Psych1 chap6-p pt

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Psych1 chap6-p pt

  1. 1. Copyright © 2008 Allyn & BaconCopyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon Chapter 6Chapter 6 MemoryMemory This multimedia product and its content are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network. Preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images. Any rental, lease or lending of the program.
  2. 2. Copyright © 2008 Allyn & BaconCopyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon Chapter 6 OverviewChapter 6 Overview  The structure of human memoryThe structure of human memory  The nature of rememberingThe nature of remembering  How reliable is memory?How reliable is memory?  Biology and memoryBiology and memory  ForgettingForgetting  Improving memoryImproving memory
  3. 3. Copyright © 2008 Allyn & BaconCopyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon The Structure of HumanThe Structure of Human MemoryMemory  MemoryMemory is the process ofis the process of encodingencoding,, storagestorage,, consolidationconsolidation, and, and retrievalretrieval ofof informationinformation
  4. 4. Copyright © 2008 Allyn & BaconCopyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon Processes required forProcesses required for rememberingremembering
  5. 5. Copyright © 2008 Allyn & BaconCopyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon Three memory systemsThree memory systems
  6. 6. Copyright © 2008 Allyn & BaconCopyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon What are the characteristics of theWhat are the characteristics of the sensory memory?sensory memory?  Briefly holds information from theBriefly holds information from the sensessenses – Visual information: for a fraction of aVisual information: for a fraction of a secondsecond – Auditory information: up to 2 secondsAuditory information: up to 2 seconds
  7. 7. Copyright © 2008 Allyn & BaconCopyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon What happens to information inWhat happens to information in short-term memory?short-term memory?  Holds about seven (plus or minus two)Holds about seven (plus or minus two) items for less than 30 seconds withoutitems for less than 30 seconds without rehearsalrehearsal  Also calledAlso called working memoryworking memory – STM acts as a workspace for carrying outSTM acts as a workspace for carrying out mental activitymental activity
  8. 8. Copyright © 2008 Allyn & BaconCopyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon What happens to information inWhat happens to information in short-term memory?short-term memory?  DisplacementDisplacement – When STM is full, each new, incoming itemWhen STM is full, each new, incoming item pushes out an existing itempushes out an existing item  ChunkingChunking – Grouping bits of information into larger units,Grouping bits of information into larger units, which are easier to rememberwhich are easier to remember  RehearsalRehearsal – Repeating information to maintain it in STMRepeating information to maintain it in STM  Maintenance rehearsalMaintenance rehearsal  Elaborative rehearsalElaborative rehearsal
  9. 9. Copyright © 2008 Allyn & BaconCopyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon What kinds of information areWhat kinds of information are stored in the subsystems of long-stored in the subsystems of long- term memory?term memory?  Long-term memoryLong-term memory has a virtuallyhas a virtually unlimited capacity that contains vast storesunlimited capacity that contains vast stores of a person’s permanent or relativelyof a person’s permanent or relatively permanent memoriespermanent memories
  10. 10. Copyright © 2008 Allyn & BaconCopyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon What kinds of information are stored in theWhat kinds of information are stored in the subsystems of long-term memory?subsystems of long-term memory?  Declarative memoryDeclarative memory – Stores facts and information, and life eventsStores facts and information, and life events  Episodic memoryEpisodic memory  Semantic memorySemantic memory  Nondeclarative memoryNondeclarative memory – Stores motor skills, habits, simple conditioned responsesStores motor skills, habits, simple conditioned responses
  11. 11. Copyright © 2008 Allyn & BaconCopyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon The Nature of RememberingThe Nature of Remembering  The processes that cause apparentThe processes that cause apparent memory lapses, such as being unablememory lapses, such as being unable to recall a person’s name or ato recall a person’s name or a telephone number, represent two oftelephone number, represent two of the various principles that govern howthe various principles that govern how we go about remembering things.we go about remembering things.
  12. 12. Copyright © 2008 Allyn & BaconCopyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon What are the three methods usedWhat are the three methods used by psychologists to measureby psychologists to measure memory?memory?  RecallRecall – Task in which a person must search memory toTask in which a person must search memory to produce required informationproduce required information – Recall tasks are easier whenRecall tasks are easier when retrieval cuesretrieval cues are providedare provided  RecognitionRecognition – Task in which a person must identify informationTask in which a person must identify information as having been encountered beforeas having been encountered before  RelearningRelearning – Measures retention in terms of time saved whenMeasures retention in terms of time saved when relearning material compared to learning itrelearning material compared to learning it originallyoriginally
  13. 13. Copyright © 2008 Allyn & BaconCopyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon What happens when informationWhat happens when information must be recalled in the order inmust be recalled in the order in which it was presented?which it was presented?  In theIn the serial position effectserial position effect recall isrecall is better for the beginning and ending itemsbetter for the beginning and ending items than for the middle items in the sequencethan for the middle items in the sequence – Primacy effectPrimacy effect  Tendency to recall the first items in a sequence moreTendency to recall the first items in a sequence more easily than the middle itemseasily than the middle items – Recency effectRecency effect  Tendency to recall the last items in a sequence moreTendency to recall the last items in a sequence more easily than the middle itemseasily than the middle items
  14. 14. Copyright © 2008 Allyn & BaconCopyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon How do environmental conditionsHow do environmental conditions and emotional states affectand emotional states affect memory?memory?  People recall material morePeople recall material more easily in the sameeasily in the same environment in which theyenvironment in which they learned itlearned it  Godden and BaddeleyGodden and Baddeley (1975)(1975) – Participants memorizedParticipants memorized words underwater or on landwords underwater or on land – Words learned underwaterWords learned underwater were best recalledwere best recalled underwaterunderwater – Words learned on land wereWords learned on land were best recalled on landbest recalled on land
  15. 15. Copyright © 2008 Allyn & BaconCopyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon How do environmental conditionsHow do environmental conditions and emotional states affectand emotional states affect memory?memory?  State-dependent memory effectState-dependent memory effect – People tend to recall information better if theyPeople tend to recall information better if they are in the same emotional state as when theare in the same emotional state as when the information was encodedinformation was encoded – e.g., when feeling anxious while exposed toe.g., when feeling anxious while exposed to snakes and spiderssnakes and spiders
  16. 16. Copyright © 2008 Allyn & BaconCopyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon What does research evidence sayWhat does research evidence say about flashbulb memory?about flashbulb memory?  Extremely vivid memory of an event that isExtremely vivid memory of an event that is surprising, shocking, or highly emotionalsurprising, shocking, or highly emotional – These memories are not as accurate as peopleThese memories are not as accurate as people believe them to bebelieve them to be – But, about 5% of children are capable ofBut, about 5% of children are capable of eideticeidetic imageryimagery  Ability to retain an image of a visual stimulus forAbility to retain an image of a visual stimulus for several minutesseveral minutes
  17. 17. Copyright © 2008 Allyn & BaconCopyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon How does culture influenceHow does culture influence memory?memory?  Culture may influence the ability toCulture may influence the ability to remember certain kinds of materialremember certain kinds of material – Elders of the Iatmul people of New GuineaElders of the Iatmul people of New Guinea exhibit impressive memory for the oral history ofexhibit impressive memory for the oral history of their peopletheir people – The Asur people of India, who do not useThe Asur people of India, who do not use artificial lighting, have exceptional memory forartificial lighting, have exceptional memory for locationslocations
  18. 18. Copyright © 2008 Allyn & BaconCopyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon How Reliable isHow Reliable is Memory?Memory?  Contrary to Canadian neurosurgeon,Contrary to Canadian neurosurgeon, Wilder Penfield, the human memoryWilder Penfield, the human memory does not really function like a tapedoes not really function like a tape recorder or video recorderrecorder or video recorder
  19. 19. Copyright © 2008 Allyn & BaconCopyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon What is meant by the statementWhat is meant by the statement “Memory is reconstructive in“Memory is reconstructive in nature”?nature”?  People reconstruct memories, piecing themPeople reconstruct memories, piecing them together from a few highlights, usingtogether from a few highlights, using information that may or may not be accurateinformation that may or may not be accurate  Frederick BartlettFrederick Bartlett – Reconstructive memory processes areReconstructive memory processes are influenced byinfluenced by schemasschemas  Integrated frameworks of prior knowledge andIntegrated frameworks of prior knowledge and assumptionsassumptions
  20. 20. Copyright © 2008 Allyn & BaconCopyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon What conditions reduce theWhat conditions reduce the reliability of eyewitnessreliability of eyewitness testimony?testimony?  Viewing photograph of a suspect beforeViewing photograph of a suspect before seeing a lineupseeing a lineup  When members of a lineup are viewed atWhen members of a lineup are viewed at the same time, rather than one at a timethe same time, rather than one at a time  When the perpetrator’s race is different fromWhen the perpetrator’s race is different from that of the witnessthat of the witness  When a weapon has been used in the crimeWhen a weapon has been used in the crime  When leading questions are usedWhen leading questions are used
  21. 21. Copyright © 2008 Allyn & BaconCopyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon What is the controversy regardingWhat is the controversy regarding the therapy used to recoverthe therapy used to recover repressed memories of childhoodrepressed memories of childhood sexual abuse?sexual abuse?  RepressionRepression – Process in which traumatic memories are buriedProcess in which traumatic memories are buried in the unconsciousin the unconscious  Some therapists use hypnosis and guidedSome therapists use hypnosis and guided imagery to help clients recover repressedimagery to help clients recover repressed memories of childhood sexual abusememories of childhood sexual abuse  Critics argue that these therapistsCritics argue that these therapists sometimes implant false memories in theirsometimes implant false memories in their clientsclients – Research indicates that imagining a fictitiousResearch indicates that imagining a fictitious event can lead to false memory of the eventevent can lead to false memory of the event
  22. 22. Copyright © 2008 Allyn & BaconCopyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon Biology and MemoryBiology and Memory  A person’s store of memories must existA person’s store of memories must exist physically somewhere in the brain. Neuronalphysically somewhere in the brain. Neuronal processes are also involved in the storageprocesses are also involved in the storage of information in the brain. Trauma andof information in the brain. Trauma and disorders that affect brain structures,disorders that affect brain structures, neuronal health, or both can seriously impairneuronal health, or both can seriously impair memory function.memory function.
  23. 23. Copyright © 2008 Allyn & BaconCopyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon What roles do the hippocampusWhat roles do the hippocampus and the hippocampal region playand the hippocampal region play in memory?in memory?  TheThe hippocampushippocampus plays an important roleplays an important role in formingin forming episodicepisodic memoriesmemories  Formation of semantic memories involvesFormation of semantic memories involves the hippocampus and other parts of thethe hippocampus and other parts of the hippocampal regionhippocampal region  The hippocampus is also involved inThe hippocampus is also involved in navigational skillsnavigational skills – Posterior of hippocampus is larger in taxi driversPosterior of hippocampus is larger in taxi drivers than in general populationthan in general population
  24. 24. Copyright © 2008 Allyn & BaconCopyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon Why is long-term potentiationWhy is long-term potentiation important?important?  Long-term potentiation (LTP)Long-term potentiation (LTP) – An increase in the efficiency of neuralAn increase in the efficiency of neural transmission at the synapse that lasts for hourstransmission at the synapse that lasts for hours of longerof longer  LTP may be the basis for learning andLTP may be the basis for learning and memory at the level of neuronsmemory at the level of neurons  When LTP is disrupted, long-term memoriesWhen LTP is disrupted, long-term memories are not formedare not formed – Consolidation failureConsolidation failure
  25. 25. Copyright © 2008 Allyn & BaconCopyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon How do hormones influenceHow do hormones influence memory?memory?  The strongest and most lasting memories areThe strongest and most lasting memories are usually fueled by emotionusually fueled by emotion  Presence ofPresence of epinephrineepinephrine (adrenalin) and(adrenalin) and norepinephrinenorepinephrine (noradrenalin) in the bloodstream(noradrenalin) in the bloodstream activate the amygdala and help imprint powerful,activate the amygdala and help imprint powerful, enduring memories for threatening eventsenduring memories for threatening events  Excessive levels ofExcessive levels of cortisolcortisol can interfere withcan interfere with memorymemory  EstrogenEstrogen appears to improve working memoryappears to improve working memory efficiencyefficiency – But post-menopausal estrogen replacement mayBut post-menopausal estrogen replacement may increase risk of dementiaincrease risk of dementia
  26. 26. Copyright © 2008 Allyn & BaconCopyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon What kinds of memory loss areWhat kinds of memory loss are experienced by those who haveexperienced by those who have amnesia or dementia?amnesia or dementia?  AmnesiaAmnesia – Partial or complete loss of memory due to loss ofPartial or complete loss of memory due to loss of consciousness, brain damage, or someconsciousness, brain damage, or some psychological causepsychological cause  Anterograde amnesiaAnterograde amnesia – Inability to form new long-term memoriesInability to form new long-term memories – Case of H. M.Case of H. M.  Retrograde amnesiaRetrograde amnesia – Loss of memory for experiences that occurredLoss of memory for experiences that occurred shortly before a loss of consciousnessshortly before a loss of consciousness
  27. 27. Copyright © 2008 Allyn & BaconCopyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon What kinds of memory loss areWhat kinds of memory loss are experienced by those who haveexperienced by those who have amnesia or dementia?amnesia or dementia?  DementiaDementia – Mental deterioration characterized by impaired memoryMental deterioration characterized by impaired memory and intellect and by altered personality and behaviorand intellect and by altered personality and behavior – Individuals with dementia can lose episodic and semanticIndividuals with dementia can lose episodic and semantic memoriesmemories – Can result from cerebral arteriosclerosis, chronicCan result from cerebral arteriosclerosis, chronic alcoholism, strokesalcoholism, strokes  Alzheimer diseaseAlzheimer disease – A form of dementia caused by degeneration of brain cellsA form of dementia caused by degeneration of brain cells – A high IQ plus lifelong intellectual activity may delay orA high IQ plus lifelong intellectual activity may delay or lessen Alzheimer symptomslessen Alzheimer symptoms
  28. 28. Copyright © 2008 Allyn & BaconCopyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon ForgettingForgetting  Most people think of forgetting as aMost people think of forgetting as a problem to be overcome, but it’sproblem to be overcome, but it’s actually not always unwelcome. Still,actually not always unwelcome. Still, when you need to remember particularwhen you need to remember particular information, forgetting can be veryinformation, forgetting can be very frustrating.frustrating.
  29. 29. Copyright © 2008 Allyn & BaconCopyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon What did Ebbinghaus discoverWhat did Ebbinghaus discover about forgetting?about forgetting?  Ebbinghaus foundEbbinghaus found that the largestthat the largest amount of forgettingamount of forgetting occurs very quickly,occurs very quickly, then it tapers offthen it tapers off  This relationshipThis relationship between time andbetween time and forgetting is calledforgetting is called thethe curve ofcurve of forgettingforgetting
  30. 30. Copyright © 2008 Allyn & BaconCopyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon What causes forgetting?What causes forgetting?  Can you recognize the real penny?Can you recognize the real penny?  Encoding failureEncoding failure occurs when information wasoccurs when information was never put into long-term memorynever put into long-term memory  Decay theoryDecay theory holds that memories, if not used,holds that memories, if not used, fade with time and eventually disappearfade with time and eventually disappear Source: Nickerson & Adams, 1979)
  31. 31. Copyright © 2008 Allyn & BaconCopyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon What causes forgetting?What causes forgetting?  Proactive interferenceProactive interference – Information already stored in memory interferes withInformation already stored in memory interferes with remembering newer informationremembering newer information  Retroactive interferenceRetroactive interference – New learning interferes with remembering previously learnedNew learning interferes with remembering previously learned informationinformation
  32. 32. Copyright © 2008 Allyn & BaconCopyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon What causes forgetting?What causes forgetting?  Motivated forgettingMotivated forgetting – Forgetting through suppression or repression toForgetting through suppression or repression to protect self from painful or unpleasantprotect self from painful or unpleasant informationinformation  Sometimes we forget because we don’t want toSometimes we forget because we don’t want to remember somethingremember something  Prospective forgettingProspective forgetting – Not remembering to carry out some intendedNot remembering to carry out some intended actionaction  Retrieval failureRetrieval failure – Not remembering something one is certain ofNot remembering something one is certain of knowingknowing  Tip-of-the-tongue phenomenonTip-of-the-tongue phenomenon
  33. 33. Copyright © 2008 Allyn & BaconCopyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon Improving MemoryImproving Memory  There are no magic formulas forThere are no magic formulas for improving your memory.improving your memory. Remembering is a skill that like anyRemembering is a skill that like any other requires knowledge andother requires knowledge and practice.practice.
  34. 34. Copyright © 2008 Allyn & BaconCopyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon How can organization,How can organization, overlearning, spaced practice andoverlearning, spaced practice and recitation improve memory?recitation improve memory?  OrganizationOrganization – Putting information in categories, sequences, sizes, or shapes toPutting information in categories, sequences, sizes, or shapes to make retrieval easiermake retrieval easier  OverlearningOverlearning – Practicing or studying material beyond the point where it can bePracticing or studying material beyond the point where it can be repeated once without errorrepeated once without error – Overlearned material is remembered better and longer and isOverlearned material is remembered better and longer and is more resistant to interferencemore resistant to interference  Spaced practiceSpaced practice – Learning in short practice sessions with rest periods in betweenLearning in short practice sessions with rest periods in between – A better study technique thanA better study technique than massed practicemassed practice  RecitationRecitation – Reciting, or practicing, what you have learnedReciting, or practicing, what you have learned – Students recall more if they use more recitationStudents recall more if they use more recitation

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