Psych3 dr gabe pwrpt lecture personality

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Psych3 dr gabe pwrpt lecture personality

  1. 1. Introduction to Personality Theory <ul><li>Chapter 1 </li></ul>© McGraw-Hill
  2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Questions Addressed by Personality Psychologists </li></ul><ul><li>Overview of Personality Theory </li></ul><ul><li>What is Personality? </li></ul><ul><li>What is Theory? </li></ul><ul><li>Dimensions for a Concept of Humanity </li></ul><ul><li>Research in Personality Theory </li></ul>© McGraw-Hill
  3. 3. Some Questions Addressed by Personality Psychologists <ul><li>What drives people? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What makes people unique and different? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual Differences </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Are personalities stable over time, or do they change? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personality Stability </li></ul></ul>© McGraw-Hill Cont’d
  4. 4. Some Questions (cont’d) <ul><li>How are we different than we were as children? As young adults? As older adults? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personality Stability & Change </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How much of Personality is Temperament? </li></ul><ul><li>Why do people reared in the same environment often end up so different? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biological Basis of Personality </li></ul></ul>© McGraw-Hill Cont’d
  5. 5. Some Questions (cont’d) <ul><li>What are the fundamental dimensions of Personality? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personality Structure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How can our theories of personality be applied to help people in clinical, educational, and business settings? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Application of Personality Theory </li></ul></ul>© McGraw-Hill
  6. 6. What is Personality? <ul><li>Word stems from “persona” or “mask” </li></ul><ul><li>Personality Defined: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A pattern of relatively permanent traits, dispositions, or characteristics that give some consistency to human behavior </li></ul></ul>© McGraw-Hill
  7. 7. What is a Theory? <ul><li>Theory Defined </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A set of assumptions that allows scientists to use logical deductive reasoning to formulate testable hypotheses </li></ul></ul>© McGraw-Hill
  8. 8. Theory and Its Relatives <ul><li>Philosophy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Broader than theory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Speculation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Important but not enough </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hypothesis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Theories generate and are made up of hypotheses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Taxonomy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Classification that does not generate hypotheses </li></ul></ul>© McGraw-Hill
  9. 9. Why Different Theories? <ul><li>Different Personal Backgrounds </li></ul><ul><li>Different Philosophical Orientations </li></ul><ul><li>Data Chosen to Observe is Different </li></ul>© McGraw-Hill
  10. 10. Theorists’ Personalities & Their Theories of Personality <ul><li>Psychology of Science </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The empirical study of scientific thought and behavior (including theory construction) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The personalities and psychology of different theorists influence the kind of theory they develop </li></ul>© McGraw-Hill
  11. 11. What Makes a Theory Useful: Criteria for Evaluating a Theory <ul><li>Generates Research </li></ul><ul><li>Is Falsifiable (Verifiable) </li></ul><ul><li>Organizes Known Data </li></ul><ul><li>Guides Action (Practical) </li></ul><ul><li>Is Internally Consistent </li></ul><ul><li>Is Parsimonious </li></ul>© McGraw-Hill
  12. 12. Dimensions for a Concept of Humanity <ul><li>Determinism v. Free Choice </li></ul><ul><li>Pessimism v. Optimism </li></ul><ul><li>Causality v. Teleology </li></ul><ul><li>Conscious v. Unconscious </li></ul><ul><li>Biological v. Social Influences </li></ul><ul><li>Uniqueness v. Similarity Among People </li></ul>© McGraw-Hill
  13. 13. Research in Personality Theory <ul><li>Theories must be Empirically Grounded </li></ul><ul><li>Two Empirical Criteria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reliablity: Consistency of Measurement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Internal Consistency </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Test-Retest Reliability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Validity: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Predictive Validity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Construct Validity </li></ul></ul></ul>© McGraw-Hill
  14. 14. Methods Used to Study Personality <ul><li>Longitudinal Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-Sectional Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Self-Reported Data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>California Psychological Inventory (CPI) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NEO-PI (Big Five) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Observer-Reported Data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Peers, Family, Friends </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Therapist </li></ul></ul>© McGraw-Hill

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