Freedom From Suffering Patient Education
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Freedom From Suffering Patient Education

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  • INTRO: Welcome! I know how hard it is to … Questions: How many of you have experienced difficulty with a client (friend or colleague) who is in recovery and needs to use a psychoactive medication? (acknowledge) How many of you believe that you are highly effective in helping this type of person? (acknowledge) YOUR NOT ALONE!! I’ve struggled and seen others struggle too. But Then!! Then Came The Flash of the Blinding Obvious An integrated and collaborative biopsychosocial system that focuses on both conditions concurrently with health care providers working in collaboration with the client and 12-Step support. But the question is: Why Haven’t I seen this before? Turf Wars! Selective Vision! ???
  • Explain the synergistic effect of mixing a pain disorder and an addictive disorder and that effective treatment needs to address all three zones. Understanding The Addiction Pain Syndrome Historically, pain disorders and addictive disorders have been treated as separate issues. Pain clinics have had great success in treating chronic pain conditions. Chemical dependency treatment centers have also had success in treating addictive disorders. However, both modalities struggle when the patient is suffering from both conditions. As you can see from the Addiction Pain Syndrome diagram shown below, chemical dependency treatment programs cover about a third of the problem (the Addictive Disorder zone) when dealing with a chronic pain patient. The pain clinics cover a different third of the problem (the Pain Disorder zone). Each of the above modalities misses about two thirds of the problem. Sometimes chemical dependency treatment centers recognize the need to refer a patient to a pain specialist or the pain clinics refer a patient to a chemical dependency specialist. This is definitely an improvement. Now about two thirds of the patient’s needs are being addressed (both the Addictive Disorder zone and the Pain Disorder zone). But what about the third zone. The center area in the diagram is the Addiction Pain Syndrome zone. This is why we developed the Addiction-Free Pain Management (APM) system that described in the next chapter. APM addresses the addictive disorder, the pain disorder, and the addiction pain syndrome. All three zones are addressed—The Addictive Disorder zone, the Pain Disorder zone, and the Addiction Pain Syndrome zone.
  • Explain the synergistic effect of mixing a pain disorder and an addictive disorder and that effective treatment needs to address all three zones. Understanding The Addiction Pain Syndrome Historically, pain disorders and addictive disorders have been treated as separate issues. Pain clinics have had great success in treating chronic pain conditions. Chemical dependency treatment centers have also had success in treating addictive disorders. However, both modalities struggle when the patient is suffering from both conditions. As you can see from the Addiction Pain Syndrome diagram shown below, chemical dependency treatment programs cover about a third of the problem (the Addictive Disorder zone) when dealing with a chronic pain patient. The pain clinics cover a different third of the problem (the Pain Disorder zone). Each of the above modalities misses about two thirds of the problem. Sometimes chemical dependency treatment centers recognize the need to refer a patient to a pain specialist or the pain clinics refer a patient to a chemical dependency specialist. This is definitely an improvement. Now about two thirds of the patient’s needs are being addressed (both the Addictive Disorder zone and the Pain Disorder zone). But what about the third zone. The center area in the diagram is the Addiction Pain Syndrome zone. This is why we developed the Addiction-Free Pain Management (APM) system that described in the next chapter. APM addresses the addictive disorder, the pain disorder, and the addiction pain syndrome. All three zones are addressed—The Addictive Disorder zone, the Pain Disorder zone, and the Addiction Pain Syndrome zone.
  • Brain storming session: What are some of the common treatment provider biases? It’s all in their heads They’re malingering They’re trying to con me They’re drug seeking They need to learn to live with it
  • Brain storming session: What are some of the common treatment provider biases? It’s all in their heads They’re malingering They’re trying to con me They’re drug seeking They need to learn to live with it
  • Give examples of acute and chronic pain. ACUTE PAIN: Touching a hot surface--the first reaction is to quickly remove your hand (escape the trigger). There is a predictable treatment plan and obvious timeline for healing. Other examples are: broken bones, cuts, scrapes, dental pain
  • Give examples of acute and chronic pain. ACUTE PAIN: Touching a hot surface--the first reaction is to quickly remove your hand (escape the trigger). There is a predictable treatment plan and obvious timeline for healing. Other examples are: broken bones, cuts, scrapes, dental pain
  • CHRONIC PAIN: Ongoing back pain is one of the most common expamples. The pain lingers long after the original injury (DSM 6 months) and it does not readily respond to a conventional treatment plan. In fact, chronic pain often serves no recognizable useful purpose (pain signal gets turned on and won’t go off). Treatment professionals are often at a loss to determine the exact nature of the problem, which leads to it must be in their heads. Other examples: neck pain, headaches, fibromyalgia.
  • Euphoria People use drugs because they work. This is true of pain medications and other potential drugs of abuse. If a person experiences a unique sense of well being or euphoria when they use a drug or medication, they are in high risk of getting addicted to that drug. Euphoria Versus Intoxication: It is important to distinguish between euphoria (the unique sense of well being experienced when using a drug of choice) and intoxication (the symptoms of dysfunction that occur when a person’s use exceeds the limits of their tolerance to a drug). Addicts do not use their drug of choice to get intoxicated and become dysfunctional. The opposite is true. Addicts use their drug of choice to feel good and experience a unique feeling of well being that will allow them to function better. People become addicted to this state of euphoria. Craving Addiction starts when someone receives a reward, payoff, or gratification from taking the drug. This reward may be the relief of pain or the creation of a feeling of euphoria. Because the drug provides a quick positive reward, the person continues to use it. So when people become addicted to a drug for relief or euphoria, they experience anxiety when the drug is no longer available. Albert Ellis calls this deprivation anxiety . The person is anxious because he or she has been deprived of a drug that that they believe they need to function normally, thus cravings. Tolerance There is a biological component to developing tolerance. The increased need for the drug leads to drug seeking behavior. There are also psychological and social components to this developmental process. On the biological level, after this drug-seeking behavior has been established, the brain undergoes certain adaptive changes to continue functioning despite the presence of the drug. This adaptation is called Tolerance. Loss Of Control The final stage of the craving cycle and development of tolerance is a loss of control over drug use. The person begins to develop an even higher tolerance for the drug. In other words, it takes more of the drug to get the same effect. If the person keeps using the same amount of the drug, they experience less of an effect. So the person begins using more of the drug or seeking out stronger drugs that will give the same reinforcing effect. Withdrawal Withdrawal is marked by the development of a specific withdrawal syndrome upon the cessation of use. In some cases patients may use the same or a similar drug to relieve or avoid the withdrawal syndrome. Withdrawal As Negative Reinforcement (i.e., Anguish Or Dysphoria): Once tolerance and loss of control take place, further abnormalities occur in the brain when drugs are removed. In other words, the brain loses it capacity to function normally when drugs are not present.
  • Inability To Abstain As a result of their experiences created by the biological reinforcement and high tolerance, the person comes to believe that the drug of choice is good for them and will magically fix them or make them better. They start to develop an addictive belief system. They come to view people who support their drug use as friends and people who fail to support it as their enemies. If they stop using, they experience dysphoria or pain and suffering. They start to experience a sense of anhedonia that is marked by a low grade agitated depression and the inability to experience pleasure. They begin to believe that they have no choice but to keep using. Addiction Centered Lifestyle The person attracts and is attracted to other individuals who share strong positive attitudes toward the continued use of drugs (the problematic pain medication). These people usually have enabling support systems that condone and encourage their continued use. They become immersed in an addiction-centered system. Addictive Lifestyle Losses The person distances people who support sobriety and surround themselves with people who support inappropriate use of pain medication and/or alcohol and drug use. The pattern of biological reinforcement has motivated the person to build a belief system and lifestyle that supports heavy and regular use. The person is now in a position where they will voluntarily use larger amounts with greater frequency until progressive addiction and the accompanying physical, psychological and social degeneration occur. The person’s life becomes unbearable and unmanageable. They start experiencing a downward spiral of problems. Continued Use In Spite Of Problems Unfortunately , this downward spiral leads to continued drug use in spite of the consequences. This inability to control drug use causes problems. The problems cause pain. The pain activates a craving. The craving drives people to start using the drug to get the relief that they believe they need. As a result, when addicted people experience adverse consequences from their addiction, the adverse consequences cause cravings instead of correction. So addicted people keep using drugs to gain the immediate reward or relief in spite of the progressively more serious life problems. Substance Induced Organic Mental Disorders The progressive damage of alcohol and drugs on the brain create growing problems with judgment and impulse control. As a result, behavior begins to spiral out of control. The cognitive capacities needed to think abstractly about the problem have also been impaired, and the person is locked into a pattern marked by denial and circular systems of reasoning. Progressive Neurological and Neuropsychological Impairments Lead To Denial: The person is unable to recognize the pattern of problems related to the use of alcohol and drugs. When problems are experienced and confronted, they begin to experience physical, psychological and social deterioration. Unless they develop an unexpected insight or are confronted by problems or people in their life, the progressive problems are likely to continue until serious damage results.
  • INTRO: Welcome! I know how hard it is to take time off… Questions: How many of you have experienced difficulty with a patient (friend or colleague) who has chronic pain and substance disorders? (acknowledge) How many of you believe that you are highly effective with this type patient? (acknowledge) YOUR NOT ALONE!! I’ve struggled and seen others struggle too. But Then!! Then Came The Flash of the Blinding Obvious An integrated biopsychosocial system that focuses on both disorders concurrently. But the question: Why Haven’t I seen this before? Turf Wars! Selective Vision! ???
  • Synergistic Treatment System The APM system uses three types of components to treat the synergistic symptoms, which include all three of the Addiction Pain Syndrome zones. The first treatment component uses the eight Core Clinical Processes , which are the foundation of the Addiction-Free Pain Management Workbook. S econd are the Medication Management Components , and third are The Holistic Treatment Processes . These three APM components are described fully in the next slides.
  • Give case examples of how some of these work with clients. Add Neurosurgical Procedures; e.g., nerve blocks, or cutting nerves Can you come up with more???
  • Explain this as a joint effort with Sheila Thares and refer to the brochure for a complete copy and explain that recovery guide is in process.
  • Explain that this is from the APM Professional Guide: Recovery/Relapse Indicators and the new brochure.
  • 1 . The System Really Does Work: It works because… It’s Dynamic--Flexible--Evolving It leads to safer medication management Leads to a reduction in relapse rates It Increases peoples ability to problem solve and be prepared Thus increasing hope for recovery It Leads to Reduced Pain and Suffering Moving patients from victim to empowerment This is an integrated biopsychosocial approach 2. I know we were short on time so I’ll stay after and 3. I’m also available for consultation and referrals 4. Books available (800) 767-8181 or catalogs 5. (Pause) I want to leave you with a challenge Start by using the “Managing Pain Meds” brochure (get back to me with results) then help take this to the next stage--This is not “My” system--i t’s for people who want to help people! Thank You!

Freedom From Suffering Patient Education Freedom From Suffering Patient Education Presentation Transcript

  • Freedom From Suffering Developed By Dr. Stephen F. Grinstead © 2009, 1996 Using The Addiction-Free Pain Management ® System
  • Goals Of APM ™ Treatment
    • Increase Effective Medication Management
      • Reduction In Your Relapse Rates
    • Increase Your Ability To Problem Solve For Effective Pain Management Solutions
      • Experiment With New Pain Management Strategies
      • Increase Your Hope For Recovery
    • Reduce Your Pain And Suffering
      • Move You From Victim To Empowered
  • Indicators For Success
    • You Are High Prognosis If:
    • You Become Actively Involved In Understanding Your Pain Disorder And All Of Your Available Treatment Possibilities
    • You’re Open To Multiple Opinions & Options
    • You’re Able To Become Self-Motivated To Actively And Systematically Experiment With Both Traditional And Non-Traditional Pain Management Methods
  • Indicators For Failure
    • You’re Low Prognosis If:
    • You Become “Maliciously Compliant” In Following Recommendations Of Only The First Professional They Consult
    • You Expect To Become Pain Free With Minimal Personal Effort
    • You Are NOT Motivated To Experiment With Both Traditional & Non-Traditional Pain Management Methods
  • Road Blocks To Success
  • The Addiction Pain Syndrome © Dr. Stephen F. Grinstead, 2009, 1996 ™
  • Addiction-Pain Syndrome ™ Addictive Disorder Zone
  • Addiction-Pain Syndrome ™ Pain Disorder Zone
  • Addiction-Pain Syndrome ™ Addiction Pain Syndrome Zone Pain Disorder Zone Addictive Disorder Zone
  • Obstacles For Success
    • Failure To Recognize Coexisting Disorders
    • Family System Problems
      • Codependency AKA Enabling Behaviors
      • Burn Out & Becoming Angry With You
    • Judgmental Healthcare Providers
      • Minimize The Seriousness Of Your Pain
      • Imply That “It’s All In Your Head”
      • Blaming You “You Did It To Yourself”
  • Obstacles For Success
    • Your Own Self Defeating Reactions
      • Malicious Compliance To Keep Rx Coming
      • Becoming Hopeless & Helpless
      • Grief/Loss & Feeling Ashamed/Guilty
      • Depression And Other Coexisting Disorders
      • Treatment Resistance & Denial
  • Grief Loss & Depression
    • Be Aware Of Your Grieving Process
      • You need a plan that instills hope
      • Shift yourself from victimized to empowered
    • Be Aware Of The Signs Of Depression
      • Medication management
      • Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)
      • Combination CBT and medication
  • Discussion Question
    • What Are Some Common Biases Or Negative Pejorative Comments That You Have Overheard (or been on the receiving end) From...
      • Substance Abuse Treatment Professionals
      • Medical Care Providers (Doctors, Nurses, etc.)
      • Mental Health Professionals
  • You Must Be Proactive
    • You Must Become Knowledgeable Active Participants—Not Passive Recipients
    • You Are Always Captain Of The Team
    • Healthcare Professional: Is A Guide Or Coach
    • Insist On A Collaborative Treatment Plan
    • Develop Recovery & Relapse Prevention Plans For Both The Pain & Any Rx Abuse/Addiction
  • Looking At Your Pain
  • Types of Pain
    • Acute Pain
    • Chronic Pain
    • Recurrent Acute Pain
    • Anticipatory Pain
    • Neuropathic Pain
  • What Is Acute Pain?
    • A Symptom Of An Underlying Problem
    • There Is Damage To Your System
    • The Source Is Easily Identified
    • There Is A Time Limited Healing Process
    • Analgesics Or Narcotics *May* Be Used
      • If you are in recovery you need to have a good medication plan or face potential relapse
  • What Is Chronic Pain?
    • Lasts For Six Months Or More
    • The Source Is Often Ambiguous
    • Your Pain Lingers Long After Initial Injury
    • It May No Longer Serve Useful Purpose
    • Treatment Is Often Confusing And Frustrating
  • What Is Recurrent Acute Pain? AKA Breakthrough Or Pain Flare Up
    • You Experience Acute Pain Episodes
      • Incident Pain: Caused by Activity or Motion
      • End of Dose Pain (Your Rx is wearing off)
      • Pain with No Identifiable Cause
    • Episodes Are Usually Brief
    • Low Or Pain Free Periods Between Episodes
    • Often Associated With Identifiable Precursors
    • This Needs A Separate Treatment Plan
  • What Is Anticipatory Pain?
    • It’s A Conditioned Pain Response (You Expect It So It Happens)
    • It Is Activated Or Turned On By
      • Environmental Triggers (what’s happening around you but doesn’t really involve you)
      • Internal Thinking & Emotional Triggers
    • You Associate It With Previous Episodes When You Were In Significant Pain
  • What Is Neuropathic Pain?
    • Definition :
      • “ Neural dysfunction that persists beyond the period of normal tissue healing”
      • Or think of this type of pain as damage to your nerves and pain receptors that still signal pain after everything is actually all better.
  • What Is Neuropathic Pain?
    • Symptoms (What It Feels Like):
      • Parasthesias: tingling, itching, numbness
      • Dysesthesias: shooting, burning, stabbing, aching, electrical sensations
      • Allodynia: non-harmful stimulus (pain signals) perceived as painful, e.g., touch of clothing
      • Spatial Changes: pain perception extending beyond initial area of tissue injury, e.g., your foot is injured but you feel pain in your leg too.
  • The Three Components Of Pain
    • Biological
      • A Signal That Something Is Wrong
    • Psychological
      • Meaning You Assign To The Pain Signal
    • Social/Cultural
      • Role Assigned To You By Others
      • Your Family & Cultural Beliefs About Pain
  • Pain Versus Suffering
    • Pain
      • Physical Sensations (or signals) That Tells You That Something Is Wrong In Your Body
    • Suffering
      • Your Interpretation That The Sensation Is Horrible, Awful, Terrible, or Unbearable
    • Pain Is Inevitable But Suffering Is Optional
  • Rating Your Level of Pain
    • Level 1 = Barely Noticeable
    • Level 2 = Noticeable w/ No Distress
    • Level 3 = Becoming Disturbing w/ No Distress
    • Level 4 = Some Distress w/ No Coping Problems
    • Level 5 = Distress w/ Some Coping Problems
    • Level 6 = Distress w/ Significant Coping Problems
    • Level 7 = Starting To Interfere w/ Functioning
    • Level 8 = Moderate Interference w/ Functioning
    • Level 9 = Severe Interference w/ Functioning
    • Level 10 = Unable To Function At All
  • Chronic Pain Intensified Perception of Pain Stress & Muscle Tension Depression Fear Anger This Cycle Must Be Broken
  • Chronic Pain How This Cycle Is Broken Relaxation/Acceptance For Stress CBT For Emotional Components Stress & Muscle Tension Decreased Perception of Pain
  • Quiz #1
  • Rx Pain Medication Abuse/Addictive Disorders
  • Stages of Rx Abuse/Addiction Ongoing Exposure Initial Experience Building Tolerance Addiction Death Abuse Pseudo- Addiction Seeking Reaching
  • Misunderstood Terms
    • Tolerance
    • Physical Dependence
    • Substance Abuse
    • Addiction
    • Pseudo Addiction
    Definitions developed by the American Academy of Pain Medicine, the American Pain Society, and the American Society of Addiction Medicine. (Savage, Covington, Heit, et al., 2004)
  • Tolerance
    • Tolerance is a state of adaptation in which exposure to a drug induces changes that result in a diminution of one or more of the drug's effects over time.
    • In other words it take more medication to get the same level of pain relief.
  • Physical Dependence
    • Physical dependence is a state of adaptation that is manifested by a drug class specific withdrawal syndrome that can be produced by abrupt cessation, rapid dose reduction, decreasing blood level of the drug, and/or administration of an antagonist.
    • In other words if you stop suddenly you’ll be very uncomfortable.
  • Substance Abuse
    • Substance abuse is the use of legal (such as Rx, alcohol and cigarettes) and illegal (e.g. cannabis) drugs in a manner which is physically harmful or damaging to a person’s ability to be able to parent or to function at work. Damage to relationships or legal consequences can also be features of substance abuse.
  • Addiction
    • Addiction is a primary, chronic, neurobiologic [Brain] disease, with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations [how is shows up] . It is characterized by behaviors that include one or more of the following: impaired control over drug use, compulsive use, continued use despite harm, and craving.
  • Pseudo Addiction
    • Patient behaviors that may occur when pain is under treated. Patients with unrelieved pain may become focused on obtaining medications, may “clock watch,” and may otherwise seem inappropriately “drug seeking.” Even such behaviors as illicit drug use and deception can occur in the patient's efforts to obtain relief.
  • Addiction Vs Pseudoaddiction
    • Pseudoaddiction Looks A Lot Like Addiction
    • You May Appear To Be “Drug-Seeking”
    • You May Need Frequent Early Refills
    • Behaviors Are Caused By Under-Treatment
    • Your Problematic Behaviors Resolve When Your Pain Is Adequately Treated
  • Red Flags For Rx Abuse/Addiction
    • Euphoria After Adapting To The Medication
    • Craving & Preoccupation With Medication
    • Abnormal Increased Tolerance
    • You Decrease Pain Management Activities
    • You Experience Loss Of Control
    • Using Alcohol & Other Non-Prescribed Drugs
  • Red Flags For Rx Abuse/Addiction
    • You Fail To Fulfill Major Role Obligations
    • You Don’t Take Your Rx As Prescribed
    • Your Create Addiction-Centered Lifestyle
    • Addictive Lifestyle Losses (Biopsychosocial)
    • Continued Use/Abuse Despite Problems
    • Substance-Induced Mental Disorders (i.e., the meds are messing with your mind)
  • A ddiction-Free P ain M anagement ® A Synergistic Treatment System
  • The APM ™ System
    • Core Clinical Processes
      • Using Thinking, Feeling, Behavior Therapy
    • Medication Management Components
      • Using Effective Medical Interventions
    • Non-Medication/Holistic Approaches
      • Using A Proactive Pain Management Approach
  • The Plan Analyzing & Managing HRS Mapping HRS Identifying High Risk Situations Medication Agreement & Intervention Plan Decision Making About Medication Understanding The Effects Of Medication Understanding The Effects Of Chronic Pain Core Clinical Processes Assess Motivate Relapse Prevention Recovery
  • Recovery Friendly Medications
    • Celebrex — Pre-Operation Loading 400mg
    • All Other NSAIDS If Side-Effects Tolerated
    • Muscle Relaxants (use caution with these)
      • Xyrem ® (GHB)
      • Skelaxin® (metaxalone)
      • Zanaflex® (tizanidine hydrochloride)
      • Robaxin® (methocarbamol)
      • Flexeril® (cyclobenzaprine HCl)
  • Recovery Friendly Medications
    • Medications For Neuropathic Pain
      • Cymbalta® (duloxetine hydrochloride)
      • Lyrica (pregabalin)
    • Medications For Migraines
      • Topamax® (topiramate)
      • Triptans (serotonin receptor agonists)
      • IV Toradol (ketorolac) for unresponsive pain
      • Zanaflex® (tizanidine hydrochloride)
      • Celebrex ® (celecoxib)
  • Recovery Friendly Medications
    • Ecotrin (coated aspirin—acetylsalicylic acid)
    • Anticonvulsants
      • Tegretol® (carbamazepine)
      • Depakote (divalproex sodium)
    • Elavil (amitriptyline)
    • Suboxone / Buprenorphine
  • Non-Medication Approaches
    • Meditation And Relaxation
    • Emotional Management
    • Massage Therapy
    • Physical Therapy
    • Chiropractic Treatment
    • Acupuncture
    • Biofeedback
    • Hypnosis
  • Other Non-Medication
    • Yoga/Tai Chi
    • Diet/Nutrition
    • Prayer
    • Tribal Healing
    • Sweat Lodges
    • Talking Circles
    • Pet Therapy
    • Self-Help Groups
    • TENS Units
    • Reflexology
    • Cranial Sacral
    • Aerobics
    • Rolfing/Hellar
    • Nature
    • Hobbies
    • EMDR
  • Passive Versus Proactive Tools
    • TENS/RS Stim Units
    • DBT and CBT
    • Life Coaching
    • Hydrotherapy
    • Rolfing/Hellar
    • Physical Therapy
    • Equine Therapy
    • Hypnosis
    • Practice Yoga/Tai Chi
    • Follow Diet/Nutrition Plan
    • Practice Sleep Hygiene
    • Participate In Aerobics
    • Swimming Regularly
    • Frequent Nature Walks
    • Walking A Labyrinth
    • Learn & Use Self-Hypnosis
    Passive Proactive
  • Stage I Pain Management
    • Multi-Disciplinary Assessments
    • Detoxification And/Or Taper As Needed
    • Physiological Vs Psychological/Emotional
    • ID & Manage Resistance & Denial
      • Regarding Pain Management & Medication
      • Regarding Secondary Gain Issues
    • Introduce Non-Medication Tools
  • Stage II Pain Management
    • Continue Non-Medication Tools
    • Develop Initial Relapse & Flare Up Plans
    • ID & Manage Your Grief/Loss Issues
    • Be Aware Of Any Trauma History
      • Trauma as precursor for increased sensitivity and ineffective pain management
      • Trauma related to other pre-existing conditions
  • Stage III Pain Management
    • 1. Getting A Life — Moving Beyond Pain
    • 2. Resolving Core Psychological Issues
    • 3. Resolve / Manage Trauma Symptoms
    • 4. Develop An Activity Pacing Plan
    • 5. Fine-Tune The Relapse/Flare Up Plans
      • To address high risk pain situations
      • To address core psychological issues
  • Twelve Personal Action Steps
    • Avoid Elective Dental/Surgical Procedures
    • Significant Other Holds And Dispenses Rx
    • Consult With Addiction Medicine Specialist
    • Explore All Non-Chemical Modalities
    • Identify And Manage Stress
    • Augment Recovery Supportive Activities
  • Twelve Personal Action Steps
    • Self-Disclose Recovery Status To Providers
    • Take Time Off To Heal—Don’t Overwork
    • Be Aware Of Cross-Addiction Concept
    • Identify And Cope With Depression
    • Implement Nutrition And Exercise Plan
    • Explore Past Beliefs About Pain
  • Recovery/Relapse Indicators
    • Using Medication As Prescribed
    • Using Medication For Pain Relief Only
    • No Obsessions Or Intrusive Thoughts
    • No Compulsion To Use Inappropriately
    • No Cravings To Use Or Increase Dose
  • Recovery/Relapse Indicators
    • No Loss Of Control
    • No Euphoria/Intoxication
    • No Negative Biological Consequences
    • No Secondary Psychosocial Problems
    • No Pain Rebound Effect, Hyperalgesia Or Abnormal Tolerance Build Up
  • Biological Psychological Spiritual Social Pain Management Recovery Goals 25 25 25 25
  • Treatment Outcomes
    • Effective Medication Management
      • Decreasing relapse rates
    • Increased Ability To Problem Solve
      • Improved hope for healthy pain management
    • Reduced Pain And Freedom From Suffering
      • Moving from victim to empowerment