2. Different Methods Toward Creativity

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a teaching material for creative thinking class lectured by Hsien-Hui Tang.

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2. Different Methods Toward Creativity

  1. 1. DIFFERENT METHODS TOWARD CREATIVITY <ul><li>This is a teaching material for creative thinking class lectured by Hsien-Hui Tang ( 唐玄輝 ) at NTUST, Taiwan </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>[email_address]
  2. 2. INTRODUCE YOURSELF BY A PIECE OF PAPER <ul><li>Objective definitions of creativity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The creation of original and useful work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Key characteristics: novelty and value </li></ul></ul>[email_address]
  3. 3. Research Approaches <ul><li>Psychometric </li></ul><ul><li>Experimental </li></ul><ul><li>Biographical </li></ul><ul><li>Biological </li></ul><ul><li>Contextual </li></ul><ul><li>Computational </li></ul>[email_address]
  4. 4. Psychometric Approach <ul><li>Oldest approach </li></ul><ul><li>Creativity is a measurable mental trait </li></ul><ul><li>Divergent thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Originality( 獨創性 ) :變化 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fluency( 流暢性 ) :數量 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexibility( 變通性 ) :差異 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elaboration( 精進力 ) :細節 </li></ul></ul>[email_address]
  5. 5. [email_address]
  6. 6. IQ Versus Creativity <ul><li>Disagreement </li></ul><ul><li>Not correlated with IQ above 120 </li></ul><ul><li>Highly intelligent individuals not necessarily highly creative </li></ul>[email_address]
  7. 7. The Creative Personality <ul><li>Aware of being creative </li></ul><ul><li>Imaginative </li></ul><ul><li>Independent </li></ul><ul><li>Risk taking </li></ul><ul><li>High levels of personal energy </li></ul><ul><li>Curiosity </li></ul><ul><li>Attracted to complexity and novelty </li></ul><ul><li>Aesthetic sense </li></ul><ul><li>Open-minded </li></ul><ul><li>Need for privacy </li></ul><ul><li>Tolerance for ambiguity </li></ul><ul><li>Persistent </li></ul>[email_address]
  8. 8. Experimental Approach <ul><li>Cognitive psychology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3H3O problem </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Thought processes involved in solving creativity problems </li></ul><ul><li>Creativity viewed as cognitive processing (and therefore normative) </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on components involved in creative thinking tasks </li></ul>[email_address]
  9. 9. [email_address]
  10. 10. Geneplore Model (Finke, Ward, and Smith, 1992) <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The novelty of design situation: a single geneplore cycle </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The novelty of design situatedness: multiple geneplore cycles </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>[email_address] Generation of Preinventive Structure Preinventive Exploration and Interpretation Product Constraints
  11. 11. Visual Exercise [email_address]
  12. 12. Generation vs Exploration [email_address]
  13. 13. Biographical Approach <ul><li>Life histories of creative people </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on identifying the developmental experiences, personality traits, environmental factors that contribute to exceptional creative achievement </li></ul>[email_address]
  14. 14. Creative Mind <ul><li>創造心靈 七位大師的創造力剖析 </li></ul><ul><li>七個人都來自同一時代,受到西歐文明的影響 </li></ul><ul><li>愛因斯坦與佛洛伊德都是科學的代表,畢卡索是一位視覺空間大師,史特拉汶斯基是音樂創作者,艾略特是語言的操控者,葛蘭姆是肢體語言智慧的創作者,甘地則為政治家與宗教領袖 </li></ul>[email_address]
  15. 15. Creativity Factors <ul><li>Birth order </li></ul><ul><li>Intellectual precocity </li></ul><ul><li>Childhood trauma </li></ul><ul><li>Family background </li></ul><ul><li>Education/training </li></ul><ul><li>Role models </li></ul>[email_address]
  16. 16. Developmental Cycle <ul><li>10 years to master your domain </li></ul><ul><li>Breakthroughs every 10 years </li></ul><ul><li>Fit between the person and domain </li></ul>[email_address]
  17. 17. Biological Approaches <ul><li>Assumes psychological ( 心理的 ) traits have a biological ( 生物的 ) basis </li></ul><ul><li>Looks at physiological differences between creative and less creative people </li></ul><ul><li>Biometric & neurometric </li></ul><ul><li>The Effects of Positive and Negative Mood on Divergent-Thinking Performance </li></ul><ul><li>DNA, Brain Activities </li></ul>[email_address]
  18. 18. Findings <ul><li>Creative people has used a variety of bizarre methods that they believe have helped them to be more creative (these methods do not include self-control) </li></ul><ul><li>High states of arousal inhibit creative thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Alternating need for solitude and stimulation </li></ul><ul><li>Music, marijuana, hypnotic states increases creativity </li></ul>[email_address]
  19. 19. Exercise <ul><li>Brainstorming how to enhancing creativity in the classroom </li></ul>[email_address]
  20. 20. How to Proceed Brainstorming <ul><li>Defer judgment </li></ul><ul><li>One conversation at a time </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage wild ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Go for quantity </li></ul><ul><li>Build on others ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Stay Focused </li></ul><ul><li>Write and Draw </li></ul>[email_address]
  21. 21. Enhancing Creativity in the Classroom <ul><ul><ul><li>Establish purpose and intent </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage acquisition of domain-specific knowledge </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulate & reward curiosity and exploration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Build internal motivation (perceived locus of control) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage confidence and a willingness to take risks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provide opportunities for choice and discovery </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Develop self-management skills </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Teach by example </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Teach techniques and strategies for facilitating creative performance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on mastery and self-competition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Promote supportable beliefs about creativity </li></ul></ul></ul>[email_address]
  22. 22. Contextual Research Approach <ul><li>Organizational Creativity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expertise (technical, procedural & intellectual knowledge), </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creative thinking skills (how flexibly and imaginatively people approach problems), </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivation (especially intrinsic motivation). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Deep Dive </li></ul>[email_address]
  23. 23. Referential Context <ul><li>Boden (1990) P-creativity and H-creativity </li></ul><ul><li>Big C and small c </li></ul>[email_address]
  24. 24. C SIKSZENTMIHALYI’S SYSTEMS VIEW <ul><li>Individual </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generates ideas. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Field </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluates ideas. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Domain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Informs individuals. </li></ul></ul>[email_address] SOCIETY Field Individual CULTURE Domain GENES & HISTORY Feedback Ideas Information Recognition
  25. 25. LIU’S DUAL GENERATE–AND–TEST MODEL [email_address]
  26. 26. Computational Approach <ul><li>Using computational programs to mimic human creativity </li></ul><ul><li>Next </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Artificial Creativity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>S-creativity in the design process </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Using Chinese poem to stimulate creativity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Team members and creativity </li></ul></ul></ul>[email_address]
  27. 27. Exercise <ul><li>Brainstorming again </li></ul><ul><li>How to build a water pool in NTUST for the size of 3m X 1m X 0.3m </li></ul>[email_address]
  28. 28. Recommended Books <ul><li>Mihaly Csiksentmihalyi </li></ul><ul><li>Howard Gardner </li></ul><ul><li>Robert Stenberg </li></ul>[email_address]

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