• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
Brazilian Pipeline Community
 

Brazilian Pipeline Community

on

  • 3,454 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
3,454
Views on SlideShare
3,448
Embed Views
6

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
67
Comments
0

1 Embed 6

http://www.linkedin.com 6

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Brazilian Pipeline Community Brazilian Pipeline Community Document Transcript

    • The Brazilian Pipeline Community Brazil oil & gas oil & gas EPRASHEED signature series Brazil Supplement to Pipeline Technology Centre www.eprasheed.com Norway oil & gas
    • The Brazilian Pipeline Contents Liquid PiPeLines and TerminaLs Marcelino Guedes – Director, Petrobras Transporte João Carlos de Luca a free sTanding hyBrid riser for deePwaTer President, IBP Francisco E. Roveri – Petrobras R&D – CENPES The Brazilian Institute of Petroleum and ProjeCTs and ConsTruCTion of new oiL and gas Gas (IBP) with the support of its Pipe- PiPeLines in BraziL line Commission has been working to Breno de Souza e Silva & Ney Passos – Petrobras Engineering develop Brazil’s pipeline industry by helping companies in this sector oper- PiPeLine inTegriTy Program ate in a profitable, efficient, ethical and Paulo de Tarso Arruda Correia – Petrobras Transporte socially responsible way. In this context, the Commission pro- BraziL’s PiPeLine TeChnoLogy CenTer – CTduT motes the exchange of ideas and ex- Raimar Van den Bylaardt – CTDUT perience amongst professionals in this industry and is active in the areas of soCiaL and environmenTaL resPonsiBiLiTy norms standardization, promoting in- Ana Paula Grether de Mello Carvalho ternational trade missions and in the organization of courses and events. suBmarine PiPeLine insPeCTion Among the latter we can highlight the Claudio Camerini & Miguel Freitas Rio Pipeline Conference and Exhibi- tion as a world class forum to debate PiPeLine and shiPPing TeChnoLogy the major issues facing the international suPPorTs PeTroBras pipeline industry. César José Moraes Del Vecchio, Petrobras R&D – CENPES The BraziLian gas TransPorTaTion sysTem Marcelo Renno – Director, Petrobras Transporte rouTe seLeCTion and sTruCTuraL design for The goLfinho gas exPorT PiPeLine Marcelo José Barbosa Teixeira, Claudio Roberto Mansur Barros, Mônica de Castro Genaio, Carlos Terencio Pires Bomfimsilva, Vivianne Cardoso Pessoa Guedes, Janaina de Figueiredo Loureiro Wajid Rasheed CEO & Founder, EPRasheed editors Publisher Andre Raposo, Daniel Brossi, Breno Souza, Ney Wajid Rasheed Brazil has the potential to export world wajid.rasheed@eprasheed.com Passos, Francisco Roveri, Pedro Barusco, Paulo class technology and services. For this Correia, Ana Paula Carvalho, Marcelo Renno, to happen, an export culture needs Marcelo Teixeira, Claudio Barros, Monica Genaio, Carlos Pires, Vivianne Guedes, Janaina Loureiro. managing editor to be cultivated. Part of this culture is Majid Rasheed a single source of technical material Contact: andreraposo@petrobras.com.br majid.rasheed@eprasheed.com that focuses on Brazil while including Brazil oil & Brazil oil & gas gas the wider international observers. This supplement ‘The Brazilian Pipeline EPRASHEED signature series Community’ is a channel for companies, both oil and service to share expertise www.eprasheed.com with the wider export market. Norway oil & gas
    • Community viewpoints Sergio Gabrielli – President, Petrobras Ildo Sauer – Director, Petrobras Paulo Roberto Costa – Director Gas and Power Area Petrobras Bunkering Over the next few years we will be witnessing Petrobras is changing from an oil company Strategically important to supply energy to the third boom in pipeline activity in Brazil. into an integrated energy Company. Natural Brazil, Petrobras’ pipeline network operates Building new oil, natural gas and bio-fuel gas is playing a fundamental role in the in strict accordance with Health, Safety and pipelines will be our challenge. organization as its share of the Brazilian Environmental standards. energy matrix increases. We will look to new technologies to ensure As a result, the investments allocated for the Through advanced monitoring technology, environmental and operational safety with natural gas chain in the 2007-2011 period we can guarantee the safe transportation of social responsibility. amount to US$22.1 billion, a 71 percent raw materials and products at competitive increase over the previous budget. costs. Sergio Machado – President, Eloi Fernandez y Fernandez – Director Renato Duque – Director Petrobras Transporte General, ONIP (The National Petroleum Petrobras Services Industry Organisation) Transpetro has prepared itself to meet increas- Since 1999, ONIP has been working to Raising professional skills and implementing ing demand generated by self-sufficiency and increase local content in oil and gas projects new pipeline construction and monitoring the growth of Brazil’s oil and gas sector. in Brazil. For the pipeline sector, we have technologies are our challenges. New ships, terminals and pipelines will recently released a publication, entitled guarantee logistical supply in a country that ‘Who is Who in the Pipeline Industry in Our goal is to expand the pipeline network in has the dimensions of a continent. Acquired Brazil’. Our main objective here, is to present a safe and efficient manner while minimising over the last 30 years, our experience of local capacity to investors, as we are very environmental impact. Ethanol logistics places our company as the optimistic about the future of the Brazilian industry benchmark and market leader. pipeline industry.
    • The Brazilian Pipeline Community Liquid Pipelines and Terminals Marcelino Guedes, Director - Petrobras Transporte Transpetro is present in the whole age tanks for oil and oil products, buoy mooring systems and five of Brazil, through the operation of in addition to 80 globes for LPG, mono-buoys, with the objective of 44 terminals and a pipeline net- Transpetro has the installed capac- unloading in locations where the work of around 7,000 km of oil ity to store approximately 10 mil- coastal conditions do not allow the pipelines, operating from the north lion m³ and transport around 53 mooring of ships. of the country in the Amazon re- million m³/month of oil and oil gion – pipelines ORSOL I and II products, in addition to handling operational safety and terminals in Coari, Manaus around 4,600 shipping operations and Belém – to the extreme south per year. Complementing the in- Transpetro maintains the consistent – Rio Grande Terminal. With an frastructure of these terminals, policy of improving the safety of its infrastructure of around 500 stor- Transpetro owns two multiple operations. In the Pipeline Integrity
    • Liquid Pipelines and Terminals – guedes Program (PIP) alone, US$ 630 mil- ard of safety for the operational voluntary certifications for the In- lion have been invested – with the control of the pipeline network tegrated Management of Quality, result being a reduction in the vol- throughout Brazil. From there, the Health, Safety and the Environ- ume of leaks to the order of 93%. technicians accompany remotely ment (QSMS) – ISO 9001 (qual- PIP, which is destined to ensure per- and in real time the operations in ity), ISO 14001 (environment) fect functioning of the installations the pipelines. NOCC is equipped and OHSAS 18001 (international and reliability of operations, has with computers and the leading norm for occupational safety) – be- been continuously revised and has edge technology. Supported by ing evaluated by international certi- gained new monitoring tools. the Supervisory Control and Data fying agencies. Acquisition (SCADA) software, The implementation of the Terminal the operators receive immediate Within the projects aimed at in- Integrity Program (TIP) began in detailed information about what creasing operational safety pipe- 2005. This will establish a series of is happening in the pipelines and lines, is the Program for the Greater technical projects with the objective monitor the levels of flow, pressure, São Paulo Outflow Logistics Refor- of achieving excellence in the safety temperature and density of the oil mulation. The project, with invest- and integrity of the installations and and the gas. At the least sign of any ment of around US$1 billion, sub- infrastructure of the units. The in- abnormality, the system allows for stitutes the existing pipeline network tegrity programs for pipelines (PIP) telecommand interventions such as installed in the metropolitan region and terminals (PIT), which include the switching on or off of pumps, of São Paulo, with an external net- stabilization of the slopes, renova- or the opening or closing of valves work. The objectives are to provide tion of piers and storage tanks are in any stretch. the network with the capacity to being enhanced by the training of handle growing volumes of oil, oil- the workforce. Pipelines and terminals, just like derivatives and other products. And all of the Transpetro installations, to reduce the safety risks associ- The National Operational Control comply with norms that go beyond ated with heavy urbanisation along Center (NOCC) ensures the stand- the regulatory demands, having the pipeline rights-of-way in Greater São Paulo. graphic shows Petrobras emergency Bases In addition to all the care taken with operational safety, Transpetro maintains an infrastructure to re- spond to emergencies that includes a Center for Emergency Pipeline Repairs (CREDUTO) in Guarul- hos – São Paulo, and 49 Emer- gency Response Centers (CREs and CDAs) spread around the country, with equipment and teams trained for a rapid response to any accident with a possible impact on the envi- ronment. new Projects The increase in the price of oil and the growth in demand for fuels with less impact on global warming have led to the search for biofuels. In Brazil, the Transpetro Program for CREs – Transpetro Management – 34 Ethanol Logistics gained impetus CDAs – Petrobras Management – 9 due to the Brazilian experience Advanced CDA Bases – 6 with alcohol technology, and the prediction that by 2014 demand for
    • The Brazilian Pipeline Community ethanol will reach 25 million m³ in west of São Paulo, Mato Grosso The highlight among the new projects the domestic market and 5.5 million and Goiás to Paulínia and take for oil pipelines is the study for the m³ abroad. Transpetro is preparing the same quantity of diesel oil and implantation of a pipeline of around to increase its capacity of fuel ethanol gasoline from Paulínia back to 1,400 km between the REPAR Re- outflow from the present 1.2 million these regions. The investment is finery in Araucária and the cities of m³ per year to 9.4 million m³ per US$ 236 million. Londrina, Campo Grande and Cui- year in 2015, with investments in abá, with the objective of reducing exclusive pipelines and tankage in • Ethanol pipeline Guararema-São the logistics cost of transporting oil the Southeast, the South and the Sebastião: capacity for four mil- products to the central-west region, Northeast of Brazil amounting to lion m³ per year. The investment meeting the growing demand gener- US$532 million. The principal is still being evaluated. ated by the expansion of agribusiness investments are as follows: in that area. • Construction of three more tanks • Ethanol pipeline Paulínia-Guarar- at the Maceió Terminal, increas- The increasing demand for natural ema: exclusive pipeline for ethanol ing the capacity from 400,000 gas in Brazil, predicted to grow by with the capacity for eight million m³ per year to 700,000 m³ per 14% per year to 2010, accompanied m³ per year with an investment of year. The investment is US$ 4 by the need for diversifying supply, US$ 154 million. million. has led to the acceleration of projects for water-based terminals with the • Ethanol pipeline Uberaba-Ribei- • Paranaguá Terminal: adaptation capacity to receive, vaporize and dis- rão Preto-Paulínia: capacity to of an existing tank, construc- patch natural gas. For this purpose, transport four million m³ per year- tion of two additional tanks and projects are being developed for the with an investment of US$100 a platform for tanker trucks with implantation of terminals capable million. the enlargement of the wagon of receiving ships carrying Lique- platform to increase the capac- fied Natural Gas (LNG) initially in • Tietê-Paraná Waterway: capac- ity from 400,000 m³ per year to Ilha D’Água – Rio de Janeiro, in the ity for transporting four million 700,000 m³ per year. The invest- southeast of Brazil and in PECEM m³ of ethanol per year from the ment is US$ 4 million. – Ceará, in the Northeast. graphic shows schematic of Pipelines
    • new riser development– a free standing hybrid riser for deepwater Francisco E. Roveri – Petrobras Research & Development Center – CENPES/Subsea Technology Group introduction The hybrid riser concept, which combines rigid (steel) pipes with Petrobras is considering the single- flexible pipes has been utilized by the line FSHR (Free Standing Hybrid offshore industry since the 80’s. The Riser) design as an option for large Riser Tower first installed by Placid diameter export risers in deepwater. Oil at Gulf of Mexico in Green Can- This large bore specification com- yon 29 was refurbished and re-uti- bined with the deepwater environ- lized by Enserch. More recently, the ment put this application outside concept underwent some changes the present feasibility range of solu- for application at Girassol field in tions such as flexible pipes and steel Angola, where three towers were catenary risers (SCRs). Both these installed by Total. The Riser Towers solutions present high top tension at Girassol field are positioned with loads for installation and operation. an offset with regard to the FPU, The lateral buckling failure mode in whereas at GC29 the vertical por- lized by Placid. After a long period, it flexible pipes and the fatigue damage tion of the riser was installed by the was only in the year 2000 that this al- in the touch down zone (TDZ) of semi-submersible FPU and was lo- ternative was considered for concep- SCRs are further design limitations cated underneath the derrick. tual studies at Albacora Leste field, in currently only solved by the use of 1290 meters water depth, for the P50 heavier pipes which further compro- Five water and gas injection turret moored FPSO. mise hangoff loads in a negative de- monobore FSHRs (10 to 12-inch) sign spiral. have recently been installed in West Two alternatives were considered for Africa offshore Angola, at Kizomba comparison: a Steel Lazy Wave Riser The FSHR system has a reduced field in about 1200 meters water (SLWR) and a concept combining dynamic response, as a result of depth. The design of these risers rigid and flexible pipes. In 2003 significant motion decoupling be- has some key differences to one of Petrobras contracted the concep- tween the Floating Production Unit the concepts presented in this pa- tual study development of the Riser (FPU) and the vertical portion of per, each of which offers different Tower solution for the starboard side the FSHR system and its vessel in- design and operational advantages. 8-inch production lines of the P52 terface loads are small when com- Riser towers are being developed for semi-submersible platform. Two pared with SCRs or flexible pipe so- installation in the Greater Plutonio towers were considered, each com- lutions. Therefore it is an attractive and Rosa fields in Angola. prising seven production lines and alternative solution for this kind of one spare line. In 2003 Petrobras application. There are further cost Petrobras has been studying the hy- also contracted the feasibility stud- savings associated with this concept brid riser concept for some years. In ies of an export oil FSHR to be con- due to the added advantage of hav- 1989 a feasibility study was developed nected to a semi-submersible plat- ing the riser in place prior to the for Marlim field, Campos Basin, for a form in water depths of 1250 and installation of the FPU. configuration similar to the one uti- 1800 meters.
    • The Brazilian Pipeline Community system description The FSHR runs from the hangoff gooseneck is the flexible jumper. The slot at FPU to the Pipeline End Ter- flexible jumper connects the free- The FSHR design may have a number mination (PLET) located near the standing section of the riser system of variants. Two configurations are riser base. The lower end of the verti- to the vessel, and includes bend stiff- presented hereinafter, the main dif- cal part interfaces with a stress joint. eners to ensure that the range of ro- ference being the interface between Below the stress joint there is the tations experienced at the end con- the Buoyancy Can (BC), the vertical offtake spool, which connects to the nections do not damage the jumper pipe and the flexible jumper. foundation by means of a hydraulic due to low radius of curvature. The connector. A rigid base jumper con- flexible jumper has enough compli- Configuration a nects the mandrels located at the ance such that the vessel motions offtake spool and PLET, providing and offsets are substantially decou- The configuration described below is the link between the FSHR and the pled from the vertical portion of the considered for an oil export riser to pipeline. The foundation pile will be FSHR system, and consequently the be installed from a MODU (Mobile drilled and grouted and may typical- wave-induced dynamic response of Offshore Drilling Unit), due to the ly be offset from the FPU by more the free standing riser is low. availability of such vessels already than 200 meters. under contract at Campos Basin. Configuration B The riser pipe passes through an in- The FSHR consists of a single near ner 36-inch OD stem within the BC, The position of the gooseneck in vertical steel pipe connected to a and is guided within the stem by cen- relation to the BC is the main dif- foundation system at the mud line tralizers. Where the riser pipe is sub- ference between the West African region. The standard riser joints are ject to high bending loads such as the and Configuration A designs. In the 18-inch OD x 5/8-inch wall thick- keel ball centralizer on the BC, taper earlier design, the gooseneck is posi- ness X65 material. The riser is ten- joints are used to reduce the stress in tioned below the BC and the verti- sioned by means of a BC, which is the riser pipe. The BC is secured to cal riser is tensioned by the can via a mechanically connected to the top the riser pipe at the top of the BC by flexible linkage or chain. of the vertical pipe. The vertical pipe means of a bolted connection. is always kept in tension in order to This arrangement simplifies the inter- maintain the FSHR stable for all the At the top of the free-standing riser face between the BC and vertical riser, load cases. The BC is 36.5 m long x is the gooseneck assembly. This as- and allows pre-assembly of the flex- 5.5 m diameter. It has 16 compart- sembly consists primarily of the ible jumper to the gooseneck before ments and the maximum upthrust is gooseneck and an ROV actuated hy- deployment of the vertical riser. How- about 570 Te. The BC is located 175 draulic connector which allows the ever, in the event of flexible jumper meters below the sea level, therefore gooseneck and flexible jumper to be replacement or repair, an elaborate beyond the zone of influence of wave installed separately from the vertical jumper disconnection system needs and high current. section of the riser. Attached to the to be employed below the BC. fig. 1 shows Configuration a. fig. 2 presents Configuration B.
    • riser development – roveri Positioning the gooseneck at the top deployment through the BC. Other suited to deepwater applications. of the BC allows for independent in- differences are the foundation type The design is relatively unaffected stallation of vertical riser and flexible (suction piles x drilled and grouted by severe environmental loading or jumper. A flexible pipe installation pile) and bottom interface (flexjoint non-heave optimized host vessels vessel can install the flexible jumper x tapered stress joint). when compared to SCRs and flex- when required. This minimizes the ible risers. The robustness allows the risk of damage to the flexible jumper Configuration B presents the goose- riser to be conservatively analyzed, during installation as the procedure neck positioned below the BC. The and allowances for design changes is similar to that of a shallow water vertical riser is tensioned by the BC and uncertainties to be included up- flexible riser with the first end at via a flexible linkage or chain and front in the design process, thus giv- the top of the BC. This design also the hub is in offset with regard to ing greater confidence in the overall facilitates and minimizes the time the vertical section of the FSHR. system design. for flexible jumper retrieval in case This allows the flexible jumper to be of damage, in service, to any of its installed in a similar way as Configu- For engineering, procurement and components such as the stiffener, ration A, therefore overcoming some construction (EPC) contractors not end-fittings or pipe outer sheath. disadvantages of this configuration having a suitable vessel, or unable to and previous designs. mobilize their vessels to install the On the other hand, it is necessary to FSHR, the ability to use a MODU have a continual vertical riser string Conclusions as the installation vessel could prove right through the centre of the BC to be an attractive alternative. to provide a connection hub for the In the FSHR design concept, the flexible jumper at the top. This ar- location of the BC below high cur- It can be said that the FSHR concept rangement introduces interfaces be- rent and wave zone, and the use of extends the reach of deepwater riser tween the riser string and BC which the flexible jumper to significantly feasibility as it avoids the main techni- have to be carefully analyzed and decouple vessel motions from the cal problems faced by other solutions, engineered. In addition, installation vertical riser greatly reduce the sys- and arguably, it may be among the analysis has to be conducted to assess tem dynamic response, resulting few proven riser concepts feasible for the loads on the riser string during in a robust riser design particularly deepwater large bore applications. Always innovating for the best Azevedo & Travassos develops innovative solutions to meet the needs of its Oil and Gas clients. Consequently, it is recognized as one of Brazil’s Foremost Construction Companies with the best know-how in the market. The result of this investment can be described by a single word: credibility. In the end, those that have been working for so long, can only do things well.
    • The Brazilian Pipeline Community Projects and Construction of new oil and gas Pipelines in Brazil Breno de Souza e Silva & Ney Passos – Petrobras Engineering general Considerations lion cubic meters per day, of which ian consumption of oil derivatives 71 million will be produced in do- in 2005 was 1.766 thousand bpd, In light of ever-growing gas demand mestic fields. with an estimated growth of 3.1% and the increasing difficulty of meet- p.a in the next five years, reaching ing such demand through gas im- Additionally, the demand for trans- a expected consumption of 2,117 portation, Petrobras envisaged Bra- portation of crude oil and deriva- thousand bpd in 2011. zilian self-sufficiency in natural gas tives is also growing. The installation production and is accelerating the of new refining units and the re- Such is the background to the in- process of achieving it. Today, the vamping of some existing ones were vestment plan of the oil and gas consumption of the country is 45.5 required to meet a growing market, pipeline network expansion in the million cubic meters per day and by which ranges from fuel consump- country, bringing about new jobs the year 2011, it may reach 121 mil- tion to petrochemicals. The Brazil- as well as new technologies. In or-
    • souza & Passos der to meet the demands of the gas aged which will either be rented or gram (PROMINP) developed by market and make it possible for owned by Petrobras. This will result the federal government. field production flow, Petrobras is in roughly 30 turbo-compressor sets investing US$ 4.4 billion in the with installed power varying from The issues related to health, safety next five years in the enlargement 7.200 HP to 23.800 HP each. and environment cannot be forgot- of the gas pipeline network. With ten. The works to be implemented respect to the increase in oil pipe- Petrobras is also investing in the require social responsibility and lines and terminals, the expected development and improvement of maximum care and respect to the investment for the next five years is the operating and safety conditions particular characteristics of the re- US$ 3.0 billion. of terminals and pipelines, many of gions crossed by the pipelines. which are in urban areas. To this ef- Pipeline Projects fect, the São Paulo Master Pipeline To provide efficient outflow of large Plan (PDD-SP), foresees transporta- volumes, pipelines with greater diam- Regarding projects and construc- tion of oil, derivatives, natural gas eters and higher pressure ratings are tion of oil and gas pipelines, the and alcohol through a new pipeline required. Increasing steel resistance actions taken by the Engineering and right-of-way network introduc- means avoiding greater thickness of department of Petrobras have al- ing optimized operating logistics and pipe. The benefits include saving steel ready shown practical and visible substituting the existing network, by weight reduction, and therefore, results. which will interconnect terminals the costs of pipe purchasing, pipe and distribution companies in the construction and assembly are all re- In the Northeast region of the state of São Paulo. The purpose of duced. country we find unmet gas demand, such modifications are the adapta- which has resulted in increased in- tion of paths and strips of land along At present, the oil and gas pipelines vestments in the transportation and the pipelines’ route so that they of greatest resistance in Brazil are distribution infrastructure, mostly blend in better with the surrounding manufactured with pipes of X70 based on thermoelectric plants for communities, as well as preparing degree in conformity with API 5L power generation. the network to cope with the growth specification, which has reliable con- of the state of São Paulo. struction and assembly techniques. The Southeast region already has a On the other hand, Petrobras has booming transportation and distri- The petrochemical complex of Rio de participated in many attempts to in- bution network, especially in Rio Janeiro (COMPERJ) will also require novate pipe fabrication technology, de Janeiro and São Paulo, where gas the construction of new pipelines, in- such as the study of fabrication and consumption is high. The projects cluding crude oil and petrochemical. application of API 5L X80 pipes, to expand pipeline network are also the evaluation of new welding pro- encouraged by the growth of the It is worth noting that Petrobras cesses for highly resistant steels, the piped gas distribution network in faces considerable challenges with study for application of pipes with the metropolitan regions as well as regard to the construction of oil helicoidal welding, as well as its par- the demand related to industry and and gas pipelines. There is an exten- ticipation in the working out of the thermoelectric plants. sive oil and gas pipeline that needs Brazilian standard for heat bending to be implemented and operated in by induction. If we only consider existing oil and a safe and socially responsible way. gas pipelines we may note that our And time runs short as the number Conclusion gas pipeline system in Brazil is not of projects increase. To rise to such wholly integrated. However, the challenges Petrobras is counting on The expansion of Brazil’s oil and gas unmet demand from the Northeast, technological innovations, which pipeline network is a fundamental the first production from fields in are under development. Society is necessity in order for the economic the Espírito Santo and the promis- also called to provide the necessary growth of our country. ing Southeastern market will be in- resources as qualified manpower terconnected by the GASENE Gas and a competitive and efficient in- The Engineering Department of Pipeline. dustry to supply equipment and Petrobras is fully committed to this material of proven quality. It is goal and is not sparing any efforts in For these gas pipeline networks, worth mentioning the national oil order to develop the new technology 10 compression stations are envis- and gas industry mobilization pro- required to complete new projects.
    • The Brazilian Pipeline Community Transpetro Pipeline integrity Program Paulo de Tarso Arruda Correia, Petrobras Transporte S. A. – Transpetro introduction This new standard began establishing routines for inspection, control and The project is part of the PEGASO mitigation for what were called four Program – (Operational Safety and main failure modes: Internal Corro- Excellence in Environmental Man- sion; External Corrosion, Third Party agement). It started in 2001, with Action; Pipe and Soil interaction. a large and intense pipeline physi- cal integrity recovery program, The PID document comprised eight followed by the adjustment of the chapters covering: Risk Analysis; In- company’s pipeline grid (more than ternal Corrosion; External Corrosion; 9,650 km of natural gas, oil and oil Third Party Actions; Soil and Pipe product pipelines) and led to the Interaction (Geotechnical Problems); new Petrobras Integrity Standard Pigging; Defect and Repair Analyses; or PID (Padrão de Integridade de Pressure Testing. Dutos). All these PID chapters were applied Standard as a permanent practice of The Program was started after three to each pipeline in the company’s the company. pipeline accidents in the country; the network in a way that the control first one in Guanabara Bay with a fuel of the program was carried out per The emergency Phase oil line (PEII 16”, 13.7 km) in Janu- pipeline. ary/2000, resulting in a leakage of This was applied to a priority list of 1300 m3; the second in a crude pipe- Program structure 96 pipelines (6,084.9 km) selected line in July/2000 (OSPAR 30”, 118.5 for strategic and risk reasons. These km) with 4000 m3, lost and the third The program as a whole, delivered were selected from among the 183 one in a diesel pipeline (OLAPA 12”, a reduction in the leakage volume pipelines (9,650 Km) that would be 94.0 km) with 150 m3 lost in 2001. from 6,000 m3 in 2000, to less considered in the whole program. A fourth accident with a fuel oil pipe- than 39 m3 in 2003, the leakage line (OBATI 14”, 50 km) happened has been kept at a very low level In this emergency phase, more in May/2001 due to external corro- since then. than 245 km of new and different sion resulting in a leakage of 200 m3 pipelines, representative of the in- of atmospheric residue, and a fifth in Three phases and five processes were stalled base considering items such July/2001 in OBATI Clean products identified. These were the ‘Emer- as nominal diameters, material and 14” pipeline due to Third Party Ac- gency Phase’ to rapidly recover the wall thicknesses, were purchased and tion also resulting in a leakage of 200 physical integrity of a set of priori- used to assist in the repairs that came m3 of LPG. tised pipelines. This included the as- after an in-line inspection program, sessment and recovery of integrity as using MFL or ultrasonic pigs. Transpetro has invested more than well as adjusting the whole pipeline US$600 million to date, aiming to network to the Petrobras Pipeline A total of 5,480.1 km of pipeline adjust its pipeline network to the new Standard. Additionally, it included was inspected through intelligent level of integrity demanded by PID. the introduction of the Pipeline pigs (geometric, high resolution
    • Transpetro Pipeline integrity Program Transpetro's Pipeline Network Quantity Lenth After a careful experimental research Regional Nr. Pipelines Nr. Row KM program, Petrobras developed a self- NNE 42 15 2596,83 integrity criterion for the assessment of pipelines with corrosion defects. SE 60 14 2763,54 The RPA methodology may be used SPCO 61 27 3260,00 alternatively for ASME B31-G, gen- SOUTH 20 9 1029,90 erating a reduction of 49% in the TOTAL 183 65 9650,28 preventive repairs carried out after in-line inspections. MFL and ultrasonic) resulting in problems, etc. The headquarter's Petrobras also has a laboratory de- the repair of 5,200 defects. This re- committee performs the whole voted to the development and tests sulted in 5,094.3 km of rehabilitat- program coordination, issuing a of smart-pig tools in its Research ed pipeline. During this phase more monthly report and keeping a spe- Center, CENPES. This laboratory than 87 new employees were hired cific site on the company home has developed tools of different types to work in the integrity area and al- page. such as Geometric, MFL, pressure most US$400.00 million were in- and temperature profiler with an vested. Transpetro has created a standard, accelerometer and new technology negotiated with the ILI services pro- for internal corrosion and geometry This phase started in early 2001 vider companies, for the format of deploying the polygraph principles. and ended in 2003 (the target was pig inspection reports (magnetic and The following areas have been re- 07/2002 but the repairs continued hard copy) that make the interpre- searched: until mid 2003). tation easier as well as the data pro- cessing, using a toll that estimates internal Corrosion (iC) The adjustment to Petrobras the wall resistance, the defects that Pipeline standard must be repaired as well as defining In order to control and mitigate the the next inspection (described be- IC, the project in this area comprised In this phase all Pipeline standard- low) called Planpig. the following main items: ization actions were applied to each pipeline through a variety of differ- Planpig is a novel methodology de- Implantation of infra-structure in- ent projects and according to a WBS veloped by Transpetro for pipeline cluding: (Work Breakdown Structure). management in-line inspection pro- grams. • Petrobras project and installation The management of the program of corrosion coupon and Electri- considered a structure composed of This software was developed to cal Resistance Corrosion Probes five Committees, one in headquar- determine the best (risk and cost (ERCP) in the 6o/c position (bot- ters and one in each of Transpetro’s based) time interval between in-line tom line of the pipes). regions. inspections and the preventive re- pairs to be carried out following a • Development of new corrosion Typically, the Regional Com- pipeline inspection. The innovative inhibitor additives, injection sta- mittees brought together repre- feature of this methodology is that it tions and updating the existing sentatives of the following areas: takes into account the expected fail- units with automation. Health, Safety and the Environ- ure cost, the cost of inspection and ment; Commercial; Marine Ter- the cost of repair to determine the Implementation of a set of routine minals; Oil Pipelines; Gas Pipe- optimal failure risk at the moment services considering: lines; Engineering. of inspection as well as the ILI tool accuracies and internal and external Periodical cleaning of the pipelines The Regional Committee promot- corrosion rates. with scraper pigs: IC management ed periodic coordination meetings service routine to collect samples where the different agents had the By applying this methodology a re- from the debris dragged by the scrap- opportunity to exchange ideas, duction of 46% in the expenditure er pigs, NACE test of samples from update each other regarding the on in-line pipeline inspection was product batches pumped through progress in their activities, discuss obtained. the pipelines.
    • The Brazilian Pipeline Community external Corrosion (eC) ic map, and takes into account the re- than 5 years, and that need to oper- sults of special and periodic surveys. ate again; Pipelines that have been In EC the project encompassed the fol- operating at one pressure level that lowing items: External coating survey Among the most common problems need to operate at a pressure 25% using PCM, ACVG, DCVG and CIPS are: River crossing erosion causing higher, although lower or equal to for mapping and sizing the disconti- the pipeline exposition leading seg- the one allowed by the last test. nuities in the external coating as well ments to be without support; Soil Pipelines that have been operating as being a way to provide the mapping movement in mountain slopes (hill- for more than 25 years without a of the pipelines at the ROW (Right Of sides); Soil erosion with the exposi- new valid pressure test; Pipelines Way) without the mapping tool. tion of the pipeline by heavy rain; out of operation, even in periods The collapse of the soil by under- lower than 5 years that have not had The CPs supervisory system ground water movement; The ac- an appropriate hibernating process. tions of strong waves or strong tides These criteria were applied to the A great advance in the program was in the sea to beach transition. pipeline network, and as a result, the application of the supervisory 101 pipelines were tested. system for the CPS. risk analyses r&d in Pipeline, Pipeline This system called STR (Sistema de The Risk Analyses chapter in the Technological Center, Telesupervisão Remota) is based on Petrobras Pipeline Standard is one Cooperative Projects a set of sensors installed in the rec- of the most important in the whole tifiers or the interference current document. Petrobras has in its Research and De- drainage equipment like voltmeters velopment Center (CENPES) a lab- (AC and DC), current meters (DC It is the qualitative analyses that con- oratory devoted to the development output current), soil to pipe voltme- sider the consequence potential and and testing of smart pigs tools. This ter with a permanent semi-cell and a the failure probability of the four fail- laboratory has developed Geometric switch in the entrance door to detect ure modes considered in the PID. tools, MFL and pressure/tempera- invaders in the rectifier shelter. ture profiler. The pipelines are divided into seg- The external Coating inspection ments according to the geographical Recently, Transpetro took part to- and environmental factors. The con- gether with other companies in the The surveys using the methods al- sequence potential takes into account: foundation of an independent and ready described, have proved to be the environmental classification; class private Pipeline Technological Cen- very efficient in pinpointing the ex- location; operational conditions like ter (CTDUT – Centro Tecnológico ternal coating failures and a lot of re- product, flow rate and pressure (only de Dutos). pairs have been carried out in points for natural gas pipelines). where the coating was severely de- Two pipeline loops are being con- graded or did not exist any more. Up All 183 pipelines in the network had structed, the larger one with 12”, to May 2006, a total of 7,626km of their risk evaluated by this process. 2.4 km for liquids and the smaller the pipeline network, or 79% of total one for gas with 14”, 130m. network had been inspected and a to- Pressure Test tal of 3,499km were rehabilitated. Conclusion In the PID standard the pressure test geotechnical or soil/Pipeline is either mandatory or recommend- Transpetro is fully committed to interaction ed, based on the following cases: the improvement of the integrity of its pipeline network. It does this The PID created the requirement to Mandatory Cases: New pipelines; Af- through a sound pipeline integrity develop a geographic plan produced ter pipeline repair; Pipelines that need program which aims to achieve from aerial photography that allows to operate under pressure higher than higher safety levels and more eco- the identification as well the clas- that allowed by the last valid hydro- nomical operations. The total in- sification and sizing on a three level test; Pipelines in sensitive areas. vestment of more than US$600 scale (severe, medium and moderate), million covering a broad range of of all geological problems along the Recommended Cases: Pipelines projects as described herein, con- pipeline. This plan is called a themat- that remain out of use for more firms this commitment.
    • sponsored by Tgs Progress in the development of a predictive model for finding locations of significant high- ph stress Corrosion Cracking in gas pipelines. Transportadora de Gas del Sur S.A. is of cracking has been a priority for titatively, the physical and chemical the leading gas transportation com- TGS since its beginnings. agents involved in this process. pany in Argentina. Not only does TGS operate the longest and oldest Currently, the Company is working on This fact, along with the low resist- pipeline system in Latin America, two technical fronts to detect and pre- ance of the soils where SCC has (7,972 Km of pipeline, 579.090 HP vent SCC effects. On the one hand, been found, and the proximity to compression power, 74 MMm3/d of we are running in-line inspection tools rectifier facilities, has allowed TGS contracted capacity), it also renders (TFI & EMAT), to this date with un- to present new and unknown vari- integral processing services (1 mil- certain results, and on the other hand, ables to be considered in the search lion tons/year of Ethane, LPG and TGS is developing a susceptibility for significant SCC. gasoline), treatment (12 million m3/ model. To such purposes, the team of d) and compression (36,800 HP) of specialists in charge of the task has de- With the implementation of a reli- natural gas in gas fields. veloped its own soil model. able susceptibility model we will be able to predict, with a high degree of These services comprise construc- observable results certainty, the sites where significant tion, operation, maintenance and high pH SCC is likely to be found financial structuring. The thorough research carried out without the need to interrupt the by TGS' team of specialists is based service for its study. It will also al- In the past, the Company overcame on geo-morphological surveys of low us to repair the cracks before a the challenge of achieving interna- each area, the interpretation of high devastating rupture occurs. tional standards in controlling exter- resolution satellite images, and field nal pipeline corrosion. Today, consist- works which consist of observation Leading the way in the investigation ent with its policy of safety, accident pits, which allow the physical and of this phenomenon, TGS keeps in- prevention and its constant pursuit morphological characterization of vesting, developing and researching of quality, TGS has set up – within the soil and the extraction of samples – together with its team of specialists its Pipeline Integrity Team – a group for subsequent laboratory chemical – the best methodologies to mitigate of specialists and experts devoted to analysis. and prevent SCC, thus successfully the research and development of a rendering excellence and quality in predictive model for finding cracks Based on field research and by means its service. produced by high-pH stress corro- of laboratory tests we were able to ob- sion cracking (SCC) in pipelines, tain artificial cracking similar to the thus preventing service interruptions one found in our system, thus being arising from this phenomenon. able to assess, qualitatively and quan- www.tgs.com.ar Causes and effects View of cracks produced by stress corrosion cracking through pipeline wall thickness. SCC can be observed in pipes as a cracking in the external surfaces of pipelines (generally, lengthwise) gener- ated by the combined action of corro- sion and tension attributed to: pressure variations, high temperatures, pipeline coating conditions, soil components and cathodic protection potentials. The search for efficient methodolo- gies and practices to detect this kind
    • The Brazilian Pipeline Community CTduT The ‘Pipeline Technology Center – CTduT’ is a laboratory equipped with field facili- ties for testing/certifying products, full scale simulations and the research and development of new technologies in pipeline activities. CTduT is also designed to offer specialized pipeline training. CTduT contains a pull test unit for Pig testing, an integrity Laboratory for burst tests, a gas flow Loop, and a separate liquid loop for tests under real operating conditions. Raimar Van den Bylaardt – CTDUT CTDUT is a Technology Center In the search to develop leading edge the multiplication of activities created by Transpetro, Petrobras technology for pipeline transport, planned for the business and aca- and PUC-Rio (The Catholic Uni- CTDUT is emphasized as the fun- demic sectors. versity) with support from the Fed- damental link in the implantation of eral Government, resources from a Brazilian network of competence Nowadays, CTDUT has 19 as- the Oil and Gas Sectorial Fund in pipelines, bringing together pipe- sociates: Azevedo & Travassos, (CTPETRO), and linked to the line operators, companies, universi- Chemtech, GDK, IMC Saste, In- Ministry of Science and Technology ties, research centers, civil society tec do Brasil Ltda., Intech Engen- through FINEP. It is a non-profit and government agencies. haria, Pipeway, TDW, TSA Tubos association open to all companies Soldados Atlântico, TWI, Univer- working in pipeline operation, con- The structure built to comprise the sidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), struction, engineering, R&D, train- technological center is open to all Conduto, Brazilian Petroleum & ing, environment, services, and also those companies and institutions Gas Institute (IBP), Petrobras, government sectors and regulating that wish to strengthen the develop- PUC-Rio, Transpetro, IEC and agencies. ment of this project, thus enabling Aselco.
    • CTduT CTDUT headquarters is located in applied in pipelines in operation. was applied, the MFL tool does not the city of Duque de Caxias, state of In these cases it is named internal damage the coating and nor is its ac- Rio de Janeiro, close to a Terminal coating in-situ. This kind of appli- curacy affected by the coating. from Transpetro that supplies the cation is more complicated due to center facilities with oil, diesel and the difficulty of surface preparation Submarine pipelines are quite often natural gas. and the application of the coating more difficult to inspect than on-shore itself, that is commonly applied by pipelines. The access difficulties and The use of the pull test unit began in using pigs. In Brazil, the first in- the inadequate design for inspection 1999 to verify the capability of de- situ coating application was done with pig are the most common reason tection, the precision of sizing and in 2002[1]. The average coating for naming these pipelines as “unpig- the absence of false calls. Since then, thickness is about 300 µm. As with gable”. Other factors also contribute several tests of pig performance have any pioneering work, many tests for the difficulty of inspection of those been done with the goal of testing were performed to assure the qual- submarine pipeline specially the large new technologies, tools for appli- ity of this new technology. Part of thickness and relatively small diam- cations, innovative prototypes and those tests were performed in CT- eters – commonly these pipelines have adaptations for special case inspec- DUT pull test unit to check if the nominal diameters under 20 inches. tions. This pull test unit consists of MFL tool would damage the coat- several pipeline segments installed ing after a certain amount of runs To make inspection feasible of a 12 in a metallic structure containing and verify the influence of the coat- inch nominal diameter, 3/4 inch thick shelves and an electrically powered ing in detecting and sizing external submarine pipeline, a specimen was winch that moves a wire inside all of defects. assembled in the CTDUT pull test the section of the shelves. unit in order to evaluate the magne- To realize this test a 28m length tization capability of a MFL pig. Sev- some Tests realized in CTduT specimen of pipeline segment was eral internal and external defects were built and assembled into the shelves introduced into the specimen. Some The internal coating of pipeline of the pull test unit. In this segment internal defects had their geometry has become more important in in- flanged spools were introduced aligned with the longitudinal direc- ternal corrosion prevention. More which had the same coating as the tion of the pipe to simulate the typi- frequently pipelines are built and pipeline. After the specimen was as- cal morphology of internal corrosion assembled with internal coating for sembled, an internal inspection was defects. reducing friction and assure a better realised by a MFL. quality of the product. Apart from The tool applied in this experiment application coating before pipeline From results of the test, it was con- was a magnetic pig. This pig was assembly, sometimes the coating is cluded that when the in-situ coating specially designed to maximize the 12” diameter - 2.4km in length with in- 14” diameter loop - 120 meters in tegral supply tanks, pumps, automation length. and state-of-the-art controls.
    • The Brazilian Pipeline Community magnetism to preserve the method These projects will be used for re- • Training and qualification of op- sensitivity even in those adverse con- search, test and training, with a par- erators and technicians. ditions of large thickness and small ticipation of research centers and diameter. universities of Brazil, as well as with the operators, service companies and In the first trial the pig did not pres- equipment manufacturers. references ent sufficient magnetism, that led to a non-detection of some defects. In The following needs had been iden- (1) Lachtermacher, M., Souza Filho, the second version the magnetism tified to develop these projects: B, Andrade, L.; “Emprego de reves- reached values as specified and all timento para proteção interna em defects were detect. • Research and development of new dutos”; 6ª Conferência sobre Tecno- equipment, tools, inspection sys- logia de Equipamentos – 2002; IBP; some Projects in development tems and pipeline protection. Salvador-BA, Brasil. Nowadays, CTDUT is working on • Flow tests for simulation software (2) Franzoi, A. Et All; “Inspeção de the construction of 3 loops: approval. Oleodutos com Paredes Espessas com Ferramenta MFL – A experiên- • 14” diameter and 100m in length • Tests and certification of equip- cia da Bacia de Campos”; Rio Pipe- for liquid transport; ment and control system, protec- line Conference 2005; IBP; Rio de tion, corrosion control, inspection Janeiro – RJ, Brasil. • 12” diameter and 2,4km in length and maintenance of pipeline. for liquid transport; For more information, contact • Certification of process and pro- the Pipeline Technology Center – • 16” diameter and 2,4km in length cedures of operation, inspection CTDUT – www.ctdut.org.br. for gas transport. and maintenance.
    • social and environmental responsibility Pipeline right-of-way and family based agro-business Ana Paula Grether de Mello Carvalho In 2003, Petrobras joined one of ness performance should include low income neighborhoods of Nova the most important corporate so- economic, social and environmen- Iguaçu and Duque de Caxias, in the cial responsibility projects in the tal responsibility. state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. world – the UN Global Compact. Since then Petrobras has defini- ‘The Agro-ecological Family Farm- The focus regions of the project are tively adopted social and environ- ing Project along Pipelines Right-of- the low income communities of Ge- mental responsibility concerns as Way’ is a joint Petrobras Transporte rard Danom and Jardim Geneciano part of its core values. Respecting and ‘Instituto Terra de Preserva- in Nova Iguaçu Municipality, close human and labor rights, protect- ção Ambiental’ (NGO) and ‘Onda to the borders of Tingua Nature Re- ing the environment and fighting Verde’ (NGO). Launched in De- serve, and the low income commu- corruption are all major challeng- cember 2005, it has created veg- nity of Amapa in Duque de Caxias es that face Society. Petrobras is a etable gardens, an agro-industry and Municipality. All of them are crossed company that believes that its busi- an ‘Online Learning Centre’ in the by the stretch of pipeline (ROW).
    • The Brazilian Pipeline Community Since most of the dwellers of those The novel aspects of the project are an environment of discussion and communities live below the poverty the promotion of social inclusion analysis of community problems, line, it is crucial to implement so- and guaranteeing economic, envi- so that it is possible for different cial projects that promote job and ronmental and social sustainabil- groups to express different opinions income generation and encour- ity through two main points. First, on such problems. age social organization. Moreover, adopting participative/ongoing diag- Petrobras Transporte considers ag- nosis and planning methodologies, By using visual diagrams for collect- riculture a form of fostering closer creating an evaluating and planning ing information, such as a spoken relations with the population in the culture by the methodology of Par- map, flowchart, Venn diagrams and neighborhoods on the edge of its ticipative Rural Diagnosis (PRD). other tools, the local population and underground pipelines, and of pro- Second, the objective of placing the the project technical assistants are able tecting its equipment and the pop- organic productions in the market, to build diagrams and discuss results. ulation against possible accidents throughout local and regional pro- The outcome of the work is a collec- caused by third party actions. duction chains and arrangements, tive understanding of how reality is to provides ways to add value to the be transformed. Such methodology ‘The Agro-ecological Family local farm production, including engages the participants deeply in the Farming Project along Pipelines the families in certified production project and at the same time empow- Right-of-Way’ consists of a five- chains. ers the local population so that they module agro ecological produc- become aware of this social space and tion unit, covering a production The methodology of Participa- how to transform it. area of 96,000 m² (100 vegetable tive Rural Diagnosis (PRD) aims gardens of 960 m²), directly serv- to perform critical and integrated Supporting ‘The Agro-ecological Fam- ing 100 farming households. The analysis of the rural reality involv- ily Farming Project along Pipelines project not only contributes to- ing the population and the project Right-of-Way’, Petrobras shows its ward maintaining the pipelines, in technical assistants. The PRD is not committed to extending the quality compliance with the safety and en- a conventional diagnostic process of its positive performance to social vironmental standards adopted by in which specialists collect infor- action at the communities where it the company but also assists low- mation from the farmers then later operates. This is the way that Petro- income households by providing unilaterally plan the activities of the bras System proposes to fight against technical support and financing to project. The purpose of PRD is to poverty in Brazil: Development with find better jobs and increase levels encourage dialogue between farm- Citizenship. income generation. ers and specialists in order to set up
    • submarine Pipeline inspection feeler snake Pig: a simple way to detect and size internal Corrosion Claudio Camerini & Miguel Freitas Submarine pipelines are traditionally Other equally relevant factors make Another characteristic of submarine inspected with the same technologies the inspection difficult, like subma- pipelines inspections is that almost al- used for onshore pipelines. A good rine pipeline wall thickness, which ways those pipelines are accessed from example of this is an inspection using limits significantly the use of magnetic outside, with visual inspection using instrumented pigs, which is usually instrumented pigs – MFL – magnetic ROVs – Remotely Operated Vehicles. based on the same parameters, pro- flux leakage. As oil production heads Those vehicles are already periodically cedures, and tools used in onshore for deeper and deeper waters, pipe- used to inspect Petrobras’ submarine inspections. In those circumstances, lines become thicker for structural pipelines, to identify external dam- some problems, of course, are ex- reasons, and that implies loss of MFL ages, measure cathodic protection pected to happen. Onshore pipelines pig measurement capacity. Those pigs electrochemical potential, identify are usually easy to access, and that present reduced sensitivity as from 15 spans, etc. That external visual access enables excavating for field verifica- mm-thick wall with a practical limit of is, compared to onshore pipelines, the tions and correlations, thus allowing 20 mm. The problem becomes more greatest differential regarding subma- inspection quality measurement. The serious in diameters smaller than 14- rine pipelines inspection. same is not true for submarine pipe- inch diameter pipelines, which present lines, in which a correlation of instru- large thickness and small internal vol- Another aspect that favors subma- mented pig indicated results implies ume, making magnetization very dif- rine pipelines is that the main cause very high costs or, in some cases, is ficult, as the space available to place of deterioration is internal corro- not technologically possible. magnetizers is not much. With cur- sion, which occurs in the presence of rent technology, there are not enough produced water. External corrosion During the 1980’s and 1990’s, on- compact and high-power magnetizers is easily prevented with cathodic shore pipelines received strong in- to be used on large thicknesses in such protection, while damage caused vestments in Brazil in order to be small spaces. by collisions or anchor action are, able to receive instrumented pig in- mostly, identified through ROV spections, such as: removing small visual inspection. It is considered, radius bends; installing launchers therefore, that the main objective and receivers; unifying diameters; of inspecting oil and gas production and removing obstacles. Some sub- submarine pipelines is to detect and marine pipelines received the same quantify internal corrosion and, in a treatment, but those adaptations lesser degree, external defects related were not extended to the whole net- to diverse actions. work, once the investments required were, at least, of a higher level. It’s An alternative technology available very common, therefore, to find sub- Figure 1 - Feeler Pig measur- in the market to inspect pipelines marine pipelines with various diam- ing method. Corrosion effects subject to internal corrosion is the eters and small radius bends, among (pits) are measured according use of pigs with ultrasound tech- other obstacles that prevent the use to angle variation of sticks. nology. Depending on its mechani- of conventional instrumented pigs. cal design, the ultrasonic pig may
    • The Brazilian Pipeline Community eter variation, in addition to short and long pipelines with a wide range of flow speed. In July, 2006, an inspection was performed using a feeler snake pig, which is a fully innovative design using the above mentioned method. Figure 3 shows the new concept of instrumented pig, in which sensors (sticks) are mounted on a flexible base. That Figure 2 - (a) Feeler pig for 22”, with 250 sensors (sticks); b) Feeler pig for tool enabled a multi-size inspection, 16”, with 180 sensors (sticks). with small radius bends, a kind of inspection that tools commercially available cannot provide. As a re- tolerate variations in diameter, and inspection of a submarine pipeline in sult, 7.6 kilometers of a submarine does not present inconveniences Campos Basin, with excellent results, pipeline were recovered. for measuring large thicknesses. A thus confirming the tool’s potential severe limitation to that method is in the field. Figure 2 shows the pig For consolidating the feeler pig the need for a homogeneous liq- assembled and ready to use. Results technology and the feeler snake pig uid, with good acoustic properties, delivered by the pig’s 250 sensors concept, Petrobras is changing its to serve as coupler. That limitation (sticks) were compared with a pre- submarine pipeline inspection sys- makes it more difficult to inspect gas vious inspection performed with a tematic, prioritizing that technology pipelines, requiring introduction of commercial ultrasound pig. The new for internal corrosion control. The a diesel batch, but with strong op- tool delivered results that were identi- use of other pigs, like MFL and ul- erational impact. Also, the fluid is cal to those of the ultrasonic pig, con- tra-sound, will still occur whenever not homogeneous in production firming, therefore, under real condi- there is a suspicion of external corro- pipelines with “live” oil (oil + gas + tions, the technical viability of the sion. With the new system, Petrobras water), making ultrasonic inspection new internal corrosion detection and intends to inspect the vast majority practically impossible. quantification method. of its submarine pipelines, practically eliminating the expression “non-pig- In this context, Petrobras, together Based on the aforementioned re- gable line” from its offshore produc- with PUC-RIO, developed a sub- sults, several inspections using that tion fields. Therefore, Petrobras pio- marine pipelines inspection method system are being scheduled for neers the inspection of production to detect and size up loss of wall 2006 to 2008, and include oil and pipelines that were usually excluded thickness associated to internal cor- gas pipelines with or without diam- of routine pigging inspections. rosion. A special pig was designed to bear large variations in diameter, have no practical limit of thickness to be inspected, and be able to navi- gate through curves and geometric accessories with small bend radii. The tool was named a ‘Feeler Pig’, as it consists of several feeler-type sen- sors that measure internal corrosion, as illustrated in Figure 1. At first, the special pig was devel- oped for small diameter production Figure 3 - Feeler Snake Pig – a new concept of instrumented pig, where pipelines, however, because of its sensors are mounted on a flexible base to allow inspection of usually non- potential shown in field tests, a first piggable pipelines. (a) – batteries and electronics modules; (b) 12 sensor prototype was constructed for large modules, totaling 144 sensors distributed across pipeline’s perimeter; (c) diameter pipelines, in this case, 22 general view of equipment during pre-launch check. inches. That prototype carried out an
    • Pipeline and shipping Technology supports Petrobras César José Moraes Del Vecchio R&D activities in Petrobras on these • Ship design, construction and in- than in onshore pipelines, made it subjects are coordinated by means tegrity management. difficult to detect and quantify the of a Technological Program – PRO- internal corrosion of the lines. Petro- TRAN, with specific projects led Most of the projects are developed bras R&D changed this scenario by specialty groups from Petrobras in house, with part of the scope con- with the development of an in-line R&D – CENPES as well as by par- tracted to Brazilian science and tech- inspection tool. ticipating in joint industry programs nology institutions, however some and projects. are contracted abroad. The innovation, known as the 'Pig Es- pinho' is able to identify and measure PROTRAN, dedicated to pipeline We consider part of this portfolio a loss of pipeline wall thickness caused technology since 1997, in its early group of eighteen projects we sup- by internal corrosion. It is based on a stages has put substantial effort in port as members of Pipeline Research series of very sensitive feeler rod and qualifying and helping to assimilate Council International (PRCI). Also miniature electronics. It can handle the most up-to-date solutions avail- part of the portfolio are eight projects large diameter variations and has mul- able for operational challenges. Re- targeted at increasing the capabilities tiple uses as it can inspect thicknesses cent work on pipelines has been part of Brazilian Universities and Institutes of any size and can negotiate tight of the international industry effort to support a set of 26 ships that will bends. It is also able to by-pass geo- to improve safety, minimize risk and be built for Petrobras Transporte SA, metrical accessories with narrow bend reduce capital and operational costs. run directly by Rio de Janeiro Federal radius and can tolerate high tempera- University, São Paulo State University ture and high-pressure environments. The present portfolio of PROTRAN and The São Paulo Institute of Tech- includes projects in eight subjects: nology. Figure 1 shows sensing elements on a 22” diameter ILI tool used in an • Corrosion Management; The following paragraphs discuss offshore pipeline. A recent run has some highlights of projects that have • Leak Detection Systems; just finished or are under way. • Pipeline Rehabilitation; multi-size iLi Tool • In Line Inspection (ILI); The existing equipment, known as Conventional Instrumented Pigs, • Pipeline Operation and Automa- used in inspections of onshore pipe- tion; lines was not ideally suited for use in sub sea oil and gas production pipe- • Risk management; lines. Frequent diameter variations, large wall thicknesses, sharp-angled • Pipeline Design, materials and bends, and the most varied geomet- Figure 1 - Crown of sensing construction technology; rical configurations, which are far elements in 22” Pig Espinho. more prevalent in sub sea pipelines
    • The Brazilian Pipeline Community made it possible to inspect an off- shore line which has a flexible riser. Corrosion management in wet gas Pipelines Typical strategies to mitigate CO2 corrosion to acceptable levels are: continuous corrosion inhibition, batch corrosion inhibition, gas de- hydration, pH control and corro- sion-resistant alloys (CRA). In the Cangoá-Peroá field, offshore Espíri- to Santo-Brazil, there is no facility available for liquid/gas separation and treatment on the topside of the Figure 2 - Artistic view of the pipes and pig launcher for the batch treat- jacket. All production (gas, conden- ment. sate and produced water) from Peroá is transported for processing to one separation and one TEG dehydra- Under these conditions, a continu- tion facility onshore. On the plat- ously applied corrosion inhibitor is form, there is a chemical injection not expected to wet the top of the system, in order to prevent hydrate line. As the 18” gas export pipeline formation and inhibit corrosion, in- is heavily oversized, it creates a risk cluding a dedicated pig launcher for of severe corrosion damage due to batch treatment. No sand produc- potentially ineffective corrosion tion is expected and the CO2 content control by inhibitor continuous is 1.25% and 3.06% for Peroá and injection. Combined batch inhibi- Cangoá respectively. After a number tion is required for protecting the of simulations and studies Petrobras top. chose a carbon steel pipeline with a corrosion allowance of 6 mm and To enhance the batch treatment, corrosion inhibitor treatment as a the design team developed an in- suitable materials/corrosion control novative method for this opera- approach. tion. For that reason, the platform design considered two pig launch- One of the concerns for the 18” ers. One vertical pig launcher will main pipeline is under-deposit cor- be used to run up to seven pigs for rosion and proper inhibitor trans- the normal operation with an ini- portation. Under-deposit wall loss tial frequency expected every two can be very fast even in generally days. The second pig launcher is low-corrosion medium. Frequent horizontal and will be used for the launching of scraper pigs would batch operations. As the platform therefore be needed to ensure clea- is small and crowded, a creative nout of any solids in the pipeline design configuration was devised and cup-discs to enhance inhibitor to allow for the installation of the transportation. Since the predomi- two pig launchers. Figures 2 and 3 nant flow pattern is stratified wavy, show the batch system. CO2 corrosion rates will be differ- ent at the bottom of the line (BOL) The pipeline has a dynamic side and at the top of the line (TOL) stream corrosion monitoring sys- Figure 3 - Artistic view of the and there are also implications for tem and has just been commis- Peroá platform. corrosion inhibition application. sioned.
    • Pipeline and shipping Technology to support Petrobras group The influence of Topographic A variety of studies on mass wast- our ability to predict landslide sus- scale in mass wasting ing susceptibility modeling applied ceptibility, the simulations were car- susceptibility modeling to a pipeline in steep hill slopes of ried out in scales 1:1.000, 1:10.000 the Serra do Mar, close to the city and 1:50.000. The purpose of mass wasting sus- of Rio de Janeiro, where mainly ceptibility assessment using a Geo- creeping process are occurring, were The Serra do Mar is a mountain graphic Information System is to performed. In these numerical ex- range nearby the Southeastern Bra- assign, in a regional scale, places periments both deterministic (e.g., zilian coast in the states of Rio de were these events are more probable SHALSTAB – Shallow Landslide Janeiro, São Paulo, Espírito Santo to take place. The main purpose of Stability Model and TRIGRS – Tran- and Paraná with hill top eleva- mass wasting susceptibility maps is sient Rainfall Infiltration Grid-Based tions varying from 300 to 2.000 to provide information about the Regional Slope Stability Analysis) and meters. The study area is located probability of mass wasting occur- empirical models (e.g., SMORPH – in a steep hill slope near the coast ring. The way in which the digital Slope Morphology Model) were used, in the state of Rio de Janeiro, just elevation model (DEM) is obtained, as well as a modification of this mod- West of Rio de Janeiro city. An im- by interpolation or by mesh, has an el in order to detect areas affected by portant pipeline goes through these enormous influence in determining creep processes. Besides, a model W-E oriented hill slopes, which are the main topographic parameters based on soil and rock properties mainly composed by Precambrian of this surface, like the contributing mapped in the field (IPT Model) was metamorphic rocks as gneisses and area, the flow direction, the slope also tested. In order to characterize migmatites, locally known as Rio and the hill slope curvature. the influence of topographic scale in Negro Complex. Figure 4 - The creeping area (red lines) with inclinometers assigned by their labels and showing that the process is occur- ring in high contributing areas.
    • The Brazilian Pipeline Community The Brazilian gas Transportation system Marcelo Renno, Director – Petrobras Transporte introduction gas Pipeline network Natural gas is the world’s fastest- Natural Gas in Brazil growing primary energy source, be- ing more environmentally attractive Natural gas usage in Brazil started as it burns efficiently; it is expected in the 1960´s with the development to be the fuel of choice in many re- and production of reserves in Bahia gions. As a result of this, the natural state, in the Northeast of the coun- gas share of the total world energy try. For this reason the first gas pipe- matrix will grow from 24 percent in line, called GASEB, was constructed 2003 to 26 percent in 2030 mea- linking the State of Bahia to the State sured in BTUs. of Sergipe, as shown in fig.1. In Brazil alone, the consumption of Natural gas exploration continued Pernambuco states with gas produced natural gas will be growing at 12% to at a low level in the 1970’s until the in the State of Rio Grande do Norte. 15% per year on average, led mainly worldwide oil crises motivated efforts by vehicular natural gas (VNG) and in exploration and production. Due In the 1990’s production from the by the industrial market. to these efforts, results started to be Merluza Field began in the Santos achieved with the discovery of re- Basin, supplying natural gas to the Petrobras, the state controlled serves in the Espírito Santo and Rio Refineries of Presidente Bernardes Brazilian energy company, is the de Janeiro states (Campos Basin). and Capuava (GASAN) and con- principal player in the Brazilian This fact, associated with industry’s necting the State of São Paulo to the natural gas industry. Its goal for fuel demand, led to the construction natural gas supply system. 2011 is to market an average of of gas pipelines throughout those 120 million cubic meters of natu- states. At that time, the gas pipelines To complete the gas pipeline net- ral gas per day, well above the cur- called GASVIT, GASVOL and GAS- work in the southeast area of Brazil, rent total of nearly 46 million cu- PAL were concluded (see description the gas pipeline called GASBEL en- bic meters per day. in table 1). The latter links the states tered in operation in 1996, allow- of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. ing the natural gas produced in the To meet this impressive growth in Campos Basin to be supplied to the natural gas demand, the gas trans- The 1980’s saw the start of natural gas State of Minas Gerais. portation network will need to be transportation and distribution to the expanded significantly, with a view northeast area of the country. The gas Towards the end of the 1990’s, two to connecting the different regions pipeline called “Nordestão” entered new gas pipelines of great impor- of the country. into operation supplying Paraíba and tance were constructed: GASFOR
    • The Brazilian gas Transportation system and GASALP, expanding the natural bras was in charge of the design and system despite being located geo- gas supply network in the Northeast project implementation. graphically in the Southeast Region; region of Brazil. After the construction, TBG (Trans- Apart from the Brazilian part of the At that time the domestic market was portadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia-Brazil Pipeline, the table be- supplied only by the domestic gas Bolívia-Brasil S.A.) in Brazil – where low shows the current network in production. This situation changed in Petrobras is the main partner – and Brazil. 2000, with the conclusion of the Bo- GTB (Gas TransBoliviano) in Boliv- livia-Brazil gas pipeline (GASBOL), ia became the owners and operators The existing natural gas pipeline which started the process of natural of the pipeline in their respective network is fully operated by Trans- gas importation from other countries. countries. petro (Petrobras Transporte S.A) and TBG, which operates the Brazilian The Bolivia-Brazil Pipeline The Bolivia-Brazil pipeline includes part of GASBOL. (GASBOL) twelve compression stations, seven operational measurement stations Transpetro is the Petrobras System The Bolivia-Brazil pipeline was the for pig launcher/receiver facilities lo- logistics company, and is responsible outcome of many years of negotia- cated along the pipeline and thirty for operating areas such as the trans- tion between the Governments of eight pressure measurement and re- portation and storage of crude oil, the two countries but it was not until duction stations to supply the vari- oil products, biofuels, petrochemi- the 1990s that it became part of the ous gas distributors. cals and gas through pipelines, ter- Brazilian strategy for securing energy minals and ships owned by the com- supplies. The resulting agreements The Gas Pipeline Network in pany and third parties. and contracts allowed the construc- 3 Operation tion of a 30 million m /d gas pipe- Transpetro’s gas pipeline network line connecting Bolivian reserves to At present, there are three indepen- transportation capacity is increased the Southernmost part of Brazil and dent gas systems in operation that by compression stations located also to the pipeline network supplied are not interconnected, due the con- at strategic points. There are ten by the Campos Basin. tinental dimensions of Brazil: (i) the compression stations in operation, Southern-Southeastern System (S- distributed in the Northeast and The pipeline takes gas from the Rio SE), (ii) the Northeastern System Southeast regions of Brazil. Grande area in Bolivia and ulti- (NE) and (iii) the Espírito Santo mately supplies it 3,150 km away in state system, which has not yet had All of Transpetro´s operations are Canoas (Rio Grande do Sul state in its pipelines connected to the S-SE controlled from the National Op- Brazil). The pipeline crosses the Bra- zilian states of Mato Grosso do Sul, São Paulo, Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul; and con- Table 1 - Brazil Gas Pipelines. nects with the existing gas transpor- tation facilities in Sao Paulo state. The pipeline has a diameter ranging from 32 to 16 inches. It is designed to reach a gas outflow of 30 million cubic meters per day when operating at full capacity. The GASBOL implementation used the most advanced technology in terms of construction techniques, remote operational systems, line pipe material specification and in- spection and testing methodology. It is important to highlight that the Engineering Department of Petro-
    • The Brazilian Pipeline Community erational Control Center (NOCC) Petrobras will speed up its development Conclusion that monitors Transpetro’s network projects in the Santos (São Paulo state), of oil and gas pipelines with the ex- Espírito Santo and Campos (Rio de Ja- The increasing share of natural gas ception of supply lines belonging to neiro state) Basins, significantly increas- in the Brazilian energy matrix is third parties and ship loading and ing the domestic natural gas supply. To the result of higher investments unloading lines at port terminals. transport this additional input volume, throughout the supply chain. This The NOCC’s basic concept was de- the Petrobras Business Plan foresees has enabled the development of the veloped entirely by Transpetro engi- the enhancement of the Southeastern natural gas industry in Brazil. neers. The NOCC is located in the region’s gas pipeline network. Expan- Transpetro headquarters in down- sion work will also be undertaken in As a result, Petrobras registered an town Rio de Janeiro. the Rio-Belo Horizonte Gas Pipeline increase of 13% in the demand of (Gasbel), in the Southern section of the natural gas in the first quarter of The system enables operators to open Bolivia-Brazil Gas Pipeline (Gasbol) – 2006 in relation to the same period and close the valves controlling the to supply the Southern region with the of the previous year, which confirms flow of gas, adjust the quality and con- gas produced in the Southeast – and in the forecasts of the Company’s Stra- tent of the gas, and conduct sales at the the Northeastern network. tegic Plan that forecasts an annual other end, all at the click of a button. growth rate of 17.7% up to 2011. In addition to optimizing the plan- With the implantation of the South- ning and transportation of products, east Network and Gasene projects in The future commitment and chal- real-time monitoring of the network the next 3 years, Petrobras will com- lenge is to continue transporting the provides greater operational safety. plete the basic Brazilian national gas entire volume of natural gas with pipeline grid. high levels of performance, assuring gas Pipeline network optimum gas network reliability, en- expansion The figure below shows the current vironmental responsibility and high and future gas pipeline network in safety standards. The Petrobras Business Plan has allo- Brazil. cated US$ 6.5 billion for gas pipeline network expansion up to 2011, there- by increasing the existing 5,570 km of gas pipelines by a further 4,160 km. Figure 1 - Brazil Gas Pipelines. The projects include construction of the Urucu-Coari-Manaus gas pipe- line in the Amazon region and also new gas pipelines in the Southeast and Northeast regions of Brazil. Meanwhile, the Gasene – which will interconnect Southeastern and Northeastern Brazil – will be con- cluded by 2008. This gas pipeline will be formed by sections ranging from Cabiúnas (Rio de Janeiro state) to Vitória (Espírito Santo state), from Vitória to Cacimbas (Espírito Santo state), and from Cacimbas to Catu (Bahia state), totalling 1,215 kilometers. This will expand Bra- zil’s gas pipeline network to nearly 10,000 km, a measure considered a key element of the company’s strate- gic plan to more than double natural gas consumption by 2011.
    • route selection and structural design for the golfinho gas export Pipeline Marcelo José Barbosa Teixeira1, Claudio Roberto Mansur Barros1, Mônica de Castro Genaio1, Carlos Terencio Pires Bomfimsilva2, Vivianne Cardoso Pessoa Guedes2, Janaina de Figueiredo Loureiro2 1 Petrobras S.A.; 2 Intec Engineering The Golfinho Field is located in the over 470km² of area limited by the Acquisition of oceanographic data in- Espírito Santo Basin, offshore Brazil, 60m and 1,380m isobaths (outer cluded deployment of two mooring and will be producing 100,000bpd continental shelf and medium slope) lines along the pipeline route, one of light oil through an FPSO moored and consisted of a single-beam ba- in 300m and the other in 1,300m at a 1,350m water depth by 2006. thymetry for seafloor morphology depth, during a one-year period. The The produced gas will be exported investigation, side scan sonar with mooring lines were equipped with an onshore to the Gas Processing Unit, 100% percent coverage for superfi- acoustic current profiler for the top in Cacimbas, via a 12-inch steel pipe- cial sediment distribution evaluation 100m and current meters with CTDs line, which is fitted with a PLET at and a 3.5kHz sub-bottom profiler for distributed along the line. The lowest the deep end to allow for subsea con- the investigation of subsurface struc- current meter was deployed at a 5m nection to the flexible riser. tures. A geological and geotechnical distance from the seabed in order to sampling campaign using a 6 meter quantify bottom currents, which are The geophysical and oceanographic long piston-corer was also conducted crucial for pipeline design. Data ac- survey started with the first option with coring locations selection based quisition for the shore approach area proposed by the engineers. The im- on the geophysical records. Dating consisted of simultaneous measure- mediate onboard evaluation of the of selected samples was done using ment of directional waves and current data showed that the continental slope biostratigraphic methods. profiles, which was carried out using of the area had an extremely complex an acoustic current profiler with wave near-surface geology characterized by The integrated interpretation of all processing capacity deployed at 20m the presence of canyons and ravines geophysical and geological data al- depth. Each month beach profiles and associated with gradients up to 60° lowed the identification of the most sediment grain distribution were also at the shelf break. Due to this reason critical factors such as high slopes quantified, in order to provide data and the fact that the Golfinho field and areas of the seafloor dominated for numerical simulation of beach was located in a region with few pre- by erosional processes, which should seabed profile evolution and support vious studies, it was then decided to be avoided for the design route. pipeline burial specifications. conduct a semi-regional scale high- Moreover, the understanding of the resolution geophysical, geological and geological history of the area led to a structural design geotechnical survey to aid the identi- qualitative slope stability evaluation fication of natural and man-made ob- as a function of the geological envi- The most important activities with- stacles that could represent any risk to ronment. The selected route corri- in the structural design were mate- the structural integrity of the pipeline dor was determined considering all rial and corrosion assessment, wall as well gain an understanding of the aspects that could represent risk to thickness design and pipelaying fea- geological and oceanographic factors the pipeline integrity. This approach sibility analysis. responsible for the features observed proved to be very useful by restrict- on the seafloor. ing more detailed and time-consum- The entire pipeline was primarily ing geotechnical investigation to the specified as seamless pipe with the The entire survey was conducted be- final corridor considerably reducing minimum yield stress of 415MPa. tween April and October 2004, with the final budget of the survey. The material and corrosion assess-
    • The Brazilian Pipeline Community ment was then performed to check • Buckle propagation during instal- the design: select a thicker wall capa- the suitability of adopting C-Mn lation. ble of resisting buckle propagation; steel pipe to convey the gas contain- or weld buckle arrestor collars at a ing 0.56% of CO2, and operating • Buckle propagation during selected spacing along the pipeline, with the maximum pressure and depressurization. which are designed to prevent the temperature of 230kgf/cm2 and propagating buckle from crossing 50ºC respectively at the PLET in a For the pipeline installed by the reel- over, limiting the pipeline damage potentially wet environment. lay method, no concrete coating is extension to the design spacing be- allowed and the selected wall thick- tween successive buckle arrestors. The corrosion rates were then esti- ness of the pipe also needs to provide mated following the De Waard and sufficient weight to ensure on-bot- A thicker wall that resists buckle Milliams prediction model along the tom stability, mainly in shallow wa- propagation has been extensively de- entire pipeline, considering the CO2 ters. In addition, the reel-lay method signed when the reel-lay method is partial pressure, the operating tem- requires the pipe to be designed with applied, since it would be unpracti- perature profile, the operating pres- sufficient wall thickness for spooling cal spooling the buckle arrestor col- sure profile, and the pH values. In the pipeline onto the reel without lars onto the reel. addition, the effect of corrosion in- achieving the critical strain. In this hibitors with efficiency of 95% was case, the minimum nominal pipe In the Golfinho export pipeline, an also considered as a reduction factor wall to comply with the critical strain additional requirement has been es- for the corrosion rates. criterion is 15.9mm (0.625-inch). tablished, where the pipeline should resist the buckle propagation at the As a result, the total corrosion allow- The wall thickness design for deep- end of its lifetime, i.e. after the corro- ance of 3.0mm was determined for water depths is mainly governed sion allowance has been consumed, so water depths varying from 850m to by external hydrostatic pressure, the pipeline damage due to a potential 1,200m approximately and 1.6mm and the most critical phase for the local buckling would not propagate in for shallower water depths. pipeline is during pipelaying, where case the pipeline is depressurized in the the pipe may be subjected to a high operational phase. The required wall In order to determine the required wall bending loading due to a loss of sur- thickness to resist propagation criteria thickness for the pipeline, three failure face positioning of the pipelaying is presented in Figure 1. modes were considered for the entire vessel. In case the pipe is designed route: burst pressure; buckling due to with a thin wall, sufficient to resist The step at 850m for the depressur- combined bending and hydrostatic the combined hydrostatic pressure ization condition is related to the pressure; and buckle propagation, and bending, and an unexpected change in corrosion allowance. The which were assessed based on the meth- buckle is formed, it will propagate 20.6mm (0.812-inch) has been pro- odology proposed by DNV OS F-101. until a lower hydrostatic pressure is posed for water depth deeper than These failure modes, when checked reached, and this may lead to dam- 100m water depth, since it is located over the pipeline phases, i.e. pipelaying, age to a large section of the pipeline. in a rough seabed region and the in- hydrotesting and operation, resulted in In order to avoid this situation, two crease in wall thickness will improve the following load cases: strategies are typically adopted in the free span capability. • Pressure containment during operation • Pressure containment during hydrotesting. • Local buckling due to combined bending and external pressure during installation • Local buckling due to combined bending and external pressure Figure 1 – Wall thickness design to resist propagation buckle. during depressurization.
    • route selection and structural design for the golfinho gas export Pipeline It was noted that using an 80-degree tial in deepwater depths to keep Geophysical survey has shown that pipelaying ramp at 1,200m would the required top tension within the critical area along the pipeline require a 1,472kN top tension to lay the vessel capacity. route was in the shelf break and the 12-inch pipeline designed with in deepwater, specifically in water 25.4mm (1.000-inch) wall. In order • Higher ramp angles, however, depths ranging from 100 to 350m. to minimize the top tension during are limited by the stress levels The route was optimized and the pipelaying in deepwater depths, a con- observed at the sagbend region, number and size of free spans was ceptual design for internal buckle ar- mainly in shallow water depths. drastically reduced. Due to the pres- restors was investigated. For this case, ence of canyons, ravines and scarps, a 22.2mm (0.875-inch) pipe would route optimization the pipelaying in this area should be selected for deepwater, being suf- proceed under the lowest values of ficient to resist buckle propagation The pipeline route can now be opti- tension as possible, in order to mini- during installation. This pipe requires mized, i.e. re-routed to minimize the mize the residual tension along the a 12-inch pipe with a thicker wall to number and size of free spans, by as- pipe, maintaining the free spans be butt welded to the pipeline at a sessing alternative routes in the an- under the established limits of pipe given spacing to function as a buckle ticipated rough regions, considering stress and spans lengths. arrestor. The 31.8mm (1.250-inch) the seabed features observed from wall thickness was selected based on the produced geophysical maps. The allowable free spans were de- the DNV OS-F101 recommenda- First, the allowable free span needs termined based on available local tions. The internal buckle arrestors to be determined, so the number information, which was not in a could be welded within the stalks in of potential free spans may be esti- proper format for vortex induced preparation for the spooling to avoid mated when assessing the alternative vibration analysis. The allowable reducing pipelaying speed. routes. limits were then determined result- ing in preliminary short free spans Most of the pipeline route is, howev- In the proposed optimized route, which should be revised once the er, located in shallow water depths, the number of free spans higher than oceanographic campaign provides 50km approximately, where the wall 1.0m was reduced to 19, and none is more realistic information for the thickness is governed by on-bottom anticipated to be higher than 3m. fatigue analysis. stability as shown in Figure 2. final remarks acknowledgements The assessment of the installation feasibility was performed using the Little environmental information was The authors would like to thank commercial Finite Element Software available for pipeline design, since the Petrobras pipeline design and ma- Offpipe, which is dedicated for pi- Espírito Santo Basin is a new area of rine installation group for their sup- pelaying analysis. The analysis was development in deepwater offshore portive work mainly during the geo- performed by checking the stress Brazil. A geophysical and oceano- physical and oceanographic survey, levels along the pipe related to the graphic campaign was then put for- and for their comments and sugges- pipelaying geometry for the range of ward to provide rationale informa- tions kindly presented during the the project water depths. tion for the pipeline design work. preparation of this paper. It is worth emphasizing the follow- ing aspects related to the selection of pipelaying ramp angle: • Bottom Tension is relevant for the number and size of free spans, and high ramp angles will result in lower bottom tension, conse- quently, allowing for free span optimization. Figure 2 - Required Wall Thickness for On-Bottom Stability. • A higher ramp angle also requires lower top tension, which is essen-
    • increase sales marketing Communications Engineering Brochures save Time Technical Articles Supplements Communicate with oil and gas Companies Technical Translations ePrasheed offers specialized services for the oil and gas industry: • Marketing, Media Management, Supplements and Advertising • Technical Ghost Writing of company, SPE and industry articles • Technical Translation of company brochures, product information, technical data, instruction manuals and field applications • In English, Portuguese, Arabic, Russian and Spanish London Trinidad Brazil 11 Murray St, Camden, NW1 3RE 48-50 Sackville St, Port of Spain Av. Prado Junior, 48 Sala 210 Copacabana Tlf + 44 17 53 57 22 57 Tlf: + 1 868 630 7443 Rio de Janeiro - Tlf: + 55 21 22 75 44 92