Psychology 3: Pwrpt. Chapt.16
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Psychology 3: Pwrpt. Chapt.16

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Psychology 3: Pwrpt. Chapt.16 Psychology 3: Pwrpt. Chapt.16 Presentation Transcript

  • CHAPTER 16 ROTTER'S EXPECTANCYREINFORCEMENT VALUE MODEL
  • Concepts and Principles • • Rotter’s basic assumptions: most of our behavior is learned and is acquired through our experiences with other people – Emphasis on unity or interdependence of personality Motivation – Much of our behavior is goal-directed – People strive to maximize rewards and to minimize or avoid punishment
  • Social-Learning Concepts • Four major concepts: – Behavior potential: probability that a particular behavior will occur, as a function of the person’s expectancies and the perceived value of the reinforcer secured by the behavior in a given situation – Expectancy: cognition or belief about the property of some object or event – Reinforcement value: importance of a given reinforcer to an individual in relation to other reinforcers, if the probabilities of attaining all of them are equal – Psychological situation: meaning of the situation as it is defined by the person
  • Social-Learning Concepts (cont'd.) • • Freedom of movement: individuals expectancy that his or her behaviors will generally lead to success (high freedom of movement) or failure (low freedom of movement) in a given life area Minimal goal: dividing point between those outcomes that produce feelings of satisfaction and those that produce dissatisfaction
  • Personality Development • • Personality development hinges largely on the range, diversity, and quality of the individual’s experiences with other people Assumption is that stimulus generalization occurs, so that other people who resemble the parents are perceived and evaluated in the same or similar ways – Stimulus generalization: responses made in the presence of an original stimulus come to be made in the presence of other, similar stimuli
  • Assessment Techniques • Five major techniques for the clinical measurement of personality: – Interview – Projective tests – Controlled behavioral tests – Behavioral observation methods – Questionnaire • Internal vs. external control of reinforcement: individuals belief that his or her behavior is self-determined (internal control) or determined by outside factors (external control)
  • Assessment Techniques (cont'd.) • • Internal/external control of reinforcement: individual’s belief that his or her behavior is self-determined (internal control) or determined by outside factors (external control) – Locus of control of reinforcement: people’s beliefs about the location (internal/external) of controlling forces in their lives I/E scale: measures the individual’s belief that forces are or are not beyond his or her control
  • Theory's Implications for Therapy • • • Psychotherapy is a learning process itself Maladjusted people: characterized by low freedom of movement and high need value; they learn how to avoid or defend themselves against actual or anticipated failure The therapist’s function is to help these people change expectancies and reinforcement values that do not work – Must learn a set of realistic expectancies – Must learn a set of realistic reinforcers – Must learn to discriminate between those situations that are likely to lead to behaviors that are appropriate and those likely to lead to behaviors that are inappropriate – Must learn to eliminate behaviors that are undesirable and to learn those that are desirable
  • Evaluative Comments • • • • • • Comprehensiveness: broad in scope Precision and testability: precise and testable Parsimony: quite parsimonious Empirical validity: strong empirical support for the I-E concept; rest of the theory remains untested Heuristic value: theory is stimulating to scholars in many areas, including learning theory, psychopathology, psychotherapy, personality development, and social psychology Applied value: strong applied value
  • Evaluative Comments • • • • • • Comprehensiveness: broad in scope Precision and testability: precise and testable Parsimony: quite parsimonious Empirical validity: strong empirical support for the I-E concept; rest of the theory remains untested Heuristic value: theory is stimulating to scholars in many areas, including learning theory, psychopathology, psychotherapy, personality development, and social psychology Applied value: strong applied value