Most cancers result from mutations in somatic cells
Some cancers are caused by mutations in germline cells
Origin of cancers
Carcinomas- originate from epithelial cell lining of internal surfaces of various organs.
Sarcomas- originate from mesodermal cells of various connective tissues eg. Bones, fat and fibrous tissues.
Lymphomas and leukaemias- originate from cells of bone marrow and immune system
Cancers showing Genetic/familial Tendencies
Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal Cancer
Time trends for cancer
At the beginning of the century cancer was sixth cause of death in developed countries.
At the present time it is the second cause.
Stomach cancer is showing decline in the developed countries.
Diagnosis of cancer
Tumor Markers Name Foetal Ag Normally detected Tumor Carcion Embryonic Antigen yes yes GIT, Lung, Breast Cancer Ag. 125 yes yes Ovary Alpha fetoprotein yes yes Hepato-cellular Ca, germ cell tumors Lactate dehydrogenase No yes Most reflecting tumor burden Prostate specific Antigen No Yes Prostate cancer Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin No Pregnancy Teratoma, chorio-carcinoma
Problem statement: Incidence and mortality of cancer (Global)
Site Incidence Mortality
Male Female Male Female
Lung 901 337 810 292
Breast - 1050 - 372
Colo 498 445 254 237
Stomach 558 317 405 241
Liver 398 165 383 164
Five leading cancers their gender wise incidence & mortality, per lakh population.
Five leading cancers in India
Causes of cancer
Tobacco use in any form.
Excessive alcohol intake.
Dietary factors:- Intake of smoked fish can cause stomach cancer, increased beef consumption to colorectal cancer, intake of high fatty diet to breast cancer.
Viral and parasitic infections.
Customs, habits and life styles.
Male Cancer Death Rates
Cancer Death Rates, for Women *Age-adjusted to the 2000 US standard population. Source: US Mortality Public Use Data Tapes 1960-2000, US Mortality Volumes 1930-1959, National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2003. Lung Colon & rectum Uterus Stomach Breast Ovary Pancreas Rate Per 100,000
Lifetime Probability of Developing Cancer, Men, US, 1998-2000 Source: DevCan: Probability of Developing or Dying of Cancer Software, Version 5.1 Statistical Research and Applications Branch, NCI, 2003. http://srab.cancer.gov/devcan All sites 1 in 2 Cancer
Prevention of cancers
Control of tobacco and alcohol consumption.
Improved personal hygiene.
Radiation exposure control.
Prevention of occupational exposure.
Testing of food, cosmetics and drugs.
Early diagnosis of cases:- Through screening for cancer.
Treatment of cases:- Treatment will vary according to the stage of the disease.
Hospital based cancer registration.
Population based cancer registration.
C- Change in the bladder or bowel habits.
A- Any chronic non healing sore.
U- Unusual bleeding from natural orifices.
T- thickening or lump in any part of the body.
I- Indigestion or difficulty in swallowing.
O- Obvious change in a wart or a mole.
N- Nagging cough or persistent hoarseness of voice.