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Mechanical Injuries
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Mechanical Injuries

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Mechanical injuries,

Mechanical injuries,
Thermal injuries,
Chemical injuries,
Physical,
Explosion,

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    Mechanical Injuries Mechanical Injuries Presentation Transcript

    • u ri es lI nj an i caMe ch DR HEMANTH S NAIK
    •  Injury: Any harm, whatever illegally caused to any person in body, mind, reputation or property ( Sec. 44, I P C) Injury: Break of the natural continuity of any tissues of the living body Trauma: Injury inflicted by force on a living tissue Mechanical Injury: Injuries produced by physical violence DR HEMANTH S NAIK
    • Classification of Injuries Mechanical injuries Thermal injuries Chemical injuries Physical Explosion DR HEMANTH S NAIK
    • Mechanical injuries Due to blunt forceAbrasionContusionLacerationFractures and Dislocation DR HEMANTH S NAIK
    •  Due to sharp forceIncised woundsChop woundsStab wounds FirearmsFirearm wounds DR HEMANTH S NAIK
    • Abrasions (Gravel Rash) Destruction of skin involving superficial layers of skin DR HEMANTH S NAIK
    • TYPES OF ABRASIONScratch AbrasionGrazesPressure AbrasionImpact abrasion DR HEMANTH S NAIK
    • Scratch Abrasion Abrasion with length but no significant width DR HEMANTH S NAIK
    • Grazes Movement with skin and hard surface Show uneven, longitudinal parallel lines with epithelium heaped up at ends Indicates directionSynonyms: Brush burns, sliding abrasion, grinding abrasion DR HEMANTH S NAIK
    • Pressure Abrasion Crushing of superficial layers of epidermis DR HEMANTH S NAIK
    • Impact Abrasion Impact with objects, when force is applied at or near a right angle to the skin surface DR HEMANTH S NAIK
    • Age Fresh: Bright red 12 – 24 hrs: Bright scab 2 – 3 days: Reddish brown scab 4 – 7 days: Dark brown 7 days: Scab dries, falls off DR HEMANTH S NAIK
    • Ante-mortem Abrasion Post mortem Abrasion Anywhere on body  Usually over bony Bright, reddish brown prominences Intravital reaction and  Yellowish congestion  No vital reactions DR HEMANTH S NAIK
    • Contusions Effusion of blood into tissues, due to rupture of blood vessels, caused by blunt trauma DR HEMANTH S NAIK
    • Factors Condition and type of skin Age Sex Color of skin Gravity DR HEMANTH S NAIK
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    • Age Fresh: Red 2 hrs – 3 days: Blue 4th day: Bluish black (Haemosiderin) 5 – 6 days: Greenish (Haematodin) 7 – 12 days: Yellow ( Bilirubin) 2 weeks: Normal DR HEMANTH S NAIK
    • Laceration Tear or split of skin, mucosa, muscles or internal organs Application of blunt force to broad area of the body Crushing and stretching of tissue beyond elasticity DR HEMANTH S NAIK
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    • Types Split laceration Stretch laceration Avulsed laceration Tears Cut laceration DR HEMANTH S NAIK
    • Split laceration Crushing of skin between two hard objects DR HEMANTH S NAIK
    • Stretch laceration Overstretching of skin Localized pressure with pull resulting in tear with a flap DR HEMANTH S NAIK
    • Avulsed laceration Shearing force delivered at an acute angle to detach a portion of a traumatized surface DR HEMANTH S NAIK
    • Characters Margins: Irregular, ragged, tearing at the edges Bruising seen in skin or underlying tissue Deeper tissue unevenly divided Foreign matter seen inside the wound DR HEMANTH S NAIK
    • Incised wound Clean cut wound through the tissue Caused by sharp edged weapon Length greater than depth DR HEMANTH S NAIK
    • Characters Edges clean cut, inverted Width is greater than the edge of the weapon causing it Length is greater than the width DR HEMANTH S NAIK
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    • Stab Wound Force delivered along the axis of a narrow or pointed objects Deeper than its length and width on skin DR HEMANTH S NAIK
    •  Penetrating wound: Weapon entering body cavity Perforating wound: Weapon tracking through and through DR HEMANTH S NAIK
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    • Characters Margins Length Width Depth Shape DR HEMANTH S NAIK
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    • Circumstances Suicidal: Hara Kiki Homicidal Accidental Self inflicted DR HEMANTH S NAIK
    • Forensic Ballistics Forensic ballistics is the science of analyzing firearm usage in crimes DR HEMANTH S NAIK
    • Firearm Instrument which discharges a missile by the expansive force of the gases produced by burning of an explosive substance DR HEMANTH S NAIK
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    • Classification Rifled weapons1. Rifles2. Single shot pistols3. Revolver4. Automatic pistols5. Machine gunsAvtomat Kalashnikova DR HEMANTH S NAIK
    • Short Gun (Smooth bore ) Cylinder bore Choke bore Breech loader DR HEMANTH S NAIK
    • Short gun Cartridge DR HEMANTH S NAIK
    • Riffled Cartridge DR HEMANTH S NAIK
    • Firearm WoundsWounds from shotgun Smoke extend up to 30 cms Flame up to 45 cms Unburnt and partially burnt grains up to 60 to 90 cms Card up to 2 mtrs Wad up to 5 mtrs DR HEMANTH S NAIK
    • Smoke Unburnt powder Flame30 cms 60 – 90 cms 45 cms DR HEMANTH S NAIK
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    • Contact and Near Contact Wound Single, ragged Margins charred by flame Deeper tissues disrupted Ragged lacerations seen if underlying tissue s bone DR HEMANTH S NAIK
    • Close Range (up to 1 meter) Up to 30 cms: Single wound, singing, blackening, tattooing 60 cms to 90 cms :Single wound with lacerated edges, no blackening and tattooing DR HEMANTH S NAIK
    • Intermediate Range (2 to 4 meters) Single wound wit satellite pellet holesDistant Range (Above 4 meters) Shots spread widely with individual pellet entry wound DR HEMANTH S NAIK
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    • Wounds from a Revolver and Pistol DR HEMANTH S NAIK
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    • Contact Shot Large, cruciate or triangular Margins contused Tattooing is minimal Imprint of muzzle DR HEMANTH S NAIK
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    • Close Shot Wound circular, everted edges Singing of hairs Blackening with tattooing DR HEMANTH S NAIK
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    • Near Shot Target in the range of powder deposition Round, inverted margins Abrasion collar Zone of blackening and tattooingDistant Range Smaller entry wound No burning, tattooing, blackening DR HEMANTH S NAIK
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