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  • 1. Research and Planning AS Media Coursework Danielle Ricketts
  • 2. Contents• Research and Planning Opening Slide – Slide 1• Contents – Slide 2• Intertexts Research – Slides 3 – 31 1. The Orphan – Slides 4 - 16 2. The Ring – Slides 17 – 25 3. Alien – Slides 26 – 31 • Censorship Issues – Slides 32 - 34• Target Audience – Slides 35 – 54 1. Questionnaire – Slides 36 – 48 2. Audience Theories – Slides 49 – 52 3. Target Audience Profile – Slides 53 – 54• Planning My Text – Slides 55 – 65 1. First Ideas – Slides 56 – 59 2. Drafting Ideas – Slides 60 – 62 3. Organisation – Slides 63 - 65
  • 3. Intertexts Research.
  • 4. The Orphan.
  • 5. Research – The Orphan• Textual Analysis of Trailer• Visual Codes The mise-en-scene in the trailer for ‘The Orphan’ makes the trailer scarier. For example the use of the swing swinging makes it seem creepy. One good example of using lighting in the mise-en-scene is when Esther is stood by the little girl’s bed at night time. Then lighting strikes making you known she is there and connotes it being scary. The lighting is meant to be natural to fit the setting and time of the day. Although, it could have been artificial making the effect they wanted. Other lighting in the trailer is natural because they are denoting a normal lifestyle at the beginning which then turns wrong. They want it to appear realistic so natural lighting is used. The Dress codes in the trailer play a big part in realising Esther is not normal. For example she wears unusual clothes for a young girl. Her dress codes are old fashioned, smart, tidy and perfect. She wears smart dresses which is not stereotypical for a young girl. The rest of the family’s dress codes are very stereotypical. The family wear casual clothes connoting they are normal.
  • 6. Research – The Orphan• Textual Analysis of Trailer• Action Codes• There are many action codes in this trailer to connote how scary the film is. Nearer the end of the trailer more and more dramatic action codes are shown. The action code of all the children running around the orphanage connotes children and playful and happy playing. Esther is then shown sat up stairs painting on her own which tells the audience there is something wrong with her. The main turning point in the trailer when Esther is in a toilet cubicle and she is kicking and banging against the sides connotes to the audience she is mental and her family are in danger but they don’t know it yet. The action codes of throwing the little girl off the play frame and setting the boy’s play house on fire show weird, unusual, mean behaviour which connotes something big and scary is going to happen.
  • 7. Research – The Orphan• Textual Analysis of Trailer• Audio Codes The audio codes used in this trailer are both non-diegetic and diegetic sounds. The non-diegetic music starts slow and quiet in the background over the perfect, happy beginning of the film. There is diegetic sound of the girl screaming and kicking which shows it being scary. The squeaking of the swings and the speech of “There’s something wrong with Esther” connotes things going wrong it being scary. Audio codes in the trailer play a big part with tension building and revealing things the audience want to find more about. For example the diegetic sound when the mum is trying to find out about Esther’s past and the man tells her over the phone. This is crucial audio code to tell the audience there is something weird going on!
  • 8. Research – The Orphan• Textual Analysis of Trailer• Narrative Codes• Narrative codes play a huge part in horror trailers because they need to make the audience feel scared and want them to watch the film without giving too much away. The trailer shows main parts and the best bits of the whole narrative to interest the audience• Audiences theories are used in the trailer of ‘The Orphan’. Todorov’s theory was used in this trailer, starting with an equilibrium of the family living all happy until a disequilibrium is introduced when the main character, the little girl Esther, starts doing evil things. This leaves the audience wanting to know whether this is resolved to reach a new equilibrium.• Many effects and editing are used in the trailer to build suspense and make it exciting! For example fade to black is used at the beginning of the trailer between shots to build suspense and show the location. The cuts in the trailer are very fast to keep up with the fast pace. Slow motion is used when Esther walks around the car to make her looks more suspicious so the audience know she is going to do something bad.
  • 9. Research – The Orphan• Technical Codes• There are many technical codes fitting the conventions of a horror. One example is the use of On Screen Graphics (OSG) of creepy text. This makes the audience feel how scary the film is going to be. One example of this is “You’ll never guess her secret”. This makes the audience curious and uses the creepy text.• The effects in the trailer and fast cuts and many OSG’s. There are many transition effects between shots. Including fade to black etc. This builds suspense. One example is in the middle of the trailer each shot fades to black to show things starting to get wrong. This builds up suspense between the shots making the viewer feel on edge.• There are many close up shots used to show characters emotions, reactions and feelings. There is one when Esther has set fire to the tree house, it uses a close up show showing the young boy’s reaction and then a clothes up of her showing her reaction to what she has done.
  • 10. Research – The Orphan• Textual Analysis of DVD cover The dress codes of this to be so perfect it seems Untrue. The girl is wearing an DVD cover show the girl wearing ribbon in her hair which connotes a young and innocent little girl. The ribbon is equal and so is the girl’s hair which connotes perfection. Everything appears old fashioned, smart dress which connotes that she may not be like other children of her age, connoting she is not normal. The visual codes show the lighting to be dark. There is a light around the outline of the girl and it gets darker away from her this could connote that she is a dark, creepy character. Dark and gloomy colours connote horror. The use of the direct address of the girl looking direct at the camera. This connotes it being strange and creepy. Another visual code is the use of the ‘Orphan’ text which is uneven, childlike, creepy font which connotes the genre of the film
  • 11. Research – The Orphan• Industry Research• Director: Jaume Collet-Serra• Writers: David Johnson (screenplay), Alex Mace (story)• Stars: Vera Farmiga, Peter Sarsgaard and Isabelle Fuhrman• Production Companies: Dark Castle Entertainment and Appian Way Productions• Distributed by: Warner Bros.
  • 12. Research – The Orphan• Ratings/Box Office Takings Box office - The film was the #4 film at the box office for its opening weekend, making $12.77 million in total. The films beating ‘The Orphan’ at the box office were G-Force, Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince and The Ugly Truth respectively. The film has grossed a total of $78,337,373.
  • 13. Research – The Orphan• Reviews Critical reaction to Orphan has been mixed, with the film earning a rating of 55% (43% among the Top Critics)
  • 14. Research – The Orphan• Orphan Trailer Summary• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WgxVIB2W uHU• Starts with an equilibrium where everything is fine, then there is disruption which the trailer is based around. This leaves the audience wanting to know whether this is resolved to reach a new equilibrium. This is conventional of Todorovs theory. I also learnt that they use fast cuts and on screen graphics which tell the audience part of the narrative. The OSG used uses creepy text to fit the genre.
  • 15. Research – The Orphan Summary
  • 16. The Ring.
  • 17. Research – The Ring• Textual Analysis of Trailer• The visual code of OSG’s is again used in “The Ring” with creepy, scary text connoting the horror of the film. Fast cuts are used to build suspense and exciting this would make the audience want to see the film. Horror trailers are good at this, by making them appear to be scary and showing screams and fast pace “The Ring” makes people want to watch the film. There is flickering like a video tape which makes it scary and puts the audience in suspense.• This also connotes the narrative of the film being about a video tape. It has used very fast editing between shots using many different transitions which connote horror.• The diegetic sound of screams are conventional of horror films and make the audience feel on edge and scared.
  • 18. Research – The Ring• Textual Analysis of DVD Cover• The DVD cover uses visual codes to attract the audience. For example the colours and lighting used is dark. The colours used are black and white to connote plain, scary and gloomy. I have noticed DVD covers for horrors tend to not be to packed and contain a lot of detail. This leaves an element of curiosity and suspense. This makes the audiences want to watch the film to see what it is all about. The text used is similar to the ‘The Orphan’ text which is creepy and looks like someone could have carved it. “Before you die, you see the ring” is scary and makes specific audiences become interested and want to see the film. The use of black and dark colours are conventional of a horror DVD cover because they do not give much away leaving curiosity with the audience.
  • 19. Research – The Ring• Industry Research• Director: Gore Verbinski• Writers: Ehren Kruger (screenplay), Kôji Suzuki (novel)• Stars: Naomi Watts, Martin Henderson and Brian Cox• Distributed by: DreamWorks Pictures
  • 20. Research – The Ring• Ratings/Box Office Takings• The box office takings increased from its 1st weekend to its 2nd. The initial success led DreamWorks to roll the film into 700 additional theatres. The Ring made $8.3 million in its first two weeks in Japan, compared to Rings $6.6 million total box-office gross. A sequel, The Ring Two, was released in North American theatres on March 18, 2005.
  • 21. Research – The Ring• Reviews• The Ring received critical acclaim from film critics, receiving 72% favourable reviews out of 167 reviews on Rotten Tomatoes.
  • 22. Research – The Ring• The Ring Trailer Summary• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_nLt6bUV oCQ• Quick cuts, camera shakes, dark colours, screams, OSG telling the basic narrative, voice over, fast pace, keeps the audience interested and makes them want to watch the rest of the film, lots of editing to make it exciting, scary and thrilling.
  • 23. Research – The Ring• The Ring DVD Cover Summary • Plain, dark, doesn’t give much away which makes the audience intrigued, black and white, “Before you die, you see the ring” is scary and makes specific audiences become interested and want to see the film. Plain, dark DVD covers are conventional of horrors because they don’t give too much away.
  • 24. Alien.
  • 25. Research – Alien (1979)• Textual Analysis of Trailer• The trailer uses visual codes to make it effective. For example many close up shots are used to show the emotion of characters which show the fear and connote how scared they are. The trailer also uses very fast cuts between all the action happening making it have a fast pace which the audience would find exciting, thrilling and scary.• The audio codes in the trailer are very scary. There are futuristic non- diegetic sounds which denote aliens connoting.• There is futuristic “Alien” text connoting the film narrative.
  • 26. Research – Alien (1979)• Industry Research• Director: Ridley Scott• Writers: Dan OBannon (story), Ronald Shusett (story), Dan OBannon (screenplay)• Stars: Sigourney Weaver, Tom Skerritt and John Hurt• Distributed by: 20th Century Fox
  • 27. Research – Alien (1979)• Ratings/Box Office Takings• The film was a commercial success, making $78,900,000 in the United States and £7,886,000 in the United Kingdom during its first run. It ultimately grossed $80,931,801 in the United States and $24,000,000 internationally, bringing its total worldwide gross to $104,931,801.
  • 28. Research – Alien (1979)• Reviews• It received a 96% favourable review on Rotten Tomatoes making it one of the top horrors.
  • 29. Censorship Issues.
  • 30. Censorship Issues From the BFFC - http://www.bbfc.co.uk/classification/guidelines/12a12• ‘12A’/’12’• Discrimination - Discriminatory language or behaviour must not be endorsed by the work as a whole. Aggressive discriminatory language or behaviour is unlikely to be acceptable unless clearly condemned.• Drugs - Any misuse of drugs must be infrequent and should not be glamorised or give instructional detail.• Horror - Moderate physical and psychological threat may be permitted, provided disturbing sequences are not frequent or sustained.• Imitable behaviour - Dangerous behaviour (for example, hanging, suicide and self-harming) should not dwell on detail which could be copied, or appear pain or harm free. Easily accessible weapons should not be glamorised.• Language - Moderate language is allowed. The use of strong language (for example, ‘fuck’) must be infrequent.• Nudity - Nudity is allowed, but in a sexual context must be brief and discreet.• Sex - Sexual activity may be briefly and discreetly portrayed. Sex references should not go beyond what is suitable for young teenagers. Frequent crude references are unlikely to be acceptable.• Theme - Mature themes are acceptable, but their treatment must be suitable for young teenagers.• Violence - Moderate violence is allowed but should be in detail. There should be no emphasis on injuries or blood, but occasional gory moments may be permitted if justified by the context. Sexual violence may only be implied or briefly and discreetly indicated, and must have a strong contextual justification.
  • 31. Censorship Issues From the BFFC - http://www.bbfc.co.uk/classification/guidelines/15-2• ’15’• Discrimination - The work as a whole must not endorse discriminatory language or behaviour.• Drugs - Drug taking may be shown but the film as a whole must not promote or encourage drug misuse. The misuse of easily accessible and highly dangerous substances (for example, aerosols or solvents) is unlikely to be acceptable.• Horror - Strong threat and menace are permitted unless sadistic or sexualised.• Imitable behaviour - Dangerous behaviour (for example, hanging, suicide and self-harming) should not dwell on detail which could be copied. Easily accessible weapons should not be glamorised.• Language - There may be frequent use of strong language (for example, ‘fuck’). The strongest terms (for example, ‘cunt’) may be acceptable if justified by the context. Aggressive or repeated use of the strongest language is unlikely to be acceptable.• Nudity - Nudity may be allowed in a sexual context but without strong detail. There are no constraints on nudity in a non-sexual or educational context.• Sex - Sexual activity may be portrayed without strong detail. There may be strong verbal references to sexual behaviour, but the strongest references are unlikely to be acceptable unless justified by context. Works whose primary purpose is sexual arousal or stimulation are unlikely to be acceptable.• Theme - No theme is prohibited, provided the treatment is appropriate for 15 year olds.• Violence - Violence may be strong but should not dwell on the infliction of pain or injury. The strongest gory images are unlikely to be acceptable. Strong sadistic or sexualised violence is also unlikely to be acceptable. There may be detailed verbal references to sexual violence but any portrayal of sexual violence must be discreet and have a strong contextual justification.
  • 32. Target Audience.
  • 33. Questionnaire.
  • 34. Questionnaire• Questionnaire links: • http://www.survey.com/cgi- bin/pollxt.pl?poll=PM2U1AR3U2R8 • http://www.survey.com/cgi- bin/pollxt.pl?poll=PM2U1AR3U5X8 • http://www.survey.com/cgi- bin/pollxt.pl?poll=PM2U1AR3U5Q8
  • 35. Questionnaire The first question in my questionnaire was to find out about who would be my audience. The results tell me that my audience will be 15-18 year olds aimed at female and male. Although, this will be mainly female.This second question tells me from theresults that I am mainly going to aimingmy horror trailer at students. This fits withthe age of the target audience being 15-18.
  • 36. QuestionnaireThe results from this open-ended question tell mewhat my target audience study. Although, this doesnot link directly to a horror it does tell me the level ofeducation which I am aiming at. It tells me how muchthe audience would be able to understand. From theresults it shows that my target audience is mainly a-level students. Many studying Media Studies whichwould show interest in the effect of the trailer.
  • 37. Questionnaire This question allows me to see what media is used regularly by my target audience. It shows that my target audience consume a large amount of varied media because all of the media suggestions are used. TV and online have the largest percentage of being the most used media. This helps me in knowing where my trailer would be shown for advertising. I would have it play on TV and as online adverts. Film has a very high percentage of use also which is good due to this being the area of media which my trailer is for.This question tells me that my audience use mediafrequently but not too much. With the highestpercentage being 0-5 this seems reasonable withouthow much spare time they would have on theirhands being mainly students.
  • 38. Questionnaire. This question shows that comedy is most popular with the people who answered my questionnaire. Even though this is the case I am going to ignore this question and still do a horror trailer because my ideas are stronger than my ideas for other genres. The results do show that over a quarter of the people who answered the questionnaire do like horrors.Just under half of the people who answeredmy questionnaire said that they like horrors.Although more said no, I am still going to dohorror because many people still enjoy thisgenre. I can still have a large target audiencewith a horror trailer.
  • 39. Questionnaire.I am ignoring the responses saying that they donot like horrors and just focusing on the oneswhich are my target audience. Some usefulcomments in this question will allow me to makesure my trailer is effective. Useful results to meinclude: “They make me think”, “the scaryoutcomes”, “I love to be so scared that Iphysically scream and jump out my seat”,“Things that are unexpected and make youjump”, “Horrors make you squeem and scared,which is what good movies should do”, “Thesuspense”, “Adrenaline” and “Tension, music anddrama”. These results allow me to make surethat my trailer makes the audience do whatattracts them to horrors. Therefore, I need tobuild suspense, make the audience think, makethings unexpected, make them scream and bescared and use music and drama in the trailer togive the audience tension and adrenaline.
  • 40. Questionnaire.This question tells me exactly what I need to include tomake my trailer effective. These results are very helpfulin knowing what my trailer has to include and how ithas to make the audience feel. From the results, I cansee that I have to build suspense and make theaudience die to want to see it to find out what is goingto happen next. The best parts of the film need to beincluded in my trailer for it to be effective. This leavesthe audience hanging to want to watch the film. I alsoneed to include dramatic music to make it dramatic andmake it exciting.
  • 41. Questionnaire. These results from this question tell me that all of my target audience go to the cinema even though a small percentage is hardly ever. The main majority of the people who answered theSometimes questionnaire go to the cinema sometimes or fairly often. This means I need to make a very effective trailer to make them want to go to the cinema to see it.
  • 42. Questionnaire.This question allowed me to find out what the peoplewho answered the questionnaire thought about thefilms I looked at for my Intertexts. From the results ittold me that the people who had seen some of the filmsmostly thought they were good horrors. From the resultsit tells me that most people found ‘The Ring’ scary andthought it was a good film. ‘Alien’ had some mixedreviews in my results with some results saying it wasn’tscary. This would be mainly due to the film being oldwith a young age range answering the questionnaire.The results show that people are not so keen on usingchildren in the films, like ‘Orphan’ and ‘The Ring’ do.
  • 43. Questionnaire.This question allowed me to find out whatmy audience would be interested in in atrailer. The films that people answered asbeing effective trailers allowed me to lookat them as see what my audience maywant to see in the trailer.
  • 44. Questionnaire. This question was about my main idea for my coursework so by asking this question allows me to know what people think about the idea. Most of the answers to this question were positive and people seemed to like the idea. There was something constructive criticism giving which allows me to improve the idea especially to fit the target audience.
  • 45. Questionnaire. This question tells me that my horror needs be psychological and have unexpected storylines.This final question tells me what sort of charactersmy audience would like to see in a horror film. Themain type of character which people like to see inhorrors is teenagers. I intend to use someteenagers in my film. The results show that OAPsand young children are unwanted in horror films.
  • 46. Audience Theory.
  • 47. Audience theories applied to my text.• Hyperdermic Syringe Model My trailer is injecting the idea of it being scary, thrilling, exciting.• Uses and Gratifications Theory My trailer would be used for information about the characters, personal identity to see how they would feel in the same scary situation, also maybe for social interaction to talk about it with friends and the main use is for entertainment to feel scared and excited from the trailer.
  • 48. Audience theories applied to my text.• ‘Two-Step Flow’ Theory The audience will be filtered information from the trailer because they have trust in the producer. The producer being the opinion leader controlling what information is filtered to the audience. From my trailer the information which the audience are likely to trust is going to be
  • 49. Audience theories applied to my text.• Polysemic Readings• Preferred reading: That the trailer is scary, psychological, interesting, exciting and makes the audience want to watch the film.• Oppositional reading: The trailer doesn’t have an effect on the audience, it doesn’t make them want to watch the film and they think its unrealistic, fake and not scary.
  • 50. Target Audience Profile.
  • 51. My Target Audience Profile• Age: 15-20• Gender: Female and Male• Occupation: Students mainly, part-time jobs etc.• Income: Low income can afford to go to the cinema• Demographics: E - working class – Students, Unemployed, Casual Workers• Psychographics: Mainstreamers, Trendies, Groupies, Egoists, Drifters, Innovators!
  • 52. Planning my text.
  • 53. First Ideas.
  • 54. First Ideas • Video-based Production: A Trailer • OR • Print-based Production: Double page magazine review and a DVD coverDecided Video-based Production: A Trailer
  • 55. First Ideas• Genre:• Horror-Brief ideas:• Girl – young, creepy, twisted, does evil things, disrupts a school• Bride – twisted killer, murders husband on wedding day, woman in bridal dress running down a lane or alleyway, hair a mess, make-up down her face.
  • 56. First Ideas• Horror Trailer:• Narrative: Begin with an equilibrium of a happy couple, Disruption bride going mad, kills husband, runs off• Horror DVD Cover:• Back of bride in wedding dress running down a lane• Creepy Girl looking evil• Scary Hand
  • 57. Drafting IdeasTitle ideas:• The Happiest Day of Your Life• The Bride• A Wedding Day To Remember
  • 58. Drafting IdeasFont ideas:• Example 1• Example 2• Example 3• Example 4
  • 59. Drafting Ideas• Narrative/Stories• Bride and Husband, Olivia and Callum are preparing for their wedding. What seems perfect at first does not become so perfect after all. Olivia begins to become psycho and snap at things. It all builds up to their wedding day when the unexpected happens...
  • 60. Organisation• Actors• Olivia – The Wife – Shannon Davies or Christina Brigden• Callum – The Husband –• Extras – Friends etc – Etta Weaver, Yasmin Wringer, Caitlin Ford
  • 61. Organisation• Locations• My house -• Kitchen• Living Room• Front of the house• Field near my house• Another field over looking landscape
  • 62. Organisation• Costumes• Dress codes mainly normal and casual• Bride’s Dress – Fancy dress costume to film the climax scene in