Assignment 1 Module: CTSS ModuleTutor : Mr. Fligos Student : John Zachariadis 3 rd rd year Computer Multimedia
Topic Chosen The use The use of Communication Technology for Visual Communication
Why did I chose this topic? <ul><li>Studying Computer Multimedia </li></ul><ul><li>More interesting and familiar with my studies than Political and Organizational communication </li></ul>
Multimedia <ul><li>Multimedia consists of three basic sections: </li></ul><ul><li>Visual (video , images) </li></ul><ul><li>Audio (sound, music, voice) </li></ul><ul><li>Text </li></ul>
What is CMC <ul><li>CMC stands for : </li></ul><ul><li>C omputer- M ediated C ommunication </li></ul><ul><li>Refers to human communication via computers using different forms of interaction to exchange multimedia material(see slight 4).Forms of interaction are the following : </li></ul><ul><li>Synchronous </li></ul><ul><li>Asynchronous </li></ul>
Forms of Communication Asynchronous : when a signal is transmitted at a different clock rate than another signal. Synchronous : is the oposite of asynchronoys, therefore when a signal is transmitted with another signal at the same clock rate when all clocks are based on a single reference clock.
Computer-Mediated Communication One of the biggest challenges for computer technology is the goal of making CMC user friendly.This is often accomplished through advances in visual communication .(Specially with GUIs )
Visual Communication <ul><li>Visual communication is they way we communicate through our unique ability named vision. This type of communication is involved in our life in many forms and specially in computerized systems. Such as: </li></ul><ul><li>Images </li></ul><ul><li>Videos </li></ul><ul><li>Video games </li></ul><ul><li>Websites </li></ul><ul><li>However, particularly computerized visual communication can be improved considering issues which concern : </li></ul><ul><li>Accessiblity </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>Visibility </li></ul><ul><li>Not only for the simple users but also for disabled users and specially visual impaired . </li></ul>
Visual Impaired Users <ul><li>The World Wide Web Consortium (2001) estimates that more than 90% of all websites are inaccessible to persons with physical disabilities. </li></ul><ul><li>While a research made in United States gathered the following results: </li></ul><ul><li>937 000 (0.78%) Americans older than 40 years were blind </li></ul><ul><li>2.4 million Americans (1.98%) had low vision </li></ul><ul><li>Number of blind persons in the US is projected to increase by 70% to 1.6 million by 2020 </li></ul><ul><li>Fact which lead us conclude, that users with disabilities are unable to utilize the services of those websites. </li></ul>
Visual Impaired Users <ul><li>On the other hand a variety of websites and services exist to help visual impaired users satisfy their communication needs. List of services are the following: </li></ul><ul><li>Games </li></ul><ul><li>Forums </li></ul><ul><li>Chat Rooms </li></ul><ul><li>Blogs </li></ul>
Games http://www.bavisoft.com/ - Bavisoft has amazingly and irrevocably changed the computer gaming industry. In place of graphics, their audio games are powered purely with sound imagery http://www.gmagames.com/ - GMA concentrates its efforts on developing sophisticated Windows-based games, designed to be fully accessible to blind and visually impaired individuals. http://www.allinplay.com/ - All inPlay is a website which is accessible to blind and sighted users who can play online multiplayergames together.
Other Services http://www.for-the-people.com - Chat room for visual impaired users with microphone use only. http://www.hicom.net/~oedipus/blist.html#please-read - Website contains instructions on how to join over 200 visual impaired-related emailing lists. http://www.acbradio.org - Online radio broadcast programming especially geared to blind and visual impaired users. http://groups.google.com/group/alt.comp.blind-users/topics?lnk=srg&hl=en - Discussion group for visual impaired users, refering to Computer technology and it is supported by Google
GUI <ul><li>A graphical user interface is a way for users to interact with computers instead of using command line. GUI uses windows, icons and menus which can be manipulated by a mouse </li></ul>GUI stands for: G raphical U ser I nterface
GUIs Advantages <ul><li>Major advantage of GUIs is that they make operation of computers more intuitive and easier to use. </li></ul><ul><li>Provides visual feedback for each action </li></ul><ul><li>Allows user to take advantage of multitasking by displaying multiple programs simultaneously.(increase Flexibility) </li></ul><ul><li>Led to the development of new types of application. </li></ul>
GUI History <ul><li>The first GUI developed by Vannevar Bush during World War II. Specially, in 1945 Bush proposed Memex that allowed data to be stored on microfile and was easily accessible , linkable with hyperlinks. </li></ul><ul><li>Afterwards, in 1963 an MIT student named Ivan Sutherland developed a program called Sketchpad.Using a light pen user could manipulate graphic objects on a CRT screen and it was capable to zoom in and out. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1970 Xerox Corporation made additional progress at PARC (Palo Alto Research Center) where the first usable GUI was developed and incorporated into PARC's Alto computer. The Alto, was envisioned as a smaller more portable replacement for the mainframes that dominated computing at that time. </li></ul>
GUI History <ul><li>The co-founder of Apple Computer, Steve Jobs, inspired by the progress occured at PARC and decided to develop a GUI for his company's computers. Apple extented PARC's work by developing overlapping windows, a fixed menu bar, dropdown menus, manipulable icons and a trash can. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1984 Apple Macintosh run the first successfull commercial use of GUI. In fact it was so successfull that adopted by most developers of OS and application software. </li></ul><ul><li>On the other hand, in November 1985 Microsoft developed the first version , Windows 1.0. Five years later (1987) released Windows 2.0 which included major improvements over the initial version with addition of icons and overlapping windows. The biggest step to offer a high quality GUI was in 1995 when Microsoft launched Windows 95. </li></ul>
Conclusion <ul><li>Visual Communication and in general Computer-based Communications are playing an important role in our life and are widely used nowadays. </li></ul><ul><li>Althougt, users with disabilities and particularly visual impaired are unable to enjoy services that these communications offers because most of them are inaccessible. </li></ul><ul><li>Improvements on Accessibility , usability and flexibility will help users in general and specially visual impaired. </li></ul>
Most Interesting <ul><li>90% of websites are inaccesible for visual impaired users. </li></ul><ul><li>Online Games are dominating nowadays and I was amazed that a lot of them are only for blind users. </li></ul>
References <ul><li> Crispin Thurlow, Laura Lengel and Alice Tomic, (2004). Computer-Mediated Communication, Social interaction and the Internet </li></ul><ul><li> Stephen Few (2006) . Visual Communication, Core design principles for displaying quantitative information. Available at : http://www.perceptualedge.com/articles/Whitepapers/Visual_Communication.pdf [Accessed 27 November 2009] </li></ul><ul><li> N. Southern & L. Drescher (2005). Technology and the needs of deafblind people. Elsevier B.V. </li></ul><ul><li>Paul N. Wilson, N. Foreman, D. Stanton (1997). Virtual reality, disability and rehabilitation. </li></ul><ul><li> D. Sneddon, Gwyneth, Aderson (1997). Face to face and video mediated communication: A comparison of dialogue structure and task performance. </li></ul><ul><li> Ron Baecker (2003). A principled design for scalable internet visual communications with rick media, interactivity, and structured archives. </li></ul><ul><li> Congdon N., O'Colmain B., Klaver CC (2004). Causes and prevalence of visual impairment among adults in the United States. USA Wilmer Eye Institute. </li></ul><ul><li> Springer B., Heidelberg (1996). Synchronous, asynchronous, and causally ordered communication. </li></ul><ul><li> The Linux Information Project (2004) Graphical User Interface. Available at : http://www.linfo.org/gui.html [Accesses 29 November 2009] </li></ul><ul><li> S. P. Weisband, T. Connolly (1995) . Computer-Mediated Communication and Social Information. </li></ul>
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