Learning Objectives• Understand . . .• How qualitative methodologies differ fromquantitative methodologies.• The controversy surrounding qualitative research.• The types of decisions that use qualitativemethodologies.• The different qualitative research methodologies.7-2
Web as a Source7-3“It is better to think of the Web . . . as the soundsof independent voices, just like the street cornersoapbox preacher or that friend of yours whoalways recommends the best books.”David Meerman Scottmarketing strategist and author,The New Rules of Marketing and PR
PulsePoint:Research Revelation7-462 The percent of wealthy consumersreporting that the state of theeconomy has changed their view ofluxury purchases . . . that flauntingluxury is insensitive.
Qualitative Researchand the Research Process7-5
Why Use Qualitative Research?7-7“Most of what influences what we say anddo occurs below the level of awareness.That’s why we need new techniques:to get at hidden knowledge –to get at what people don’t know they know.”Gerald ZaltmanEmeritus Professor, HarvardCreator, Zmet technique
IDI vs GroupIndividual Interview Group Interview• Explore life of individual in depth• Create case histories throughrepeated interviews over time• Test a survey• Orient the researcher to a field of inquiry andthe language of the field• Explore a range of attitudes, opinions, andbehaviors• Observe a process of consensus anddisagreement• Detailed individual experiences,choices, biographies• Sensitive issues that mightprovoke anxiety• Issues of public interest or common concern• Issues where little is known or of a hypotheticalnature• Time-pressed participants or thosedifficult to recruit (e.g., elite or high-status participants)• Participants with sufficient languageskills (e.g., those older than seven)• Participants whose distinctionswould inhibit participation• Participants whose backgrounds are similar ornot so dissimilar as to generate conflict ordiscomfort• Participants who can articulate their ideas• Participants who offer a range of positions onissues7-32ResearchObjectiveTopicConcernsParticipants
Research Using IDIs7-33CulturalinterviewsSequentialinterviewingTypesLife historiesCriticalincidenttechniquesOral historiesEthnography
8-44Learning Objectives• Understand . . .• When observation studies are most useful.• Distinctions between monitoring. nonbehavioraland behavioral activities• Strengths of the observation approach inresearch design.• Weaknesses of the observation approach inresearch design.
8-45Learning Objectives• Understand . . .• Three perspectives from which the observer-participant relationship may be viewed.• Various designs of observation studies.
8-46How Our Brain Works“Once a pattern becomes predictable, thebrain starts to ignore it. We get bored;attention is a scare resource, so why wasteit on something that’s perfectly predictable.”Jonah Lehrerneuroscientist and author,How We Decide
8-47PulsePoint:Research Revelation3 The number of minutes the averagecubicle dweller works before beinginterrupted by phone, e-mail, instantmessage, or social networking activities.
8-53Content of ObservationFactual Inferential• Introduction/identification of salesperson andcustomer.• Credibility of salesperson. Qualified status ofcustomer.• Time and day of week. • Convenience for the customer. Welcomingattitude of the customer• Product presented. • Customer interest in product.• Selling points presented per product. • Customer acceptance of selling points of product.• Number of customer objections raised perproduct.• Customer concerns about features and benefits.• Salesperson’s rebuttal of objection. • Effectiveness of salesperson’s rebuttal attempts.• Salesperson’s attempt to restore controls. • Effectiveness of salesperson’s control attempt.• Consequences for customer who prefersinteraction.• Length of interview. • Customer’s/salesperson’s degree of enthusiasmfor the interview.• Environmental factors interfering with theinterview.• Level of distraction for the customer.• Customer purchase decision. • General evaluation of sale presentation skill.
8-61RFID Changes Monitoring“We can certainly understand and appreciateconsumer concern about privacy. That’s why wewant our customers to know that RFID tags willnot contain nor collect any additional data aboutour customers. In fact in the foreseeable future,there won’t even be any RFID readers on ourstores’ main sales floors.”Linda DillmanEVP & Chief Information OfficerWal-Mart
8-62Behavioral Observation•“We noticed peoplescraping the toppings offour pizza crusts. Wethought at first there wassomething wrong, but theysaid, ‘We love it, we justdon’t eat the crustanymore.”Tom Santor,Donatos Pizza
9-76Learning Objectives• Understand . . .• Uses for experimentation.• Advantages and disadvantages of theexperimental method.• Seven steps of a well-planned experiment.• Internal and external validity with experimentalresearch designs.• Three types of experimental designs and thevariations of each.
9-77Experiments Challenge Perceptions“There is no such thing as a failedexperiment, only experiments withunexpected outcomes.”Richard Buckminster Fuller,engineer and architect
9-78PulsePoint:Research Revelation45 The percent of smartphone users whocheck their e-mail before they getdressed.
9-79Causal EvidenceAgreement betweenIVs and DVsTime order of occurrenceExtraneous variablesdid not influence DVs
9-81Evaluation of Experiments•Advantages• Ability to manipulate IV• Use of control group• Control of extraneousvariables• Replication possible• Field experimentspossible•Disadvantages• Artificiality of labs• Non-representativesample• Expense• Focus on present andimmediate future• Ethical limitations
9-89Validity in ExperimentationExternalInternal
9-90Threats to Internal ValidityThreatsMaturation HistoryTestingInstrumentationSelectionStatisticalregressionExperimentalmortality
9-91Additional Threats to InternalValidityDiffusion of treatmentCompensatory equalizationCompensatory rivalryResentful disadvantagedLocal history
9-92Threats to External ValidityReactivity oftesting on XInteraction ofselection and XOtherreactive factors
9-93Experiments Challenge Perceptions“We need to keep an open mind and approachlife as a series of experiments. We need toobserve the experiments happening around usand create new ones. Instead of accepting theworld as we think it is, we need to keep testing itto find out what it is and what works.”Jerry WindWharton School of Business,University of Pennsylvania
9-94Experimental Research DesignsPre-experimentsTrue experimentsField experiments
9-107Key Terms• Matching• Operationalized• Quota matrix• Random assignment• Replication• Test market– Electronic test market– Simulated test market– Standard test market– Virtual test market• Treatment levels• Web-enabled testmarket