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Psych 3 ch09 erikson 1

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  • 1. Erickson
    • Chapter 9
  • 2. Outline
    • Biography of Erickson
    • Importance of the Ego
    • Stages of Psychosocial Development
    • Erickson’s Method of Investigation
    • Related Research
    • Critique of Erickson
    • Concept of Humanity
  • 3. Biography of Erickson
    • Born in Frankfurt, Germany in 1902
    • Son of Jewish mother and unknown father
    • Experienced several “identity crises”, possibly due to not having known his father
    • As a child, does not feel accepted by either Jewish or Gentile community
    • Leaves home at 18 to live as itinerant artist
  • 4. Biography (cont’d)
    • In Vienna, is introduced to psychoanalysis by Anna Freud
    • Graduates from Vienna Psychoanalytic Institute
    • Although lacking an academic degree, accepts position at Harvard Medical School
    • Also taught at Yale, Berkeley, and several other institutions
    • Died in Cape Cod in 1994
  • 5. Importance of the Ego
    • Description of Ego Psychology
      • Three facets:
        • Body ego
        • Ego ideal
        • Ego Identity
    • Society’s Influence
      • Ego develops within and is influenced by a culture
    • Epigenetic Principle
      • The ego grows according to a genetically established rate and in a fixed sequence
  • 6. Stages of Psychosocial Development
    • Infancy
      • Oral-Sensory Mode
      • Basic Trust versus Basic Mistrust
      • Hope: The Basic Strength of Infancy
    • Early Childhood
      • Anal-Urethral-Muscular Mode
      • Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt
      • Will: The Basic Strength of Childhood
  • 7. Stages of Psychosocial Development (cont’d)
    • Play Age
      • Genital-Locomotor Mode
      • Initiative versus Guilt
      • Purpose: The Basic Strength of the Play Age
    • School Age
      • Latency
      • Industry versus Inferiority
      • Competence: The Basic Strength of the School Age
  • 8. Stages of Psychosocial Development (cont’d)
    • Adolescence
      • Puberty
      • Identity versus Identity Confusion
      • Fidelity: The Basic Strength of Adolescence
    • Young Adulthood
      • Genitality
      • Intimacy versus Isolation
      • Love: The Basic Strength of Young Adulthood
  • 9. Stages of Psychosocial Development (cont’d)
    • Adulthood
      • Procreativity
      • Generativity versus Stagnation
      • Care: The Basic Strength of Adulthood
    • Old Age
      • Generalized Sensuality
      • Integrity versus Despair
      • Wisdom: The Basic Strength of Old Age
  • 10. Erickson’s Method of Investigation
    • Anthropological Studies
      • Sioux nation of South Dakota
      • Yurok nation of northern California
    • Psychohistory
      • Combination of the methods of psychoanalysis and historical research to study personality
    • Play Construction
  • 11. Related Research
    • Identity in Early Adulthood
      • Pals and Helson (2000)
        • Women with anchored identity had a clear and strong sense of well-being
        • Identity established in early adulthood was associated with stable marriage and high levels of creativity
      • Pals (1999)
        • Women who had solid identity and high creative potential at age 21 were more likely than other women to have had a challenging and creative work experience at age 52
  • 12. Critique of Erickson
    • Erickson’s Theory is:
      • High on Organizing Knowledge and Internal Consistency
      • Moderate on Generating Research, Falsifiability, Guiding Action, and Parsimony
  • 13. Concept of Humanity
    • Determinism over Free Choice
    • Optimism over Pessimism
    • Causality over Teleology
    • Equal emphasis on Unconscious and Conscious
    • Culture over Biology
    • Uniqueness over Similarity