Theories of PersonalityExam #1 Chapters 1,21. According to Allport, personal dispositions that are so dominating in ones life that they cannotbe hidden are calleda. central traits. b. cardinal traits. c. primary traits. d. learned traits.2. Which concept best describes Allports view of personality?a. reactive b. unconscious motivation c. uniqueness d. abnormal development3. The descriptive and distinguishing qualities that characterize a person are what Cattell andEysenck calleda. traits. b. states. c. factors. d. superfactors.4. According to Cattell and Eysenck, a relatively permanent disposition of an individual, inferredfrom that persons behavior, is aa. state. b. construct. c. factor. d. type. e. trait.5. With regard to traits, Allport held that theya. are of two kinds: primary (inherited) and secondary (learned). b. are of two kinds: commonand individual (personal dispositions). c. have no psychological significance. d. must beextracted through factor analysis.6. According to Cattell, grades recorded on a students college transcript are ______ data.a. L b. L(T) c. L(R) d. Q e. T7. According to Cattell, Q dataa. cannot be faked. b. are a form of objective test. c. should be corroborated by correlations withbehavioral data. d. reveal the uniqueness of each individual.8. For Allport, the most basic question underlying all personality theory is:a. What is the proper balance between universal laws and individual uniqueness? b. How canbehavior be determined yet free? c. What is the proper sequence of experience for optimumpersonality growth? d. How can psychologists be sure of the validity and reliability of data?e. How can the major influences on personality be studied?
9. Allports concept that some human motives are independent from the original motiveresponsible for behavior was termeda. functional autonomy. b. functional fixedness. c. propriate strivings. d. propriate perseveration.e. bimodal motivation.10. Those aspects of a person that are regarded as important to a sense of self-identity and self-enhancement are what Allport calleda. cardinal traits. b. the ego. c. the self. d. the self-concept. e. the proprium.11. For Cattell, personality inventories such as the Rorschach and other "projective" instrumentsyield ______ data.a. L b. L(T) c. L(R) d. Q e. T12. The ultimate value of any theory depends on itsa. usefulness. b. truthfulness. c. reliability. d. simplicity.13. An educated guess that can be scientifically tested is a definition ofa. theory. b. hypothesis. c. philosophy. d. taxonomy.14. Psychologists generally agree that personalitya. refers mostly to surface traits. b. is largely inherited. c. can be explained by several differenttheories. d. can best be explained by a single theory.15. What is the proper place of theory within science?a. Theories enable scientists to know how they should live their lives. b. Theories are tools usedby scientists to give meaning to observations. c. Theory building is the ultimate aim of science.d. Theories play no role in scientific pursuits.16. The basic data of science area. observations. b. facts. c. theories. d. hypotheses.
17. A useful theory must be falsifiable, which means thata. it must be precise enough to suggest research that may either support or fail to support itsmajor tenets. b. it will eventually be proven false. c. it should be flexible enough to encompassopposing data into its framework. d. it must be either true or false.18. The two MOST important functions of a theory are itsa. internal consistency and accuracy. b. logic and its consistency with established theories. c.ability to generate research and organize observations. d. ability to be proven true and to becomea doctrine.19. A set of related assumptions from which, by logical deductive reasoning, testable hypothesescan be drawn isa. a philosophy. b. the definition of theory. c. the definition of taxonomy. d. an armchairspeculation.20. Which of these is NOT a function of a useful theory? a.It will generate research. b. It will be consistent with ones philosophy of life. c. Itorganizes observations. d. It serves as a guide to action.21. What is the relationship between theory and observation?a. They are mutually exclusive. b. Several theories make up an observation. c. Severalobservations make up a theory. d. There is a mutual and dynamic interaction between them.22. A theory may be set aside when ita. generates testable hypotheses. b. explains a set of observations. c. is proven byexperimentation.d. loses its usefulness.23. A useful theory should be parsimonious, meaning that it should be a.based on empirical research. b. complex. c. simple. d. verifiable.←← •What is the relationship between theory and each of the following terms: (a) philosophy, (b)speculation, (c) hypothesis, and (d) taxonomy? •What is the relationship between theory and observation?
•List and briefly discuss six criteria for a useful theory.←