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First aid by Dr Hariom Sharma Global Speciality Hospital Gwalior
First aid by Dr Hariom Sharma Global Speciality Hospital Gwalior
First aid by Dr Hariom Sharma Global Speciality Hospital Gwalior
First aid by Dr Hariom Sharma Global Speciality Hospital Gwalior
First aid by Dr Hariom Sharma Global Speciality Hospital Gwalior
First aid by Dr Hariom Sharma Global Speciality Hospital Gwalior
First aid by Dr Hariom Sharma Global Speciality Hospital Gwalior
First aid by Dr Hariom Sharma Global Speciality Hospital Gwalior
First aid by Dr Hariom Sharma Global Speciality Hospital Gwalior
First aid by Dr Hariom Sharma Global Speciality Hospital Gwalior
First aid by Dr Hariom Sharma Global Speciality Hospital Gwalior
First aid by Dr Hariom Sharma Global Speciality Hospital Gwalior
First aid by Dr Hariom Sharma Global Speciality Hospital Gwalior
First aid by Dr Hariom Sharma Global Speciality Hospital Gwalior
First aid by Dr Hariom Sharma Global Speciality Hospital Gwalior
First aid by Dr Hariom Sharma Global Speciality Hospital Gwalior
First aid by Dr Hariom Sharma Global Speciality Hospital Gwalior
First aid by Dr Hariom Sharma Global Speciality Hospital Gwalior
First aid by Dr Hariom Sharma Global Speciality Hospital Gwalior
First aid by Dr Hariom Sharma Global Speciality Hospital Gwalior
First aid by Dr Hariom Sharma Global Speciality Hospital Gwalior
First aid by Dr Hariom Sharma Global Speciality Hospital Gwalior
First aid by Dr Hariom Sharma Global Speciality Hospital Gwalior
First aid by Dr Hariom Sharma Global Speciality Hospital Gwalior
First aid by Dr Hariom Sharma Global Speciality Hospital Gwalior
First aid by Dr Hariom Sharma Global Speciality Hospital Gwalior
First aid by Dr Hariom Sharma Global Speciality Hospital Gwalior
First aid by Dr Hariom Sharma Global Speciality Hospital Gwalior
First aid by Dr Hariom Sharma Global Speciality Hospital Gwalior
First aid by Dr Hariom Sharma Global Speciality Hospital Gwalior
First aid by Dr Hariom Sharma Global Speciality Hospital Gwalior
First aid by Dr Hariom Sharma Global Speciality Hospital Gwalior
First aid by Dr Hariom Sharma Global Speciality Hospital Gwalior
First aid by Dr Hariom Sharma Global Speciality Hospital Gwalior
First aid by Dr Hariom Sharma Global Speciality Hospital Gwalior
First aid by Dr Hariom Sharma Global Speciality Hospital Gwalior
First aid by Dr Hariom Sharma Global Speciality Hospital Gwalior
First aid by Dr Hariom Sharma Global Speciality Hospital Gwalior
First aid by Dr Hariom Sharma Global Speciality Hospital Gwalior
First aid by Dr Hariom Sharma Global Speciality Hospital Gwalior
First aid by Dr Hariom Sharma Global Speciality Hospital Gwalior
First aid by Dr Hariom Sharma Global Speciality Hospital Gwalior
First aid by Dr Hariom Sharma Global Speciality Hospital Gwalior
First aid by Dr Hariom Sharma Global Speciality Hospital Gwalior
First aid by Dr Hariom Sharma Global Speciality Hospital Gwalior
First aid by Dr Hariom Sharma Global Speciality Hospital Gwalior
First aid by Dr Hariom Sharma Global Speciality Hospital Gwalior
First aid by Dr Hariom Sharma Global Speciality Hospital Gwalior
First aid by Dr Hariom Sharma Global Speciality Hospital Gwalior
First aid by Dr Hariom Sharma Global Speciality Hospital Gwalior
First aid by Dr Hariom Sharma Global Speciality Hospital Gwalior
First aid by Dr Hariom Sharma Global Speciality Hospital Gwalior
First aid by Dr Hariom Sharma Global Speciality Hospital Gwalior
First aid by Dr Hariom Sharma Global Speciality Hospital Gwalior
First aid by Dr Hariom Sharma Global Speciality Hospital Gwalior
First aid by Dr Hariom Sharma Global Speciality Hospital Gwalior
First aid by Dr Hariom Sharma Global Speciality Hospital Gwalior
First aid by Dr Hariom Sharma Global Speciality Hospital Gwalior
First aid by Dr Hariom Sharma Global Speciality Hospital Gwalior
First aid by Dr Hariom Sharma Global Speciality Hospital Gwalior
First aid by Dr Hariom Sharma Global Speciality Hospital Gwalior
First aid by Dr Hariom Sharma Global Speciality Hospital Gwalior
First aid by Dr Hariom Sharma Global Speciality Hospital Gwalior
First aid by Dr Hariom Sharma Global Speciality Hospital Gwalior
First aid by Dr Hariom Sharma Global Speciality Hospital Gwalior
First aid by Dr Hariom Sharma Global Speciality Hospital Gwalior
First aid by Dr Hariom Sharma Global Speciality Hospital Gwalior
First aid by Dr Hariom Sharma Global Speciality Hospital Gwalior
First aid by Dr Hariom Sharma Global Speciality Hospital Gwalior
First aid by Dr Hariom Sharma Global Speciality Hospital Gwalior
First aid by Dr Hariom Sharma Global Speciality Hospital Gwalior
First aid by Dr Hariom Sharma Global Speciality Hospital Gwalior
First aid by Dr Hariom Sharma Global Speciality Hospital Gwalior
First aid by Dr Hariom Sharma Global Speciality Hospital Gwalior
First aid by Dr Hariom Sharma Global Speciality Hospital Gwalior
First aid by Dr Hariom Sharma Global Speciality Hospital Gwalior
First aid by Dr Hariom Sharma Global Speciality Hospital Gwalior
First aid by Dr Hariom Sharma Global Speciality Hospital Gwalior
First aid by Dr Hariom Sharma Global Speciality Hospital Gwalior
First aid by Dr Hariom Sharma Global Speciality Hospital Gwalior
First aid by Dr Hariom Sharma Global Speciality Hospital Gwalior
First aid by Dr Hariom Sharma Global Speciality Hospital Gwalior
First aid by Dr Hariom Sharma Global Speciality Hospital Gwalior
First aid by Dr Hariom Sharma Global Speciality Hospital Gwalior
First aid by Dr Hariom Sharma Global Speciality Hospital Gwalior
First aid by Dr Hariom Sharma Global Speciality Hospital Gwalior
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First aid by Dr Hariom Sharma Global Speciality Hospital Gwalior

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First aid by Dr Hariom Sharma Global Speciality Hospital Gwalior …

First aid by Dr Hariom Sharma Global Speciality Hospital Gwalior
Training for factory,home and any person.
Save the life by small tips.

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  • It consists only of furnishing temporary assistance until competent medical care, if needed, is obtained or until the chance of recovery without medical care is assured.
  • Types of Bandage
  • Panggilan Palsu Yang Diterima Talian 999 Masih Tinggi
    (5/2/2008 )
    KUALA LUMPUR, 5 Feb (Bernama) -- Jumlah panggilan palsu yang diterima oleh Pusat Panggilan Kecemasan 999 yang mengendalikan semua panggilan kecemasan kepada polis, bomba, Jabatan Pertahanan Awam dan hospital masih tinggi, kata Timbalan Menteri Tenaga, Air dan Komunikasi Dato' Shaziman Abu Mansor.
    Beliau berkata daripada purata 67,257 panggilan sehari yang diterima oleh pusat itu sejak beberapa bulan lepas, hanya 1,396 daripadanya adalah panggilan kecemasan sebenar.
    "Kumpulan pemanggil panggilan palsu pula terdiri daripada kanak-kanak 43 peratus, lelaki dewasa 38 peratus, remaja 14 peratus dan wanita 5 peratus," katanya kepada pemberita selepas melancarkan program kesedaran PPP 999 untuk pengguna jalan raya di Plaza Tol Jalan Duta di sini, Selasa.
    Katanya jenis panggilan palsu adalah seperti panggilan main-main 52 peratus, panggilan lucah (32 peratus), panggilan senyap (10 peratus) dan panggilan dari individu yang mempunyai masalah mental (6 peratus).
    Shaziman berkata program hari ini dilancarkan bagi menimbulkan kesedaran di kalangan masyarakat bahawa talian kecemasan 999 hanya digunakan untuk tujuan kecemasan dan ia tidak boleh disalahgunakan.
    Mengenai tindakan terhadap pemanggil palsu, beliau berkata setakat ini Suruhanjaya Multimedia mengesan 13 pemanggil yang sering membuat panggilan palsu dan akan mengambil tindakan sewajarnya terhadap mereka.
    "Sudah sampai masanya kerajaan tidak lagi berlembut dengan mereka yang tidak bertanggungjawab dan kurang kesedaran sivik seperti ini," katanya.
    Shaziman berkata di bawah Seksyen 233 Akta Komunikasi dan Multimedia 1998, mereka yang disabitkan kesalahan menyalahguna talian kecemasan 999 boleh didenda tidak melebihi RM50,000 atau dipenjarakan selama setahun atau kedua-duanya sekali.
    -------------
    Seronok Kenakan Orang Punca Panggilan Palsu
    Oleh Nurul Halawati Azhari
    KUALA LUMPUR, 26 Jun (Bernama) -- Kisah budak penggembala kambing, yang gemar memperdayakan penduduk kampungnya, wajar diceritakan ibu bapa kepada anak sebagai satu pengajaran.
    Bagi menghilangkan kebosanannya menjaga kambing-kambing di padang ragut di kampungnya, budak lelaki tersebut berfikir-fikir perkara menyeronokkan yang boleh dilakukan bagi menghilangkan kebosanan.
    Akhirnya dia bangun dan menjerit-jerit meminta tolong sambil berteriak mengatakan seekor harimau menyerang kambing-kambingnya.
    Melihat penduduk kampung terkocoh-kocoh berlari ke arahnya sambil membawa cangkul dan parang, dia ketawa berdekah-dekah kerana berjaya memperdayakan mereka.
    Rasa seronoknya bertambah-tambah lagi apabila melihat kemarahan orang kampung. Esok, perkara yang sama diulanginya, lusa juga begitu. Manakala penduduk kampung masih lagi percaya dan berlari-lari datang untuk membantu.
    Namun, malang tidak diduga, pada hari keempat seekor harimau benar-benar datang menyerang kambing peliharaannya. Sungguhpun dia menjerit meminta tolong hingga serak suaranya, tidak seorang pun penduduk kampung yang datang membantu kerana serik diperdayakan penggembala nakal itu.
    Kehilangan kesemua kambing peliharaannya akibat diserang harimau menyebabkan dia insaf dan tidak mahu berbohong lagi.
    Kisah ini analoginya sama sahaja dengan kes-kes panggilan palsu yang melampau pada zaman berteknologi ini. Bezanya si penggembala menggunakan kaedah tradisional manakala hari ini teknologi dijadikan medium tempat mencari keseronokan.
    April lepas, kebanyakan akhbar utama di Malaysia menyiarkan kenyataan oleh Suruhanjaya Komunikasi Multimedia (SKMM) yang mendedahkan sebanyak 97.9 peratus daripada panggilan kecemasan yang diterima pada tahun lepas adalah palsu.
    Menurut Menteri Tenaga, Air dan Komunikasi, Datuk Shaziman Abu Mansor yang ketika itu masih lagi Timbalan Menteri di kementerian tersebut, jumlah panggilan palsu yang diterima oleh Pusat Panggilan Kecemasan 999 (PPK) yang mengendalikan semua panggilan kecemasan kepada polis, bomba, Jabatan Pertahanan Awam dan hospital masih tinggi.
    Statistik yang sama menunjukkan purata 67,257 panggilan sehari yang diterima oleh pusat itu sejak beberapa bulan sebelumnya, hanya 1,396 daripadanya ialah panggilan kecemasan sebenar.
    ISU YANG SERIUS
    Sungguhpun pelbagai kempen serta iklan disiarkan oleh media elektronik dan media cetak, PPK yang dikendalikan oleh pihak TM terus menerima bermacam jenis panggilan yang melibatkan panggilan palsu.
    Antara jenis panggilan palsu ialah panggilan main-main (52 peratus), panggilan lucah (32 peratus), panggilan senyap (10 peratus) dan panggilan oleh mereka yang menghadapi masalah mental (6 peratus).
    Manakala kanak-kanak dikenalpasti sebagai kumpulan pemanggil terbesar iaitu sebanyak 43 peratus, disusuli lelaki dewasa (38 peratus), remaja (14 peratus) dan wanita (5 peratus).
    Pensyarah di Jabatan Pembangunan Manusia dan Pengajian Keluarga, Fakulti Ekologi Manusia, UPM, Dr Mariani Mansor berkata, statistik berkenaan dilihat sebagai sesuatu yang serius memandangkan ia melibatkan pihak yang bertanggungjawab ke atas kes-kes kecemasan.
    "Bagaimanapun kita juga perlu melihat definisi kepada panggilan palsu yang dimaksudkan itu. Mungkin juga melibatkan panggilan yang tidak disengajakan disebabkan oleh dail automatik. Ia mungkin juga antara sebab kepada panggilan senyap," kata Dr Mariani.
    Selain itu, jenis panggilan ini mungkin juga melibatkan mereka yang benar-benar kurang kesedaran bahawa panggilan 999 itu hanya untuk kecemasan sebenar dan bukan untuk keadaan tertentu. Contohnya, mereka yang panik apabila kereta rosak atau hanya untuk bertanya arah jalan, sanggup dail 999.
    Menurut beliau, ada juga individu yang gemar membesar-besarkan perkara yang kecil kerana terlebih panik.
    "Sebagai contoh, bila terdengar bunyi sesuatu meletup, mereka menghubungi talian kecemasan mengatakan terdengar bunyi tembakan. Memang ada beberapa individu yang sikapnya sebegini. Kadang-kadang kita juga tidak tahu sama ada sikap terlebih mengambil berat ini sikap yang baik atau tidak," kata Dr Mariani.
    Beliau menambah sekiranya panggilan-panggilan tersebut memang daripada individu yang menghadapi masalah psikologi seperti panggilan daripada individu yang kesunyian, sengaja menelefon untuk mengadu masalah, mereka yang mengalami masalah mental, golongan ini adalah mereka yang memerlukan rawatan khusus seperti kaunseling.
    SERONOK KENAKAN ORANG
    Jika golongan dewasa, sebab mereka melakukan kesalahan ini mungkin kerana sunyi, bimbang, bermasalah atau sengaja hendak menyakitkan hati pihak polis atau bomba.
    "Pada saya, individu dewasa melakukan kesalahan ini mungkin ada tujuan tertentu.
    "Tetapi bagi kanak-kanak dan remaja, kebanyakannya membuat panggilan palsu kerana berasa seronok apabila dapat mengenakan orang. Atau mungkin mereka sengaja ingin meraih perhatian.
    Golongan ini, menurut Dr Mariani, tidak akan berasa bersalah malah menganggap perbuatan mereka-reka cerita adalah satu hiburan tanpa menyedari kesannya yang serius.
    Kadangkala, sikap tidak kesah ibu bapa juga boleh mendorong anak-anak terus menerus melakukan kesalahan tersebut.
    "Ada ibu bapa yang tidak kisah. Sikit saja. Perkara kecil. Jadi, bila ibu bapa sendiri tidak ada kesedaran, tidak pernah menjelaskan sebab dan akibat kesalahan tersebut atau tidak pernah melihat rakan-rakan kena tangkap, perkara ini dibiarkan berterusan," terangnya lagi.
    TIDAK TAKUT TINDAKAN
    Sungguhpun kerajaan telah mewujudkan hukuman melalui undang-undang mengikut Seksyen 233, Akta Komunikasi dan Multimedia 1998, mekanisme tersebut nampaknya masih belum cukup untuk menyedarkan orang ramai bahawa tindakan berkenaan salah di sisi undang-undang.
    Di bawah seksyen tersebut, mereka yang disabitkan kesalahan menyalahguna talian kecemasan 999 boleh didenda tidak melebihi RM50,000 atau dipenjarakan selama setahun atau kedua-duanya sekali.
    Malangnya, penguatkuasaan dan kempen telah dibuat, tetapi mengapa perkara ini terus berlaku? Adakah rakyat Malaysia tidak takutkan undang-undang?
    Bagi Dr Mariani, jika sebelum ini, penguatkuasaan yang betul-betul tegas dan mantap tidak dilaksanakan sepenuhnya menyebabkan orang ramai tidak nampak betapa seriusnya kesalahan tersebut.
    Namun, beliau berharap dengan adanya penangkapan ke atas 13 individu yang melakukan panggilan palsu beberapa bulan yang lepas serta mendapat liputan media, ia dapat membuka kesedaran ramai pihak.
    "Mungkin juga mesej menerusi iklan dan kempen belum sampai maksudnya. Mungkin juga kerana kesalahan ini tidak diwar-warkan tentang kesan buruknya. Bila orang rasa ia tidak berbahaya, orang akan mengambil sikap sambil lewa," komen beliau.
    PENDIDIKAN KESEDARAN
    Membendung masalah panggilan palsu tidak hanya bergantung kepada tanggungjawab pihak berkuasa sahaja. Tetapi yang lebih penting adalah membentuk kesedaran dan sikap individu.
    Pendidikan kesedaran kepada masyarakat jauh lebih penting terutamanya kepada individu yang bergelar ibu bapa, guru, masyarakat dan media.
    "Pengetahuan tentang kegunaan nombor 999 serta kesan penyalahgunaannya perlu ditekankan. Keseronokan yang diperoleh daripada membuat panggilan palsu mungkin pada masa yang sama telah membahayakan nyawa orang lain," jelas Dr Mariani.
    Beliau turut menekankan pendidikan kesedaran sivik untuk kanak-kanak yang bermasalah.
    Menurut beliau, kanak-kanak ini tidak perlu diasingkan kerana berpendapat mereka bukanlah mengalami masalah mental.
    Apa yang perlu ialah pengetahuan dan kesedaran terhadap kesalahan membuat panggilan palsu.
    "Jika tidak dibendung, sudah tentu ia akan berpanjangan. Jika mengetahui anak-anak atau mana-mana individu terlibat melakukannya, cepat-cepat hentikan. Ia tidaklah seserius masalah mental tetapi sama seperti masalah kanak-kanak yang suka menipu.
    "Dalam hal ini, didikan dan nasihat adalah ubat terbaik untuk mereka," katanya.
    -- BERNAMA
  • Transcript

    • 1. First Aid Principles and Practice Dr Hariom Sharma MBBS, MS Global Speciality Hospital Gwalior
    • 2. Why to know first aid procedures? • Lives can be saved by the steps anyone can take until medical help can arrive.
    • 3. Definition of First Aid
    • 4. What is First Aid? Definition:  Assessment and immediate care .  Does not take the place of proper medical treatment and  Must not delay activation of emergency medical services or other medical assistance when required.
    • 5. First Aid • Immediate care that can be given to an injured or suddenly ill person – With minimal or no proper medical equipment – Temporary assistance until arrival of competent medical care – Does not take the place of proper medical treatment
    • 6. AIMS OF GIVING FIRST AID To save life. To control bleeding To relieve pain. To promote quick recovery To prevent further Injuries and Infection To be able transport casualties
    • 7. CONTENTS OF A FIRST AID BOX • • • • • • • • • • Bandages Gauze Plasters Scissors Cotton Wool Pain Killers Note Book And Pen Disinfectant Iodine /Spirit Gloves
    • 8. TRIANGULAR WIDE BROAD ROLLER NARROW FLAT PAD RING PAD
    • 9. CONTENTS OF A FIRST AID BOX • • • • • • • • Surgical Blades Glucose Burn Cream Safety Pins Ors –Oral Rehydration Salts Liniment / Deep Heat Soap Medicated Splints
    • 10. RULES OF GIVING FIRST AID First aiders life comes number one Do first things first D – anger R – esponse A – irway B – reathing C – irculation
    • 11. The three C’s Check, Call, Care!
    • 12. Look for A B C A-Airways:Check airway before you give chest compression . Pull the tongue out if it is falling back and blocking the airway.
    • 13. •Breathing B-breathing: •Step If the victim doesn't speak or open his eyes tilt his head back and lift the chin. Look, listen and feel their breathing. •3
    • 14. BLEEDING • Escape of blood from blood system i.e.  Capillaries,  Arteries,  Veins and  Heart.
    • 15. Types of bleeding Internal Bleeding This is the escape of blood from arteries, capillaries and veins into the spaces in the body. (Remains inside the body). EXTERNAL BLEEDING This is the escape of blood from arteries, capillaries and veins out of the body and is seen.
    • 16. Artery Types of Bleeding Spurting Steady flow •Veins •Capillary Oozing Internal Injuries
    • 17. Bleeding Control Direct Pressure with gauze or clean cloth. Ask the victim to support his/her own injured limb.
    • 18. Bleeding Control Start from distal to proximal. Make two turns at the start. Check for circulation, sensation and movement before applying
    • 19. Bleeding Control Apply bandage with roller facing up. Ensure the subsequent turn cover 2/3rd of previous turn.
    • 20. Bleeding Control Cut the end of the bandage into two to use as ties
    • 21. Bleeding Control Check again for circulation, sensation and movement after applying. Ensure not too tight!
    • 22. Bleeding Control Applying 2nd layer of bandage if still bleeding
    • 23. Bleeding Control Check again for circulation, sensation and movement after applying.
    • 24. Bleeding Control • Best controlled by applying pressure until bleeding stops • Amount of pressure applied and the time the pressure is held are the most important factors affecting successful control of bleeding.
    • 25. Bleeding Control • Elevation and use of pressure points are no longer recommended to control bleeding. Why? 1.effectiveness of elevation has not been studied 2.these unproven procedures may compromise the proven intervention of direct pressure
    • 26. Control of Bleeding Direct Pressure Cold Applications Elevation Pressure bandage
    • 27. Elevation and use of pressure points are not recommended to control bleeding 2010 American Heart Association and American Red Cross Guidelines for First Aid
    • 28. NOSE BLEEDING • Make the Victim to sit facing the breeze with the head slightly forward . • Ask him to breath through the mouth and not to blow his nose . • Apply cold compresses over the nose and fore head • Pinch the soft part of nose with the fingers for 10 minutes . • Apply cold on the back of the neck and forehead
    • 29. 10 MINUTES •12 •Step 2.1. •Step 3. Bleed •Step •Nose
    • 30. WOUNDS • A break or cut in the continuity of a body
    • 31. Types Of Wounds Closed wounds This is when the damage occurs under the skin tissue leaving the outer layer unbroken e.g. electrical burn. Open wounds This is when there is a breakage in the continuity of the skin e.g. cut by a razorblade, knife
    • 32. Types of Wounds
    • 33. Basic First Aid for Wounds • Open Wounds – A break in the skin’s surface that results in external bleeding and may allow bacteria to enter the body that can cause infection • Abrasion – The top layer of skin is removed little or no blood loss – Scrape with • Laceration – A cut skin with jagged, irregular edges caused by a forceful tearing away tissue and of skin • Incisions – Smooth edges and resemble surgical or paper cut Facilities Planning & Management UW-Eau Claire a
    • 34. Basic First Aid for Wounds Cont. • Open Wounds Cont. – Punctures • Deep, narrow wounds such as a stab wound from a nail or a knife in the skin and underlying organs – Avulsion • Flap of skin is torn loose and is either hanging from the body or completely removed – Amputation • Cutting or tearing off of a body part such as a finger, toe, hand, foot, arm, or Facilities Planning & Management UW-Eau Claire
    • 35. FAM Safety. Reassure casualty as you settle him/her in a comfortable position. Remove the foreign body if possible. Dress and bandage the affected part. Change the dressing every other day. Burn all used up dressings so as not to spread infection.
    • 36. SHOCK • A condition in which a person’s important body organs fails to function or slow down due to less oxygenated blood flow. (Triangle of life Brain, lungs and heart)
    • 37. Shock Shock affects all major functions of the body loss of blood flow to the tissues and organs Shock must be treated in all accident cases
    • 38. Treatment for Shock •Lie victim down if possible •Face is pale-raise the tail •Face is red-raise the head •Loosen tight clothing •Keep victim warm and dry •Do not give anything by mouth •No stimulants
    • 39. BURNS AND SCALDS • Burns are injuries caused by dry heat e.g. hot metals, iron e.t.c while scalds are injuries caused by vapor or hot liquids.
    • 40. FAM Safety Pour plenty of cold running water over part Refer or call for help • NB Never break blisters • Never forcefully remove clothes from burnt skin
    • 41. • Put the burn under cold water for 10 minutes. • 8 •S t e p •S •B t 2 .
    • 42. Chemical Burns Treatment: •Flood the area with slowly running water for at least ten minutes. (or proper neutralizing agent) •Gently remove contaminated clothing while flooding injured area, taking care not to contaminate yourself. •Continue treatment for SEVERE BURNS •Remove to hospital.
    • 43. ASPHYXIA • A condition in which there is insufficient or no oxygen supply to the vital organs of the body triangle of life caused by suffocation, chocking and drowning.
    • 44. CAUSES Strangulation Inhaling poisonous gases Drowning Being buried under soil. Unconsciousness Overcrowding in a poorly ventilated room Cardiac Failure Electric shock Asthma/Diseases
    • 45. FAM  Identify and remove the cause from the casualty or the reverse  If poisonous gas or fire, keep the victim low  Open and clear the air way  Ventilate if necessary (give a kiss of life)  Refer if necessary
    • 46. FRACTURES Break or crack in the continuity of a bone.
    • 47. CLASSIFICATION OF FRACTURES Compound/open fracture This is when a bone breaks and tears through the skin tissue, and it can be seen. Simple/closed fracture This is when a bone breaks/cracks but remains within the body. Green stick fracture This happens in children/infants whose bones have not grown hard. It bends or cracks but doesn’t break. As their bones are not hard enough to break. Complicated fracture This is when a bone breaks and damages other body organs and it may be open or closed fracture.
    • 48. Fractures & Dislocations Must treat for bleeding first Do not push bones back into place Don’t straighten break Treat the way you found it
    • 49. FAM 1. Safety 2. Rest the casualty and place affected part in comfortable position 3. Reassure the casualty 4. Immobilize fracture using splints and bandages 5. Control bleeding if any 6. Refer
    • 50. Splints Must be a straight line break Be careful of temperature change Can be formed to shape of deformity
    • 51. UNCONSCIOUSNESS • A state of unawareness due to damage or disturbance of the brain functions
    • 52. FIRST AID MANAGEMENT FOR UNCONSCIOUSNESS  Open the airway by lifting the chin and tilting the head. Check breathing and circulation and be prepared to resuscitate if necessary.  If the casualty starts to vomit, put in a recovery position.  If suspect spinal injury, treat the casualty as a spinal injury.  Examine the casualty to identify severe bleeding and fractures.  Control any bleeding as immediately as possible.  Ensure plenty of fresh air by opening doors, windows or in an open environment.  Cover the casualty with a worm blanket
    • 53. Who provides first aid? • • • • • • Workmates Friends Relatives, Family members, Teachers Medical students, anyone ……YOU!
    • 54. Principles of First Aid
    • 55. Principle #1: First, do no harm Know what to do and know what NOT to do
    • 56. First Do No Harm • Do no harm does not mean do nothing. • The wisdom is not just to know what to do, but what NOT to do • Sometimes the best thing you can do for a casualty is to call for help. • Provide comfort and assurance to the casualty may be the only thing you can do
    • 57. First Do No Harm • Use treatments you know of that are most likely to benefit a casualty • Do not use a treatment that you are not sure about “just for the sake of trying”
    • 58. Any victim trapped inside the vehicle may have injured his cervical spine. Be careful when removing such victim
    • 59. Positioning of Victim • As a general rule a victim should not be moved • The indications to move the victim include 1.If the area is unsafe for the rescuer or victim 2.If the victim is face down and is unresponsive 3.If the victim has difficulty breathing because of copious secretions or vomiting 4.If the victim shows evidence of shock
    • 60. Use bags or pillows, etc, to immobilize the cervical spine
    • 61. What to do and NOT to do in Snake Bite? • Send any evidence of the snake to the hospital only if safe to do so. • Avoid elevating the limb • DO NOT use an arterial tourniquet • DO NOT try to capture the snake • DO NOT cut the bitten area • DO NOT suck the bitten area
    • 62. What to do? • Ensure safety • Reassure and rest the casualty • Avoid all unnecessary movement to prevent venom from spreading in the body. • Direct pressure and immobilize the limb • Get to hospital urgently
    • 63. Principle #2: First Aid is about Putting First Things First
    • 64. First Things First • Get your priority right • If there are too many injuries in a casualty, treat the most urgent injuries first • If there are too many casualties – First, call for help – Treat the ones with the highest chance of survival
    • 65. Don’t treat him. Forget it!
    • 66. They are also not your priority. Keep them aside and leave them to chat with each other!
    • 67. First Things First • The first step to get our priority right is to know and recognize what is an emergency and what is not an emergency! • Sometimes it is very difficult, e.g. heart attack can be silent
    • 68. Principle #3: Safety Is Of Utmost Importance In First Aid
    • 69. All materials, including wooden ones, can conduct electricity if the voltage is high enough!!
    • 70. TRANSPORTATION • Method a First Aider can improvise to move/transfer causality from place of injury to where he/she is going to be attended to by first aider or medical personnel.
    • 71. TYPES OF TRANSPORTATION Stretcher or improvised e.g. blanket, bed sheets Dragging Human cradle Human crutch Chair lift Two handed seat Four handed seat Three handed seat Four handed seat Pick a back
    • 72. Practical Application
    • 73. What Information To Relay • • • • • • • • Identify yourself E: Exact Location T: Type of event H: Hazard A: Access N: Number of casualties involved E: Existing emergency services Put down phone only if asked to
    • 74. Conclusion • First aid does not take the place of proper medical care • It is a temporary measure using minimal or no medical equipments • Three basic principles: 1. DO NO HARM 2. FIRST THINGS FIRST 3. SAFETY IS OF UTMOST IMPORTANCE

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