Dr. G.S. Jogdand, M.D. Ph.D. Professor & Head, Community Medicine Department Kieran McGlade  Nov 2001 Department of Genera...
Definition <ul><li>Sir George peckering has made an observation that hypertension is distributed in the population as a co...
Classification of hypertension Kieran McGlade  Nov 2001 Department of General Practice QUB Category Systolic B.P. Diastoli...
Aetiology of Hypertension <ul><li>Primary – 90-95% of cases – also termed “essential” or “idiopathic ” </li></ul><ul><li>S...
Patho-physiology of hypertension <ul><li>Atherosclerotic changes in the body: </li></ul><ul><li>Thickening of blood vessel...
Risk factors for Hypertension <ul><li>Non modifiable: </li></ul><ul><li>Age. </li></ul><ul><li>Sex. </li></ul><ul><li>Ethn...
Risk factors continued…. <ul><li>Modifiable: </li></ul><ul><li>Obesity. </li></ul><ul><li>Intake of table salt. </li></ul>...
Complications of Hypertension <ul><li>Cardiomegaly:  </li></ul><ul><li>Uncontrolled hypertension leads to thickening of he...
Kieran McGlade  Nov 2001 Department of General Practice QUB This left ventricle is very thickened (slightly over 2 cm in t...
Kieran McGlade  Nov 2001 Department of General Practice QUB The left ventricle is markedly thickened in this patient with ...
Treatment (H O T) <ul><li>Hypertension Optimal Treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Largest intervention trial in hypertension. Pub...
H O T  Findings <ul><li>Lowest incidence  of major CV events occurred at a mean achieved DBP of 83 mm of hg.  This target ...
Kieran McGlade  Nov 2001 Department of General Practice QUB Global heart threat from diabetes: A global explosion in the n...
Hypertension and Diabetes <ul><li>Hypertension co-exists with type II in about 40% at age 45 rising to 60% at age 75. </li...
Stages <ul><li>Identification of hypertensive patients </li></ul><ul><li>Baseline investigations </li></ul><ul><li>Initiat...
Investigation of the New Hypertensive <ul><li>History and examination </li></ul><ul><li>Exclude secondary Hypertension </l...
Clinical clues to renal vascular disease <ul><li>Hypertension under 50 Yrs. of age. </li></ul><ul><li>Generalized vascular...
Ladder Approach <ul><li>Bendrofluazide </li></ul><ul><li>Bendrofluazide + Atenolol or ACE </li></ul><ul><li>Calcium Channe...
Tailored Approach <ul><li>Assessment of overall cardiovascular risk </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition of co-morbidities </li><...
Kieran McGlade  Nov 2001 Department of General Practice QUB
Coronary Risk Calculator <ul><li>Launch risk calculator program  </li></ul>Kieran McGlade  Nov 2001 Department of General ...
Kieran McGlade  Nov 2001 Department of General Practice QUB Compelling and possible indications and contraindications for ...
Kieran McGlade  Nov 2001 Department of General Practice QUB Therapeutic targets *                              Measured in...
Kieran McGlade  Nov 2001 Department of General Practice QUB *  Verapramil + beta-blocker = absolute contra-indication     ...
ACE Inhibitor Side Effects <ul><li>Cough (15% of patients. Is reversible) </li></ul><ul><li>Taste disturbance  (reversible...
Follow-up <ul><li>For patients with BP stabilised by management, follow up should normally be three monthly (interval shou...
Web based references <ul><li>British Hypertension Society:  http://www.hyp.ac.uk/bhs/ </li></ul><ul><li>Summary Guidelines...
Drug Treatment of Essential Hypertension in Older People <ul><li>Hypertension is very common, occuring in over 50% of olde...
Drug Treatment of Essential Hypertension in Older People <ul><li>There is strong evidence to support the use of diuretics ...
Kieran McGlade  Nov 2001 Department of General Practice QUB <ul><li>RECOMMENDATIONS   (for the treatment of the elderly) <...
Practical Points <ul><li>15 – 20% of adult western population. </li></ul><ul><li>Isolated systolic hypertension just as da...
Prevention & Control <ul><li>Primordial prevention. </li></ul><ul><li>Primary prevention. </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary prev...
Continued…. <ul><li>Weight reduction: Life style modification. </li></ul><ul><li>Cessation of smoking and alcohol intake. ...
<ul><li>Early detection of cases. </li></ul><ul><li>Early initiation of  treatment. </li></ul><ul><li>Follow up of cases. ...
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Hypertension

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clinical features, management and prevention and control.

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Hypertension

  1. 1. Dr. G.S. Jogdand, M.D. Ph.D. Professor & Head, Community Medicine Department Kieran McGlade Nov 2001 Department of General Practice QUB
  2. 2. Definition <ul><li>Sir George peckering has made an observation that hypertension is distributed in the population as a continuous variable showing normal distribution. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore clear cut definition cannot be given, however for operational feasibility cut off points are taken. </li></ul><ul><li>Normotension: systolic B.P. <130 mm. of Hg. </li></ul><ul><li>Diastolic B.P. < 85 mm. of Hg. </li></ul>Kieran McGlade Nov 2001 Department of General Practice QUB
  3. 3. Classification of hypertension Kieran McGlade Nov 2001 Department of General Practice QUB Category Systolic B.P. Diastolic B.P. Normal <130 mm. Hg. < 85 mm. Hg. High normal 130-139 mm. Hg. 85-90 mm. Hg. Hypertension Stage 1. Mild 140- 159 mm.Hg. 90- 99 mm. Hg. Stage 2. Moderate 160- 179 mm. Hg. 100-109 mm. Hg. Stage 3. Severe > 180 mm. Hg. > 110 mm. Hg.
  4. 4. Aetiology of Hypertension <ul><li>Primary – 90-95% of cases – also termed “essential” or “idiopathic ” </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary – about 5% of cases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Renal or reno-vascular disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Endocrine disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Phaeochromocytoma </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cushing’s syndrome </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conn’s syndrome </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Acromegaly and hypothyroidism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coarctation of the aorta </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Iatrogenic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hormonal / oral contraceptive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NSAIDs </li></ul></ul></ul>Kieran McGlade Nov 2001 Department of General Practice QUB
  5. 5. Patho-physiology of hypertension <ul><li>Atherosclerotic changes in the body: </li></ul><ul><li>Thickening of blood vessels » increase in peripheral resistance » leads to hypertension. </li></ul><ul><li>Hormonal changes in the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Some secondary infections. </li></ul><ul><li>No obvious cause. </li></ul>Kieran McGlade Nov 2001 Department of General Practice QUB
  6. 6. Risk factors for Hypertension <ul><li>Non modifiable: </li></ul><ul><li>Age. </li></ul><ul><li>Sex. </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnicity. </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic factors. </li></ul>Kieran McGlade Nov 2001 Department of General Practice QUB
  7. 7. Risk factors continued…. <ul><li>Modifiable: </li></ul><ul><li>Obesity. </li></ul><ul><li>Intake of table salt. </li></ul><ul><li>Intake of saturated fats. </li></ul><ul><li>Consumption of alcohol. </li></ul><ul><li>Smoking. </li></ul><ul><li>Sedentary life style. </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental stress. </li></ul><ul><li>S.E. status. </li></ul>Kieran McGlade Nov 2001 Department of General Practice QUB
  8. 8. Complications of Hypertension <ul><li>Cardiomegaly: </li></ul><ul><li>Uncontrolled hypertension leads to thickening of heart musculature. </li></ul><ul><li>Damage to the target organs: </li></ul><ul><li>Hypertensive occulopathy. </li></ul><ul><li>Hypertensive nephropathy. </li></ul><ul><li>Hypertensive encephalopathy. </li></ul><ul><li>Myocardial infarction. </li></ul><ul><li>Stroke. </li></ul>Kieran McGlade Nov 2001 Department of General Practice QUB
  9. 9. Kieran McGlade Nov 2001 Department of General Practice QUB This left ventricle is very thickened (slightly over 2 cm in thickness), but the rest of the heart is not greatly enlarged. This is typical for hypertensive heart disease. The hypertension creates a greater pressure load on the heart to induce the hypertrophy.
  10. 10. Kieran McGlade Nov 2001 Department of General Practice QUB The left ventricle is markedly thickened in this patient with severe hypertension that was untreated for many years. The myocardial fibres have undergone hypertrophy.
  11. 11. Treatment (H O T) <ul><li>Hypertension Optimal Treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Largest intervention trial in hypertension. Published in 1998 </li></ul><ul><li>Conducted in General Practice. 18,790 patients in 26 countries </li></ul><ul><li>Followed up for an average of 3.8 years </li></ul>Kieran McGlade Nov 2001 Department of General Practice QUB
  12. 12. H O T Findings <ul><li>Lowest incidence of major CV events occurred at a mean achieved DBP of 83 mm of hg. This target (compared to mean achieved of 105 mmHg was associated with a 30% reduction in main CV events). </li></ul><ul><li>In diabetes – Diastolic B.P. ≤ 80 mm. Hg. </li></ul><ul><li>51 % lower risk compared to 90 mm. Hg. </li></ul>Kieran McGlade Nov 2001 Department of General Practice QUB
  13. 13. Kieran McGlade Nov 2001 Department of General Practice QUB Global heart threat from diabetes: A global explosion in the number of cases of diabetes is threatening to reverse the reduction in deaths from heart disease in many western countries, including the United Kingdom. To coincide with World Diabetes Day on 14 November, Diabetes UK is calling for action to be taken to reduce the 20,000 deaths per year from coronary heart disease (CHD) among people with diabetes in the UK.
  14. 14. Hypertension and Diabetes <ul><li>Hypertension co-exists with type II in about 40% at age 45 rising to 60% at age 75. </li></ul><ul><li>70% of type II patients die from cardio-vascular disease. </li></ul><ul><li>At least 60% of patients will require 2 or 3 antihypertensive agents to achieve tight control. </li></ul>Kieran McGlade Nov 2001 Department of General Practice QUB
  15. 15. Stages <ul><li>Identification of hypertensive patients </li></ul><ul><li>Baseline investigations </li></ul><ul><li>Initiating therapy </li></ul><ul><li>Reviewing patients </li></ul><ul><li>Stepping up therapy </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation and compliance </li></ul>Kieran McGlade Nov 2001 Department of General Practice QUB
  16. 16. Investigation of the New Hypertensive <ul><li>History and examination </li></ul><ul><li>Exclude secondary Hypertension </li></ul><ul><li>Urea and electrolytes </li></ul><ul><li>Complete blood picture and ESR </li></ul><ul><li>ECG </li></ul><ul><li>Lipid profile </li></ul><ul><li>Chest x-ray no longer routinely indicated </li></ul>Kieran McGlade Nov 2001 Department of General Practice QUB
  17. 17. Clinical clues to renal vascular disease <ul><li>Hypertension under 50 Yrs. of age. </li></ul><ul><li>Generalized vascular (esp. peripheral) disease. </li></ul><ul><li>Mild – moderate renal dysfunction. </li></ul><ul><li>Sudden onset pulmonary oedema. </li></ul>Kieran McGlade Nov 2001 Department of General Practice QUB
  18. 18. Ladder Approach <ul><li>Bendrofluazide </li></ul><ul><li>Bendrofluazide + Atenolol or ACE </li></ul><ul><li>Calcium Channel blocker </li></ul><ul><li>Alpha blocker </li></ul>Kieran McGlade Nov 2001 Department of General Practice QUB
  19. 19. Tailored Approach <ul><li>Assessment of overall cardiovascular risk </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition of co-morbidities </li></ul><ul><li>Lipid profile </li></ul><ul><li>Renal function </li></ul><ul><li>Existing contra- indications </li></ul>Kieran McGlade Nov 2001 Department of General Practice QUB
  20. 20. Kieran McGlade Nov 2001 Department of General Practice QUB
  21. 21. Coronary Risk Calculator <ul><li>Launch risk calculator program </li></ul>Kieran McGlade Nov 2001 Department of General Practice QUB
  22. 22. Kieran McGlade Nov 2001 Department of General Practice QUB Compelling and possible indications and contraindications for the major classes of antihypertensive drugs                                 INDICATIONS                 CONTRAINDICATIONS *  ACE inhibitors may be beneficial in chronic renal failure but should be used with caution. Close supervision and specialist  advice are needed when there is established and significant renal impairment †   Caution with ACE inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor antagonists in peripheral vascular disease because of association         with renovascular disease. ‡   If ACE inhibitor indicated  -blockers may worsen heart failure, but in specialist hands may be used to treat heart failure   British Hypertension Society Guidelines 2000 CLASSS OF DRUG COMPELLING POSSIBLE POSSIBLE COMPELLING  -blockers Prostatism Dyslipidaemia Postural Hypotension Unrinary incontinence Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors Heart failure Left ventricular dysfunction Chronic renal disease * Type II diabetic nephropathy Renal impairment * Peripheral vascular disease † Pregnancy Renovascular disease Angiotensin II receptor antagonists Cough induced by ACE inhibitor ‡  Heart failure Intolerance of other antihypertensive drugs Peripheral vascular disease Pregnancy Renovascular disease  blockers   Myocardial infarction Angina   Heart failure     Heart failure Dyslipidaemia Peripheral vascular disease Asthma or COPD Heart block Calcium antagonists (dihydropyridine) Isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) in elderly patients Angina Elderly patients   _    _ Calcium antagonists (rate limiting) Angina Myocardial infarction Combination with  blockade Heart block Heart failure Thiazides Elderly patients including ISH   _ Dyslipidaemia Gout
  23. 23. Kieran McGlade Nov 2001 Department of General Practice QUB Therapeutic targets *                            Measured in clinic               Mean daytime ABPM                                                                     or home measurement Blood Pressure            No diabetes      Diabetes                No diabetes        Diabetes Optimal                         <140/85            <140/80                   <130/80              <130/75 Audit Standard             <150/90             <140/85                  <140/85              <140/80     The audit standard reflects the minimum recommended levels of BP control.  Despite best practice, it may not be achievable in some treated hypertensive patients. NB: Both systolic and diastolic targets should be reached British Hypertension Society Guidelines
  24. 24. Kieran McGlade Nov 2001 Department of General Practice QUB * Verapramil + beta-blocker = absolute contra-indication     Diuretic  - blocker CCB ACE inhibitor  - blocker Diuretic          -           -    - blocker           -  *          -  CCB          -  *          -   ACE inhibitor           -           -   - blocker              -
  25. 25. ACE Inhibitor Side Effects <ul><li>Cough (15% of patients. Is reversible) </li></ul><ul><li>Taste disturbance (reversible) </li></ul><ul><li>Angiodema </li></ul><ul><li>First-dose hypotension </li></ul><ul><li>Hyperkalaemia ( esp. in patients with type II diabetes and renal dysfunction) </li></ul>Kieran McGlade Nov 2001 Department of General Practice QUB
  26. 26. Follow-up <ul><li>For patients with BP stabilised by management, follow up should normally be three monthly (interval should not exceed 6 months), at which the following should be assessed by a trained nurse: </li></ul><ul><li>*   Measurement of BP and weight  *   Reinforcement of non-pharmacological advice *   General health and drug side-effects  *   Test urine for proteinuria (annually) </li></ul>Kieran McGlade Nov 2001 Department of General Practice QUB
  27. 27. Web based references <ul><li>British Hypertension Society: http://www.hyp.ac.uk/bhs/ </li></ul><ul><li>Summary Guidelines 2000: http://www.hyp.ac.uk/bhs/gl2000.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Hypertension audit protocol from Leicester http://www.le.ac.uk/genpractice/gpaudit/htnprot.html </li></ul>Kieran McGlade Nov 2001 Department of General Practice QUB
  28. 28. Drug Treatment of Essential Hypertension in Older People <ul><li>Hypertension is very common, occuring in over 50% of older people, and is a major risk factor for stroke and ischaemic heart disease. </li></ul><ul><li>Drug treatment of hypertension in older people saves lives and prevents unnecessary morbidity. </li></ul><ul><li>Treating isolated systolic hypertension also saves lives. </li></ul>Kieran McGlade Nov 2001 Department of General Practice QUB
  29. 29. Drug Treatment of Essential Hypertension in Older People <ul><li>There is strong evidence to support the use of diuretics as first-line agents. </li></ul><ul><li>Antihypertensive treatments are most cost-effective when targeted at older patients. </li></ul><ul><li>There is evidence of under detection and under treatment of hypertension. </li></ul><ul><li>Factors influencing patient adherence with treatment are not well understood and require further research. </li></ul>Kieran McGlade Nov 2001 Department of General Practice QUB
  30. 30. Kieran McGlade Nov 2001 Department of General Practice QUB <ul><li>RECOMMENDATIONS (for the treatment of the elderly) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Through the wider use of antihypertensive therapies more older people would be able to maintain a healthy and active lifestyle. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For first-line agents there is strong evidence to support the use of diuretics and some evidence for the use of beta-blockers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Systems to ensure that older people with hypertension are diagnosed, treated and followed up need to be developed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A system of audit should be cultivated to assure adequate treatment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High quality research on patient adherence with antihypertensive medications is needed. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>NHS Centre for reviews and dissemination 1999 </li></ul>
  31. 31. Practical Points <ul><li>15 – 20% of adult western population. </li></ul><ul><li>Isolated systolic hypertension just as dangerous. </li></ul><ul><li>Primary cause identified in only 5%. </li></ul><ul><li>Investigate – Urine, FBP, ESR, ECG, U&E, Lipids. </li></ul><ul><li>Target < 140/85. </li></ul><ul><li>Bendrofluazide 2.5 mg a good starting point. </li></ul><ul><li>Refer patients needing more than 3 drugs to control their hypertension. </li></ul>Kieran McGlade Nov 2001 Department of General Practice QUB
  32. 32. Prevention & Control <ul><li>Primordial prevention. </li></ul><ul><li>Primary prevention. </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary prevention. </li></ul><ul><li>Primordial prevention strategy: Targeted at controlling the emergence and spread of risk factors in the community. </li></ul><ul><li>Primary prevention strategies: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Population strategy involves multifactorial approach </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrition education: reduction of salt intake, not more than 5gms./day </li></ul>Kieran McGlade Nov 2001 Department of General Practice QUB
  33. 33. Continued…. <ul><li>Weight reduction: Life style modification. </li></ul><ul><li>Cessation of smoking and alcohol intake. </li></ul><ul><li>Non phamacotheraputic intervention: Practicing yoga and meditation regularly. </li></ul><ul><li>Health education. </li></ul><ul><li>Self care. </li></ul><ul><li>High risk strategy: </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate if the prevalence of risk factors in the community is low. </li></ul>Kieran McGlade Nov 2001 Department of General Practice QUB
  34. 34. <ul><li>Early detection of cases. </li></ul><ul><li>Early initiation of treatment. </li></ul><ul><li>Follow up of cases. </li></ul>Secondary prevention Kieran McGlade Nov 2001 Department of General Practice QUB

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