petrobras Brasil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, Brazil 23 perience amongst professionals in this industry and is active in the areas of norms standardization, promoting in- CTDUT - a PaRTNeR IN R&D PROjeCTs ternational trade missions and in the By Stella Faria Nunes - CTDUT, Project Manager and Raimar Van den organization of courses and events. Bylaardt, President CTDUT 28 Among the latter we can highlight the Rio Pipeline Conference and Exhibi- CTDUT – a sHaReD sOlUTION FOR THe DevelOPMeNT OF tion as a world class forum to debate PIPelINe TeCHNOlOgY the major issues facing the international By Arthur J. F. Braga – CTDUT, Executive Manager and Sergio Damasceno pipeline industry. Soares – PETROBRAS/CENPES, Engineer, MSC sUPPORTINg aCaDeMIC DevelOPMeNT With its Award for Pipeline Technology, Petrobras rewards new talent, 31 and develops institutional marketing. By Wajid Rasheed sOCIal ageNDa - sHaReD ResPONsIBIlITY BRINgs BeNeFITs Petrobras has a long and healthy tradition of social responsibility that 32 stretches back to the company’s birth in the 1950s. Wajid Rasheed By Wajid Rasheed CEO & Founder, EPRasheed editors Publisher Marcelo Renno, Francisco E. Roveri, Francisco Wajid Rasheed Brazil has the potential to export world Henrique, Andre Raposo, Paulo Ricardo F. Pessoa, class technology and services. For this Ney Passos, Stella Faria Nunes, Raimar Van den to happen, an export culture needs Bylaardt, Arthur J. F. Braga and Sergio Damasceno Soares Managing editor to be cultivated. Part of this culture is Majid Rasheed a single source of technical material that focuses on Brazil while including the wider international observers. This supplement ‘The Brazilian Pipeline Brazil oil & gas EPRASHEED signature series Community’ is a channel for companies, both oil and service to share expertise Brazil oil & gas with the wider export market. Norway oil & gas
  3. 3. 4 The Brazilian Pipeline Community INTRODUCTION Brazil: an Innovator in the global Pipeline Community By Wajid Rasheed This Pipeline technology field report corporate head office, asset teams, Innovations also extend to programs highlights a truly fascinating and vi- and its technology research center. that work with and give back to sionary array of oil and gas pipeline- Using an interdisciplinary approach, the community. In fact, Petrobras related technologies. Fascinating not teams have developed innovative has for decades recognized the only because of the diversity of the methods for several pipeline-related need for environmental and social technology, but also due to the com- operations challenges. These include responsibility. Since its origins in the plex nature of each technological de- flow assurance and maintenance 1950s, the company has worked to velopment program. methods that effectively combat and foster interaction and participation remediate blockage in deepwater of local communities. It has provided Visionary because even though pipelines and new riser design. forums which allow affected operators “own” field problems, it Environmental responsibility also communities to present their ideas is only through visionary minds means looking for new ways to regarding responsible hydrocarbon and longterm partnerships that prevent and detect pipeline leaks. production and transportation. these problems can be solved. Here, new techniques provide yet Consequently, select R&D more opportunity for innovation. And, with its Award for Pipeline partnerships between CTDUT, Technology, Petrobras supports service companies and Petrobras Petrobras’ innovations also extend academic achievement in a way that mean the oil and gas industry can to its PRODUT program, which rewards new talent and provides continue to progress. works to develop new systems and institutional marketing, while technologies that improve opera- helping to create a new generation This progress has been achieved by tional reliability, increase capacity, of innovative minds that will benefit key relationships between Petrobras’ and maintain environmental safety. society as a whole.
  4. 4. The Brazilian Pipeline Community 5 Transpetro’s gas pipeline network Marcelo Renno, Natural Gas Director of Transpetro Introduction 114 million m3. To complement the The consumption of natural gas domestic gas supply, Petrobras will has been increasing very rapidly also import Liquefied Natural Gas over the years. Globally, natural gas (LNG). currently supplies around 25% of energy demand worldwide and it is In order to cope with this growth, expected to grow 50% in the next 20 Petrobras has been investing years. heavily in new gas pipelines and installations for the processing of In Brazil, natural gas has been in gas and condensates. Consequently, use since the 1960´s when the first the gas pipeline network operated by gas pipeline was built, connecting Transpetro will expand from current Northern and Septentrional- the States of Bahia and Sergipe. 4,000 km to around 8,000 km in Northeast Network (States of Natural gas exploration continued 2011. Amazonas, Ceará, Rio Grande do and new reserves were discovered, Norte, Paraíba, Pernambuco and part leading to the expansion of the Cabiúnas, the largest natural of Alagoas), Meridional-Northeast pipeline network. However, the gas processing center in Brazil, and Espírito Santo Network (States largest growth in demand took place responsible for the outflow of all the of Sergipe, Bahia, part of Alagoas and during the current decade, with the natural gas produced at the Campos Espírito Santo), and Southeast and completion of the Bolívia-Brazil gas Basin, will also be expanded: the Southern Network (States of Rio de pipeline – Gasbol – and the resulting second Natural Gas Condensate Janeiro, Minas Gerais and São Paulo). increase in gas availability. Processing Unit (UPCGN II) is Each network is administered by a under construction and will be regional management office, which The use of natural gas is likely to operational in 2007, doubling the is responsible for the maintenance of increase even further, with its share capacity of liquid gas processing. the facilities and execution of local in the Brazilian energy matrix With the implantation of the operations. growing from the current 9.3% to third Liquid Gas Recovery Unit 12% in the year 2010. (URL III) and the third Natural To optimize pipeline capacity, natu- Gas Condensate Processing Plant ral gas has to be compressed along Transpetro, a wholly owned subsidi- (UPCGN III), Cabiúnas will reach the way. Therefore, ten compression ary of Petrobras, responsible for its a processing capacity of 20 million stations are distributed in the North- transportation activities, transports 75% of all the natural gas currently m3 per day. east and Southeast regions of Brazil consumed in Brazil. In 2006, the and three more are about to begin average transported was 34 million The gas Pipeline Network operations. m3 per day for a consumption of 46 Operated by Transpetro – million m3. In 2012, when demand Today Natural gas is supplied to the local should grow to an estimated 134 mil- Due to the long distances involved, distribution companies (LDC) lion m3 per day, the transportation Transpetro’s gas pipeline network through city gates where it is average by Transpetro should reach had to be divided into three regions: treated, filtered and measured. There
  5. 5. The Brazilian Pipeline Community Natural gas are nearly one hundred city gates increasing the domestic natural gas The Gasene will be completed by distributed in the Northeast and supply by developing large projects 2009. This pipeline will be formed Southeast regions of Brazil. in Santos (São Paulo State), Espírito by three stretches: from Cabiúnas Santo and Campos Basins. To (Rio de Janeiro State) to Vitória Demand vs. supply transport this additional volume, (Espírito Santo State), from Vitória In addition to domestic production the company is expanding the to Cacimbas (Espírito Santo State), Petrobras imports natural gas gas pipeline network. As a result, and from Cacimbas to Catu (Bahia from Bolivia to meet the growing the network under Transpetro’s State), totaling nearly 1,000 km. demand. The gas comes from responsibility will nearly triple. The first and second stretches will Bolivia through the Gasbol pipeline, be operational in 2007 and the third operated and maintained in Brazil The first tranche of the gas pipeline stretch should begin to operate in by TBG – Transportadora Brasileira Campinas-Rio is already in 2009. do Gasoduto Bolívia-Brasil. operation. Adding up to almost 500 km when the second tranche is The expansion projects also include In 2006, Petrobras imported an completed, this pipeline will greatly the construction of the Urucu-Coari- average of 24.7 million m3 per day enhance transportation flexibility in Manaus gas pipeline in the Amazon — an increase of 9% in relation to the Southeast, allowing the domestic region. When it is completed, the volume in 2005. production of Santos Basin and Transpetro’s pipeline network will the imported gas from Bolívia to stretch to the northern region of As shown in the chart below, be supplied to East and Northeast Brazil, once beyond reach. investments to increase domestic Brazil. Although the State of Minas Gerais supply, imports of LNG and gas from Another strategic gas pipeline under is supplied through the Gasbel Bolivia will almost triple natural gas construction is the Northeast- pipeline (from Duque de Caxias supply in the next five years. Southwest Interconnection Gas Refinery in Rio de Janeiro), the Pipeline - Gasene. Through this demand for natural gas has exceeded The expansion interconnection, gas supplies can current capacity. The Gasbel II As part of its effort to deal with the be moved from one Region to the pipeline, under construction, will impressive growth of natural gas other as need arises, increasing the complement the supply to that demand, Petrobras is significantly reliability of the Petrobras System. region. Natural gas Market Demand and supply
  6. 6. Natural gas The Brazilian Pipeline Community The gas pipeline network expansion Plangás liquefied Natural gas program is shown on the map According to its strategy of The introduction of LNG in the below. Brazilian energy scenario will developing and consolidating the market, Petrobras is making large constitute a new challenge as large Natural gas Processing additional volumes are processed Transpetro also operates the largest investments through the Plan to and moved and new technologies natural gas processing plant in Brazil advance the production of Natural mastered. Transpetro and Petrobras - Cabiúnas Terminal - located in Gas, known in Brazil as Plangás. The are actively seeking expertise in this Macaé, State of Rio de Janeiro. supply of domestic gas to Southeast area. This unit processes almost all the Brazil will be increased in two gas produced in the Campos Basin, stages —first, by 2008, from the Regarding LNG, units for reception, which is the largest oil and gas current 15.8 million m3 per day to storage and regasification will production basin in Brazil. 40 million m3 per day; second, by be installed by 2008 in floating 2010, output will reach 55 million terminals at Pecém in Ceará, and The Cabiúnas Terminal has the m3 per day. Baía de Guanabara in Rio de Janeiro, capacity to process nearly 15 with the capacity to provide a further million m3/day of natural gas. The 20 million m³ per day to the market. Cabiúnas Terminal is a key unit main products that come from the The choice of regasification unit type to Plangás. Its installations will be was based in the shorter lead time unit today are liquefied petroleum expanded with the construction of required, given the need to assure a gas (LPG) and natural gas liquids new units for natural gas treatment, timely and flexible supply of natural (NGL). liquid recover, and natural gas gas to Brazil and in particular, to its The Terminal has five processing condensate processing. The project gas-fired thermo-electrical power plants – natural gas (UPGN), will increase the current processing plants. refrigeration of natural gas (URGN), capacity from 15 million of m3 per natural gas condensates (UPCGN), day to 20 million m3 by 2009. In Conclusion addition, LPG production will grow Although natural gas has been used and two for the recovery of liquids from 500 to 1,000 tons per day in in Brazil since the 1960s, with the (URLs). A second UPCGN will development and production of enter in service by 2007. 2011. reserves in Bahia, it only became significant by 2000 when a gas pipeline connecting Brazil to Bolívia began to operate. Given its increasing availability and environmental friendliness, natural gas demand has grown impressively over the last few years. To meet this rising demand, Petrobras has been investing heavily to improve and expand the natural gas supply network. The expansion of the gas pipeline network and the largest processing plant will be critical to ensure that the domestic natural gas supply in Brazil will meet the growth in demand. Petrobras will also enter in the LNG market as an importer. This, in addition to gas from Bolívia, will complement the domestic supply in attending a demand that will reach 134 million of m3 per day in 2012.
  7. 7. 8 The Brazilian Pipeline Community Free standing Hybri water Depth Francisco E. Roveri, Petrobras Research Development Center - CENPES, Paulo Ricardo F. Pessoa, Petrobras Subsea Engineering Services - EP - SERV and Francisco Henrique, Petrobras The oil exportation of the P52 semi-submersible plat- form, located in the Roncador field in 1800 meters water depth is designed to utilize an 18 inch OD FSHR (Free Standing Hybrid Riser). This alternative was developed through a FEED (Front End Engineering Design) con- tracted to 2H Offshore, according to technical specifi- cations and functional requirements provided by Petro- bras. Flow assurance studies require 50 mm thermal insulation material for the vertical portion of the riser. The high expected production rates the vertical portion of the FSHR sys- to the FPU, whereas at GC29 the of the P52 platform require an 18 tem and its vessel interface loads are vertical portion of the riser was in- inches oil export pipeline. The in- small when compared with SCRs or stalled by the FPU and was located strumented pigging requirements flexible pipe solutions. Therefore it is underneath the derrick. dictate the export riser to have the an attractive alternative solution for same diameter. This large bore speci- this kind of application. There are Petrobras has been studying the hy- fication combined with the deep wa- further cost savings associated with brid riser concept for some years. ter site put this application outside this concept due to the added advan- Five years ago this alternative was the present feasibility range of solu- tage of having the riser in place prior considered for conceptual stud- tions such as flexile pipes and steel to the installation of the FPU. ies at Albacora Leste field, in 1290 catenary risers (SCRs). Both these meters water depth, for the P50 tur- solutions present high top tension The hybrid riser concept, which ret moored FPSO. Two alternatives loads for installation and operation. combines rigid (steel) pipes with were considered for comparison: a flexible pipes has been utilized by Steel Lazy Wave Riser (SLWR) and The lateral buckling failure mode in the offshore industry since the 80’s. one concept combining rigid and flexible pipes and the fatigue damage The Riser Tower first installed by flexible pipes. in the touch down zone (TDZ) of Placid Oil [1] at Gulf of Mexico in SCRs are further design limitations Green Canyon 29 was refurbished In 2003 Petrobras contracted the currently only solved by the use of and re¬utilized by Enserch. More re- conceptual study development of heavier pipes which further compro- cently, the concept underwent some the Riser Tower solution for the star- mise hangoff loads in a negative de- changes for application at Girassol board side 8 inches production lines sign spiral. field [2] in Angola, where three tow- of the P52 semi-submersible plat- ers were installed by TFE. Other ref- form. The FSHR system has a reduced dy- erence papers are [3], [4] and [5]. namic response, as a result of signifi- Two towers were considered, each cant motion decoupling between the The Riser Towers at Girassol field are one comprising seven production Floating Production Unit (FPU) and positioned with an offset with regard lines and one spare line.
  8. 8. The Brazilian Pipeline Community id Riser for 1800m Two years ago Petrobras contracted 2H to provide the feasibility studies of an export oil FSHR to be utilized at P40. Due to changes in field development planning, the study was further developed for the P51 and P52 semi-submersible platforms. Five water and gas injection the zone of influence of wave and be kept always in tension in order to monobore FSHRs (10 to 12 inches) high current. A gooseneck assem- keep the FSHR stable for all the load have recently been installed in West bly is located on top of the buoy- cases. Africa offshore Angola, at Kizomba ancy can. A flexible jumper links the field in about 1200 meters water gooseneck to the FPU and signifi- The riser pipe passes through a in- depth. The design of these risers cantly decouples the vertical part of ner 36 inches OD stem within the has some key differences to the con- the FSHR from the vessel motions. buoyancy can, and is guided within cept presented in this paper, each of the stem by centralizers. Where the which offers different design and op- The foundation may typically be off- riser pipe is subject to high bending erational advantages. set from the FPU by more than 200 loads such as the keel ball centralizer meters, depending on the optimiza- on the buoyancy can, taper joints are Two years ago Petrobras contracted tion study, which takes into consid- used to reduce the stress in the riser 2H to provide the feasibility studies eration the following parameters: (a) pipe. The buoyancy can is secured to of an export oil FSHR to be utilized flexible jumper length, (b) riser base the riser pipe at the top of the can by at P40. Due to changes in field de- offset, (c) buoyancy can depth, (d) means of a bolted connection. velopment planning, the study was net upthrust provided by the buoy- further developed for the P51 and At the top of the free-standing riser ancy can and (e) the azimuth of the P52 semi¬submersible platforms. is the gooseneck assembly. This as- FSHR system. sembly consists primarily of the system Description The FSHR goes from the #1 hangoff gooseneck and an ROV actuated hy- The FSHR design may have a number draulic connector which allows the slot at P52 to the Pipeline End Ter- of variants. The one described below gooseneck and flexible jumper to be mination (PLET) located near the is the base case considered for P52 installed separately from the vertical riser base. The lower end of the verti- oil export riser to be installed from section of the riser. The gooseneck a MODU due to the availability of cal part interfaces with a stress joint. assembly also includes a cross-brace such vessels already under contract Below the stress joint there is the tied to a support spool in order to at Campos Basin. The required de- offtake spool, which connects to the provide support against the load- sign life is 25 years. foundation by means of a hydraulic ing applied to the gooseneck from connector. A rigid base jumper con- the flexible jumper. Attached to the The FSHR consists of a single near nects the mandrels located at the gooseneck is the flexible jumper. The vertical steel pipe connected to a offtake spool and PLET, providing flexible jumper connects the free- foundation system at the mud line the link between the FSHR and the standing section of the riser system region. The riser is tensioned by pipeline. The foundation pile will be to the vessel, and includes bend stiff- means of a buoyancy can, which is drilled and grouted. eners to ensure that the range of ro- mechanically connected to the top tations experienced at the end con- of the vertical pipe. The riser pipe The tension is given by the upthrust nections do not damage the jumper passes through the central stem of provided by the nitrogen filled due to low radius of curvature. The the buoyancy can, which is located buoyancy can located on top of the flexible jumper has enough compli- below the sea level, therefore beyond vertical pipe. The vertical pipe shall ance such that the vessel motions
  9. 9. 10 The Brazilian Pipeline Community Free standing Riser and offsets are substantially decou- the flexible jumper during installa- The vertical part of the FSHR is an pled from the vertical portion of the tion as the procedure is similar to assembly of standard joints and spe- FSHR system, and consequently the that of a shallow water flexible riser cial joints, such as the stress joints at wave-induced dynamic response of with the first end at the top of the the bottom and top interfaces. The the free standing riser is low. buoyancy can. This design also fa- main characteristics of the standard cilitates and minimizes the time for joints are presented at table 2 below. Differences from existing design flexible jumper retrieval in case The position of the gooseneck in of damage, in service, to any of relation to the buoyancy can is the its components such as stiffener, main difference between the West end-fittings or pipe outer sheath. African and P52 FSHR designs. In On the other hand, it is necessary the earlier design, the gooseneck is to have a continual vertical riser positioned below the buoyancy can string right through the centre and the vertical riser is tensioned of the buoyancy can to provide by the can via a flexible linkage or Table 2 - Characteristics of the standard joint chain. a connection hub for the flexible jumper at the top. This arrangement The main characteristics of the This arrangement simplifies the introduces interfaces between the flexible jumper are presented in interface between the buoyancy can riser string and buoyancy can which table 3. and vertical riser, and allows pre- have to be carefully analyzed and assembly of the flexible jumper to engineered. In addition, installation Components of the lower the gooseneck before deployment analysis has also to be conducted to Riser assembly of the vertical riser. However, in the assess the loads on the riser string The lower part of the FSHR is lo- event of flexible jumper replacement during deployment through the cated above the foundation and or repair, an elaborate jumper buoyancy can. consists of three components: the disconnection system needs to be offtake spool, the lower taper joint employed below the buoyancy can. Other differences are the founda- and the lower adapter joint. The as- tion type (suction piles x drilled and sembly interfaces with the seabed Positioning the gooseneck at the top grouted pile) and bottom interface foundation at the bottom and the of the buoyancy can allows for inde- (flexjoint x tapered stress joint). lower cross-over. pendent installation of vertical riser and flexible jumper. A flexible pipe Characteristics of Offtake spool installation vessel can install the flex- Components The offtake spool is a cylindrical ible jumper at a time of convenience. The main characteristics of the component approximately 1.80m This minimizes the risk of damage to FSHR system are presented in table tall and 1.04m external, cast from 1 below. 50ksi steel. The spool contains a flow path that travels through the top of the spool and exits from the side via Table 1 - FSHR main characteristics
  10. 10. Free standing Riser The Brazilian Pipeline Community 11 collar which is used during trans- taper joint, buoyancy can adapter portation and installation. joint and buoyancy can upper taper joint. This region is subjected to high Its function is to provide an in- bending moments due to the inter- terface and stiffness transition action of the riser with the buoyancy between the lower taper joint can, and thus a stiffened length is re- and the standard riser line pipe quired to control the stresses during joints. Its length is such that it extreme and fatigue loads. facilitates pre-assembly of the components to the buoyancy can Upper Adaptor Joint for transportation offshore. Weld The upper adapter joint is as the tran- on compact flanges connections are sition between the standard riser line Table 3 - Characteristics of flexible jumper utilized at both extremities. pipe and the thickened pipe used in the taper joint assembly. It consists an offtake. The offtake, formed as an Riser line pipe of two joints of pipe fabricated from induction bend that exists from the A special joint called a lower cross- a 65ksi grade steel. side of the spool, presents an upward over joint is located just above the facing mandrel for connection of lower adapter joint and forms the Upper Adaptor Extension Joint the rigid base jumper. A weld on the connection between the lower riser The upper adapter extension joint compact flange connects the offtake assembly and the standard riser line is a 10.5m long forged component to the side of the spool. pipe joints. with an integral compact flange at the upper end, and a weld on com- The offtake spool has a studded bot- Lower cross-over joint pact flange at the lower end. The tom for interface with the base con- The lower cross-over joint consists joint is located between the upper nector and a studded top for inter- of 12.2m joint of standard riser adapter joint and the buoyancy can face with the lower taper joint. pipe with 15.9mm wall thickness. lower taper joint, which is a critical At the lower end there is a weld on location for both extreme stress and Lower taper joint the profile. At the upper end of the fatigue loading. It is fabricated from The lower taper joint is a forged joint is a handling collar with a weld 80ksi yield strength material. component fabricated from 80ksi profile above it to enable the joint to yield strength material. This is a high be welded to the standard riser line Buoyancy Can Lower Taper Joint specification component designed to pipe. The buoyancy can lower taper joint is control the bending at the base of a forged component fabricated from the riser. Standard joints a material with 80ksi yield strength. The riser line pipe consists of ap- The joint is 10.8m in length and It is a 10.4m long component with proximately 58 double riser joints of includes a double taper profile and a linearly decreasing wall thickness 18inch outer diameter and 15.9mm a shoulder for the keel ball located and its profile is optimized to with- wall thickness. It is specified as 65 at the centre of the joint. The taper stand both extreme loads and long ksi grade steel. Each double joint profiles are both linear. At the centre term fatigue loading. The upper end has a handling collar welded at the of the joint is the keel ball. The keel is connected to the lower end of the top of the joint to allow it to be han- ball interfaces with the buoyancy can lower adapter joint via a weld on dled using standard or adapted cas- central stem to provide centralization compact flange connection. ing handling tools. The double joint of the riser as it enters the bottom length including the handling collar of the buoyancy can stem. The keel Lower Adaptor Joint is 25.9m. ball consists of a solid ring, which is The lower adapter joint is a 28.5m located on the buoyancy can lower long section with 31.8mm wall Bouyancy can taper joint assem- taper joint above the shoulder. thickness. The pipe is fabricated bly from a 65 ksi grade material, from At the top of the riser line pipe string Buoyancy Can Adapter Joint two standard pipe sections welded is the buoyancy can taper joint as- The buoyancy can adapter joint is lo- together and a shorter pipe sec- sembly. The assembly consists of the cated within the buoyancy can, and tion to achieve the required length. upper adapter joint, upper adapter connects the buoyancy can lower ta- Welded to the top is a seafastening extension joint, buoyancy can lower per joint to the buoyancy can upper
  11. 11. 12 The Brazilian Pipeline Community Free standing Riser The lower part of the FSHR is located above the foundation and consists of three components: the offtake spool, the lower taper joint and the lower adapter joint. The assembly interfaces with the seabed foundation at the bottom and the lower cross-over. taper joint. The adapter joint con- Load Monitoring Spool sure slightly above the external pres- sists of two sections of special riser The load monitoring spool (LMS) sure of water. This approach resulted line pipe with 19” outer diameter consists of a 1.1m long joint, with in the thickness of the buoyancy can and 31.8mm wall thickness, manu- 38inch OD and 1inch wall thick- to be 5/8inch. factured from a 65 ksi grade steel. Its ness, fabricated from 65ksi grade length is 23.58m. Both ends of the line pipe. It has flange connections Running along the longitudinal axis joint are fitted with weld-on compact at both ends. The spool is located be- is a 36inch outer diameter central flange connections, which also act as tween the buoyancy can top and the stem, with a 1inch wall thickness, the location point for centralisers for buoyancy can upper taper joint. Its through which the riser string controlling the curvature of the riser passes. function is to transfer the upthrust within the extension of the buoyan- generated by the buoyancy can into cy can. There are thus four contact At the bottom of the buoyancy can, the riser string. points between the riser string with a 2.25m long keel extension is fitted the buoyancy can stem: one at the which consists of a continuation of top, two intermediate and one at the The spool will be fitted with load the 36” stem pipe. The keel ball on keel ball. The last three provide only measuring sensors in order to moni- the buoyancy can lower taper joint horizontal restraint whereas the first tor the integrity of the riser system. reacts against the keel extension, cause the riser and buoyancy can to The monitored forces will be trans- which is fitted with an oil impreg- have the same linear and angular dis- mitted to the production platform. nated bronze liner to reduce wear. placements in the three directions. The buoyancy can is connected to The upthrust is transmitted by the the riser via a load shoulder located Buoyancy Can Upper Taper Joint buoyancy can to the load monitoring at the buoyancy can upper taper The buoyancy can upper taper joint spool base. The spool is compressed joint, to which the load monitoring is a forged component located at the and transmits the load to a shoulder spool is attached. The bottom of the top of the riser string, between the located at top of the buoyancy can load monitoring spool is positively buoyancy can adapter joint and the upper taper joint. The load is then connect to the top of the buoyancy gooseneck. The joint is fabricated transmitted to the riser string, which can by bolts. from 80ksi yield strength steel and will be in tension, providing then its length is 7.7m. At the top of the stability to the system. The buoyancy can is de-watered by tapered section of the joint is a load means of ports located on the side of shoulder with a flange profile, to each compartment. Each compart- Buoyancy Can Assembly which the load monitoring spool is ment features an inlet and an outlet The vertical section of the riser sys- bolted. The load monitoring spool port. During de-watering nitrogen is in turn connects the load shoulder tem is tensioned utilizing a nitrogen injected into the can at pressure and on the top of the buoyancy can. This filled buoyancy can. The can is a the buoyancy can compartment is provides the connection between the cylindrical design, 36.5m in length slightly overpressurized with regard buoyancy can and the riser string. and 5.5m in diameter, fabricated to the water pressure outside. from 50ksi yield material. It contains At the top of the buoyancy can up- 16 compartments, each of 2.14m in The buoyancy can design is such per taper joint is a 16-3/4” 10ksi height, separated by bulkheads. The that at least one of the 16 compart- connector mandrel, to which the buoyancy can is designed to be pres- ment is maintained permanently gooseneck connector is attached. sure balanced, with the internal pres- water filled as a contingency. Should
  12. 12. Free standing Riser The Brazilian Pipeline Community 13 one compartment fail in service, a contingency compartment can be The base case installation procedure is defined de-watered in order to keep the op- such that the FSHR can be installed using erational tension in the riser string. the P23 MODU. The procedure requires the The difference between the internal buoyancy can to be transported to the work and external pressures corresponds to the length of each compartment. site separately from the riser, then positioned Gooseneck assembly beneath the drilling rig. The components located at the up- per part of the system are described FSHR end and the production plat- connected to the foundation. Some hereinafter. form end of the jumper. steps of the installation procedure is shown hereinafter. Hydraulic Connector Flexible Jumper A 16-3/4inch-10ksi hydraulic con- The flexible jumper is a 16inch in- Firstly some components of the low- ternal diameter, 425 meters long er part (hydraulic connector, offtake nector is utilized to attach the goose- and rated for 3000 psi design pres- spool, lower taper joint and lower neck to the riser string. The con- sure and 90ºC design temperature. adaptor joint) are assembled to the nector is hydraulically locked, and buoyancy can. actuated via an ROV stab. The role of the connector is to allow the flexible End Terminations Buoyancy can lifting onto barge jumper to be retrieved during service At both ends of the flexible jump- The buoyancy can is lifted from the should the jumper be required to be er are end termination assemblies yard by a crane and positioned onto fixed or replaced. as specified by the flexible jumper the barge. After that a seafastening is manufacturer. At both ends of the provided in order to resist the barge Gooseneck jumper the termination is required motions during transportation to At the top of the system is the goose- to interface with a compact flange site. neck, which provides the change connection. from the vertical section to the flex- Transportation of the buoyancy ible jumper to the production plat- Bend Stiffeners can form. The gooseneck is a curved Bend stiffeners are located at both The buoyancy can and the pre-in- pipe, formed using induction bend- ends of the flexible jumper. Each stalled lower riser assembly within ing with a 3D minimum bend radi- stiffener is designed to meet the pre- the buoyancy can stem are trans- us. The lower end of the gooseneck dicted range of jumper rotations at ported to the site of deployment. is attached to the gooseneck support the both the gooseneck attachment spool, which in turn is connected to Transfer of the buoyancy can to and at the production platform con- the water the API flange on the connector. nection. The bend stiffeners are de- At the proximities of the produc- signed and manufactured according tion platform, the buoyancy can and Gooseneck support to the details specified by the flexible lower riser assembly are transferred The gooseneck is braced by a struc- jumper manufacturer. from the transportation barge to the tural beam which connects between water, by a controlled flooding of the upper end of the gooseneck and Installation the barge and sliding the buoyancy the gooseneck support spool at the The base case installation procedure can. At this state, a wire rope con- lower end of the gooseneck. The is defined such that the FSHR can be nects the top of buoyancy can to the support brace and support spool installed using the P23 MODU. The derrick of the MODU. provide a load path for the loading procedure requires the buoyancy can applied to the riser from the flexible to be transported to the work site Transfer of the buoyancy can to jumper, and prevent overstressing of separately from the riser, then posi- the MODU the gooseneck. tioned beneath the drilling rig. The After separation of the transporta- riser is installed by continually join- tion barge, the uprighting of the Flexible Jumper Assembly ing and running the riser through buoyancy can is initiated, by means The flexible jumper assembly consists the buoyancy can. Once fully assem- of a controlled flooding of some of the flexible jumper, end termina- bled, the entire riser is then lowered compartments. At this stage the tions and bend stiffeners at both the to the seabed using drill collars and buoyancy can has 4 compartments
  13. 13. 14 The Brazilian Pipeline Community Free standing Riser nitrogen filled, thus having overall remaining four chains with longer between the load monitoring spool negative buoyancy. The keel haul- chains using the full stroke range of (attached to the upper taper joint), ing process is then initiated, and the the tensioners. Extension chains are and the buoyancy can is made up, weight of the buoyancy can is trans- then added to the 4 tensioners with and thus a fixed connection between ferred gradually to the derrick of the shorter chains such that all eight the riser and the buoyancy can is MODU. tensioners are used. The buoyancy made. can upper end is connected by hori- Buoyancy can beneath the MODU zontal wire ropes to pulleys located Lowering of the riser string and At the end of the keel hauling proc- in strong points at the pontoon level buoyancy can ess, the buoyancy can will be beneath and to winches at the deck, such as The lateral restraint wire ropes are the MODU derrick, still supported to control the horizontal motions of by the wire rope connected to the the can. removed and the buoyancy can is platform. released from the drilling riser ten- The remaining standard riser joints sioning system. The riser string and Buoyancy can supported by ten- are welded at the drill floor and run buoyancy can assembly is then low- sioners through the buoyancy can. The riser ered by using drill collars. After that the buoyancy can is lifted is allowed to water fill during de- until its upper end is approximately ployment. Riser string close to stab-in 0.5m below the Lower Deck of the During the lowering process, nitro- MODU and its weight is transferred Lowering of the Buoyancy Can gen is pumped under pressure into from the keel hauling wire rope to the top 4 compartments of the buoy- Upper Taper Joint to the top of the MODU drilling riser tensioning ancy can via a temporary manifold the buoyancy can system. system to prevent them from filling Once all standard riser joints are welded together, the upper riser with water. Prior to landing, a fur- Lowering of riser joints joints consisting of the upper adapt- ther 2 compartments are de¬watered The procedure for deploying the ris- er joints is shown hereinafter. er joint, the upper adapter extension to reduce the net weight of the riser joint, the buoyancy can lower taper system to allow it to be landed using Lower Cross Over connection joint, the buoyancy can adapter joint the motion compensator. The Lower Cross Over Joint is the and the buoyancy can upper taper first connection to be made to the joint are run. These joints are made- Riser landed on the foundation pre-installed components of the up using flange connections. A riser pile and locked down FSHR system within the stem of the running string is then attached to The bottom of the riser is landed on buoyancy can. After the connection the connector mandrel profile at the the foundation pile, the orientation is made, the seafastening collar at the top of the buoyancy can upper taper is set by a helix to ensure that the top of the buoyancy can is removed. joint, and the riser string is lowered lower offtake is in correct alignment through the drill floor and lowered with the PLET, and the FSHR is Lowering of the Lower Cross Over to the top of the buoyancy can. locked down using an ROV. Joint and first Standard joint After the first connection aforemen- tioned is made, the Lower Cross Lifting of the buoyancy can and After lock down of the hydraulic Over and the first Standard joints riser string connector, it is necessary to tension are deployed, such as the lower ex- Both the buoyancy can and the riser the string by means of the drill col- tremity of the string is approximate- string are then raised together to the lar, with two objectives: to test the ly 40 meters below the buoyancy can level of the moonpool, where the hydraulic connector and to provide lower end. riser string is landed on the top of stability to the system, before initi- the buoyancy can with a small land- ating de-watering of the buoyancy Lowering of the buoyancy can ing weight. The flange connection can. for deployment of the remaining joints The buoyancy can is then lowered until its upper end is placed at the The remaining standard riser joints are pontoon deck level. The buoyancy welded at the drill floor and run through can is lowered by supporting the can on four padeyes on short chains, the buoyancy can. The riser is allowed to then transferring the load to the water fill during deployment.
  14. 14. Free standing Riser The Brazilian Pipeline Community 15 The design of an FSHR typically involves Riser Response and Design Drivers an upfront global analysis of the system Extreme Storm to optimize the riser configuration. As the riser and buoyancy can are located away from the wave zone Parameters to be varied are offset from the and surface current region, the di- production platform, depth of buoyancy rect wave loading on the system is low. The flexible jumper connecting can, flexible jumper length and net the vertical section of the riser to the upthrust provided by the buoyancy can. production platform significantly decouples the riser motions from the vessel excursions and first order De-watering of the buoyancy can Design approach motions. After lock down of the hydraulic The design of an FSHR typically The riser response is driven largely connector, the stability of the system involves an upfront global analysis by current and vessel offset, which is partly due to the tension applied of the system to optimize the riser causes an increase in loading in the by the drill collar string. The ROV configuration. Parameters to be gooseneck and also at the riser low- starts the de-watering process of varied are offset from the produc- er end. However this can be solved the buoyancy can compartments by tion platform, depth of buoyancy by local strengthening of the com- means of injecting nitrogen. As long can, flexible jumper length and net ponents. Another critical region is upthrust provided by the buoyancy where the riser exits the base of the as the de-watering proceeds, the ten- can. Clearance maybe an issue and buoyancy can and a taper joint is sion applied by the MODU is de- interference with adjacent risers or required to withstand the interface creased, such as to keep the resulting mooring lines drives the choice of tension approximately constant. At loads. the system layout. Following the se- the end of the process, the tension lection of the system configuration, provided by the buoyancy can allows At both ends of the flexible jumper, global storm and fatigue analyses are the riser to free-stand and the drill conducted to define the functional bend stiffeners are necessary to keep collar string is disconnected from loadings on the critical riser compo- the curvatures in the flexible pipe nents as well as Stress Concentration within plots of typical bending mo- the top of the buoyancy can. Factors (SCFs) requirements. ment distribution along the riser After conclusion of this process the length under extreme storm shows flexible jumper is installed. The in- The FSHR comprises special com- two peaks, one at the riser base and stallation of the vertical section of ponents, such as taper joints, goose- the other at the interface with the the FSHR may take place before ar- neck, offtake spool and rigid base base of the buoyancy can. rival of the production platform. jumper, for which detailing will be required. In addition, the riser string Along the majority of the riser Connection of the gooseneck to components shall be able to with- string, the relationship between the mandrel at riser top stand both the installation and in- the combined Von Mises stress and The gooseneck attached to the flex- place loads. the material yield strength shows a ible jumper end at the buoyancy can gradual linear increase towards the side is deployed by a Laying Support The FSHR benefits from the fact top of the riser, which is mainly due Vessel (LSV) and connected to the that the overall system design is ro- to axial tension and hoop stress in mandrel of the Buoyancy Can Up- bust and relatively insensitive to a the pipe. At both ends of the riser per Taper Joint. An ROV actuates a number of parameters. Therefore, however bending loads are present hydraulic connector. a relatively conservative design ap- in the system, but are faced using proach may be adopted for the up- special components such as taper front global riser design, with allow- LSV installing the flexible jumper joints, which control the curvature ances for parameter sensitivities and The gooseneck and flexible jumper and stresses. Due to this, the stress design changes during design com- are first attached to the riser using pletion. ratios at the top assembly are lower the LSV, and the flexible jumper than at the riser line pipe, in spite of then un-reeled and pulled-in to the The system is designed and analyzed higher effective tension and bending slot on the P52 platform. in accordance to API RP 2RD. moments near the buoyancy can.
  15. 15. 1 The Brazilian Pipeline Community Free standing Riser Along the vertical section of the FSHR, the stresses are practically static, barely affected by quasi-static A typical plot of the wave fatigue life along the loads (vessel static offsets and cur- riser length shows that the damage is very low, rent) or dynamic loads (direct wave load and first and second order mo- however hot spots do occur at certain critical tions). The design of deeper compo- locations. nents, such as the lower taper joint, is driven by quasi¬static loads. The upper riser component designs are dictated by both quasi-static and dy- It is necessary to design the compo- Shear7, the damage is being assessed namic loads. nents at the locations of peak fatigue by the utilization of the Compu- damage such that they are capable tational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) wave fatigue of withstanding the predicted stress methodology. Petrobras contracted The long term dynamic wave load- cycling. Generally, locally thickened the University of São Paulo to per- ing on the system is very low. The components can be designed, or re- form such studies. In this method, majority of the riser dynamic mo- fined, to give adequate fatigue per- a finite element structural model tion is associated with the second formance. The use of strakes is not based on the Euler-Bernoulli beam order drift motions of the vessel, necessary. theory is employed to calculate the which gradually alter the configura- dynamic response of the cylinder. A tion of the flexible jumper and con- Installation and In-Place general equation of motion is solved sequently the loading on the vertical Fatigue of the FsHR system through a numerical integration section of the FSHR. The fatigue damage the system may scheme in the time domain. Firstly, undergo during installation shall be a static solution is found for the riser. A typical plot of the wave fatigue limited such as to leave most of the Then, in the dynamic analysis, the life along the riser length shows that allowable damage to be spent when stiffness matrix obtained from the the damage is very low, however hot the riser is in-place. The installation static analysis is used as an average analysis, mainly for the situation approximation. A lumped approach spots do occur at certain critical loca- when the buoyancy can is at the is employed. A mass lumped matrix tions. These locations are at the low- moonpool region of the MODU, is constructed and the damping ma- er taper joint, and at the bottom of will assess the riser damage due to trix is evaluated in a global manner. the buoyancy can. Some precautions the MODU first order motions and have to be taken in order to achieve from VIV. The method utilized is the Discrete the required damage limit at these Vortex Method (DVM), which is a locations, by sometimes refining the Considering a safety factor of 10, the Lagrangian numerical scheme tech- locally thickened joint designs. It is required system fatigue life is 250 nique for simulating two-dimen- necessary that welds are either avoid- years, which is fulfilled for the in- sional, incompressible and viscous ed or high quality welds are utilized, place condition. The in-place analy- fluid flow. The method employs the and that stress concentration factors ses have assessed the damage due to stream function-based boundary are minimized in these regions. first and second order motions and integral method and incorporates due to VIV. The acceptance criterion the growing core size or core spread vortex Induced vibrations establishes that the three sources of method in order to model the dif- (vIv) damage be added and that the result- fusion of vorticity. In the DVM the The VIV response of an FSHR gener- ing fatigue life be above 250 years. body is discretized in Nw panels, and ates fatigue damage that is low along Most of the damage is due to VIV, Nw discrete vortices with circulation the majority of the riser length, but followed by first order motions. The are created from a certain distance of high at the two ends of the verti- damage due to second order motions the body, one for each panel. These cal section of the system. The criti- is negligible. vortices are convected and their cal region for VIV damage tends to velocities are assessed through the occur in the riser string just below assessment of vIv Damage by sum of the free stream velocity and the buoyancy can interface. Shear7 CFD the induced velocity from the other was utilized for assessment of fatigue In addition to the assessment of fa- vortices. The induced velocities are damage due to VIV. tigue damage due to VIV by using calculated through the Biot-Savart
  16. 16. Free standing Riser The Brazilian Pipeline Community 1 law. Forces on the body are calcu- Two riser lengths were considered: It can be said that the FSHR concept lated integrating the pressures and initial and total length. For the last, extends the reach of deep water riser viscous stresses. Viscous stresses are it was necessary to truncate the riser feasibility as it avoids the main tech- evaluated from the velocities in the string. nical problems faced by the other so- near-wall region, and the pressure lutions, and arguably, it may be the distribution is calculated relating the only proven riser concept feasible for vorticity flux on the wall to the gen- Conclusions deep water large bore applications. eration of circulation. In the FSHR design concept, the location of the buoyancy can below References Model Test high current and wave zone, and the 1. Fisher, E. A., Berner, P.C., 1988, The installation phase is a critical use of the flexible jumper to signifi- “Non-Integral Production Riser for issue for the design of the FSHR, cantly decouple vessel motions from the Green Canyon Block 29 De- mainly due to utilization of a the vertical riser greatly reduces the velopment”, Offshore Technology MODU for deployment. The op- system dynamic response, resulting Conference, paper 5846, Houston erating window is narrowed due to in a robust riser design particularly – USA buoyancy can motions at the moon- suited to deep water applications. pool region, caused by the action of 2. Rouillon, Jacky, 2002, “Girassol current and waves, and the result- The design is relatively insensitive to -The Umbilicals and Flowlines - ing riser forces at the interfaces with severe environmental loading and Presentation and Challenges”, paper both the buoyancy can bottom and non-heave optimized host vessels 14171, Houston - USA rotary table. when compared to SCRs and flex- ible risers. The robustness allows the 3. Déserts, des L., 2000, “Hybrid Results from numerical analysis as- riser to be conservatively analysed, Riser for Deepwater Offshore Af- sessment show that the allowable sea and allowances for design changes rica”, Offshore Technology Confer- states for some stages of the deploy- and uncertainties to be included up- ence, paper 11875, Houston – USA ment are significantly milder when front in the design process, thus giv- compared to the weather window ing greater confidence in the overall 4. Hatton, S., Lim, F., 1999, “Third of previous deployments of subsea system design. Generation Hybrid Risers”, World hardware, such as manifolds, already Wide Deepwater Technologies, Lon- performed by Petrobras utilizing For engineering, procurement and don – UK MODU. construction (EPC) contractors not having a suitable vessel, or unable to 5. S. Hatton, J. McGrail and D. Wal- Modeling the entire FSHR system mobilize their vessels to install the ters, 2002, “Recent Developments in 1800 m water depth would re- FSHR, the ability to use a MODU in Free Standing Riser Technology”, quire a very small scale (approxi- as the installation vessel could prove 3rd Workshop on Subsea Pipelines, mately 1:180) and some important to be an attractive alternative. Rio de Janeiro - Brazil effects could be not well represented. Therefore it was decided to test the system behavior only during instal- lation. A model test at the scale of 1:28.7 representing the buoyancy The installation phase is a critical issue for the can, MODU and riser string was constructed and tested at Marintek. design of the FSHR, mainly due to utilization The objective was to corroborate the of a MODU for deployment. The operating results of numerical calculations. window is narrowed due to buoyancy can Three phases were simulated: (a) buoyancy can free floating, (b) keel motions at the moonpool region, caused by the hauling of the buoyancy can and action of current and waves, and the resulting (c) buoyancy can at the moonpool region, suspended either by wire riser forces at the interfaces with both the rope at the derrick or by the drilling buoyancy can bottom and rotary table. riser tensioning system, and the ris- er string passing through the stem.
  17. 17. 18 The Brazilian Pipeline Community Improving pipelin The PRODUT program helps Petrobras improve operational reli Ney Passos, Petrobras Brasil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Most of Brazil’s 15,000-km oil and • Increase the operational capacity of and other areas of the company that gas pipeline network is more than 20 existing pipelines; promote greater cooperation in the years old. Consequently, this gener- • Minimize the risk of leaks; permit technological area; ates all manner of complex mainte- better utilization through novel re- • Include the participation of exter- nance and renewal issues. pair techniques; nal institutions, such as universities, • Reduce the impact of leaks on the engineering companies, manufactur- Adding to the complexity is the fact ers, service companies and operators, that the network is growing in size. environment. PRODUT is divided into many areas, which enables a seeking to increase the availability of By 2007, the network is forecast to human and financial resources. reach over 25,000 km. But as the broad array of technologies to be network grows and modernizes, the developed and delivered. Under the PRODUT umbrella, all of these In order to properly define the na- system’s operational reliability stan- ture and types of projects that will dards must be maintained. projects follow the same philosophy as other technological programs co- be researched, Petrobras has formed ordinated by CENPES. This ensures the CTO-Operational Technologi- For these reasons, in 1998, Petrobras cal Committee. This committee established a pipeline technological that an interdiscisplinary approach is maintained, and that different tech- meets annually, and counts on the program, called PRODUT. The pro- participation of the wider techni- gram helps the company meet these nology managers within CENPES and Petrobras provide technical in- cal community, the management of complex demands and deliver tech- CENPES, and other Petrobras areas nology firsts. put and feedback. The goal of the program is Coordinated by Petrobras’ Re- to make available and search and Development Centre develop technology for (CENPES), the program operates the pipeline system, in in an interdisciplinary way which order to increase reli- brings together Transpetro (Distri- ability and useful life, bution) and Petrobras Production. as well as reducing The program has already helped re- costs and the risks in- duce the risk of leakage and subse- volved. quent harm to the environment. It The performance of has also reduced operational costs PRODUT is deter- and repair times. mined by the follow- ing guidelines: The strategic objectives of the pro- gram are to: • Select projects whose products have a wide • Improve operational reliability of application, and a bet- pipelines; ter technical-economic • Increase the lifespan of the existing return; pipeline network and future con- • Form teams of tech- struction; nicians from CENPES
  18. 18. The Brazilian Pipeline Community 1 ne performance iability, increase capacity, and maintain environmental safety. such as exploration and production, the corrosive properties of the trans- Pipeline rehabilitation downstream, transportation, engi- ported products and oil and the Here the focus has been to establish neering, and bunkering. Such a de- development of methodologies for integrity evaluation criteria that span gree of collaboration within Petro- evaluation of corrosion inhibitors. the lifespan of the pipeline network. bras’ strategic, technical, economic, This leads to a better understanding Within this project, hydrostatic test safety and environmental factors and control of the corrosive process. methodologies, certification criteria permits continual improvements as Methodologies for monitoring and and commonly available repair well as the definition and prioritiza- control of internal corrosion of nat- techniques are all being re-evaluated. tion of projects that meet operation- ural gas pipelines were also defined Petrobras is benefiting through al and business needs. and optimized. higher pipeline utilization factors, more flexible and economic repair Petrobras has invested around (U.S.) leak detection systems techniques, reduced maintenance $2 million in PRODUT annu- By making these types of systems costs and enhanced safety. ally for carrying out RD projects. available, Petrobras’ procedures for About 30% of the projects are also In connection with the repair of in- leak detection are becoming more financed by FINEP (Financiadora service pipelines we can mention efficient by helping to quantify and de Estudos e Projetos - Studies and welding of in-service pipelines, and pinpoint oil, gas or other derivative Projects Financing Agency), through the use of composite materials. In the leaks in pipelines. Overall, this im- the CTPETRO (Fundo Setorial do case of the latter, a national company Petróleo e Gás Natural - National proves profitability by reducing the was qualified to carry out this type Plan for Science and Technology loss of hydrocarbon products and of procedure, which has already for the Oil and Natural Gas Sector) any subsequent impact thereof on executed various work on Petrobras program. Since the introduction of the environment. Leak detection pipelines. This technology seeks to PRODUT, 50 research and develop- technology, to be used in short oil allow the permanent rehabilitation ment projects have been completed, and products pipelines, was defined, of pipelines with external corrosion and 39 other projects are in progress. with the objective of minimizing and temporary rehabilitation of Some of these are listed below. product losses with a consequent pipelines with internal corrosion. It is reduction in environmental impact valid to emphasize that the execution Corrosion management and in direct, indirect and intangible of repairs of in-service pipelines is a This project seeks to develop and costs. technique of great interest, since it supply prevention, monitoring and avoids shutting down operations, automation technology to control A flow and leak detection simulation with a substantial increase in the internal and external pipeline corro- system, for multipurpose pipelines, utilization factor of pipelines, and is sion. This will provide concrete ben- was developed in-house, which is essential in the case of gas pipelines. efits by preventing corrosion related currently in the test phase. It is im- failures, increasing operational reli- portant to add that the effort that Pigging technology ability standards, reducing environ- Petrobras has been making towards Although many types of pigs are mental damage and expanding the increasing the reliability of its pipe- available commercially, they are not lifespan of the pipeline network. In lines, with the implementation of necessarily adapted to the needs of reference to corrosion management the Pipeline Integrity Guarantee Petrobras. This project has listed projects, there is the evaluation of Plan, has produced excellent results. the operational needs of Petrobras´
  19. 19. 20 The Brazilian Pipeline Community Improving Pipeline Performance pipeline system, and is developing Risk management and tion from the results obtained from and testing various pig technologies reliability various PRODUT projects. It is also to assess their suitability. Clearly, The focus of this project is to devel- valid to emphasize the great partici- this will enable Petrobras to improve op better pipeline risk and reliabil- pation of the various segments and internal pipeline inspections, reduce ity analyses, which will help reduce business units involved, directly or the risks of leakage, and damage to costs by optimizing periodic inspec- indirectly, with pipeline activities. workers or the environment. tions and maintenance. Addition- ally, as risks are reduced, there will The basic objectives of the standard Additionally, the operating life of be a reduction of tangible and intan- are the following: the network should be extended as gible costs. Parametric studies were maintenance issues such as corrosion • Establish the criteria for classifying carried out to evaluate the sensitivity or wear and tear are better managed. pipelines, based on the possible con- of heated pipelines with initial zig- Geometric and magnetic instru- sequences arising from their failure; zag geometry to variations in the hy- mented pig technologies were devel- potheses adopted in their project. • Prioritize monitoring, control and oped as tools for the internal inspec- intervention actions, setting the nec- tion of pipelines, with the objective These studies, allied to the scale essary actions for detecting, moni- of assuring their integrity; as well as model tests carried out, allowed the toring and controlling internal cor- reduce risks, avoid emergency inter- commencement of the new PE-3 rosion, external corrosion, stresses ruptions, and reduce operational fuel oil pipeline project, from RE- caused by ground movements and costs. DUC to the Ilha d’Água Terminal. third-party action; This effort included technology of The most important result has been a safety and reliability standard that • Define the evaluation procedures the acquisition and consolidation is substantially superior to previous and acceptance criteria for the vari- of technology by Petrobras, which projects, minimizing the risk of ac- ous types of discontinuity as well as makes available services with instru- cidents. An improvement to the in- hydrostatic test and contingency re- mented pigs, with the ISO 9002 spection plan for flexible lines and pair procedures. certification guarantee. A national umbilicals was prepared, using risk- company was licensed to operate based inspection techniques. By corporate instruction, this stan- with magnetic pigs for defect analy- dard is now followed in the practices sis and geometric pigs - the first in A database was developed for the used on all of the company’s pipe- Latin America. It has already in- relevant physical and operational lines. spected more than 10,000 km of characteristics, from a managerial pipelines in Brazil and abroad. The point of view, of all of the company’s Pipeline material technology main advantages, compared to the pipelines. This filled an existing gap, Members of this project are work- hiring of international companies, ing to improve existing pipeline allowing the data to be available to concerns the economic aspects, in materials and coating technologies, users, at high speed and reliably. addition to the significant reduction again, adapting them to the needs of in response time and shorter pipe- Petrobras. Benefits will include cost Another important fact was the cre- line shutdown. reduction and an increase in the reli- ation by the Petrobras Board of Di- ability and life of pipelines through rectors of the Special Work Group a deeper understanding of materials Pipeline operation and for the Petrobras Pipelines Integrity and coating performance. automation Emergency Program, with represen- This project is developing advanced tatives from nine areas of the compa- In partnership with industry, steel operational, automation and sched- ny. Its objective is to prepare a work with high mechanical resistance and uling techniques for pipelines. Ben- plan, defining and executing actions strength was developed for use in efits include an increase in efficiency to study and evaluate the integrity large pipelines, in order to increase and operational safety; reduction in of Petrobras pipelines. One of the operational safety and decrease in- the number of interfaces in multi- highlighted points from the results vestments in new enterprises. Mod- purpose pipelines; improvement in obtained was the preparation of els for the simulation of pipeline the quality of products transported; the Pipeline Integrity Management structural behavior were developed and a reduction in the cost of de- Standard, which consolidated all the with various types of commonly murrage for shipping, excess stock available technology in the company found defects, allowing the evalua- and reprocessing losses. and abroad, with a decisive contribu- tion of their resistance as well as the