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Psy i ch.10 Psy i ch.10 Presentation Transcript

  • Adolescence and Adulthood Chapter Ten
    • This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law:
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    • Any rental, lease, or lending of the program.
    Slide author: Cynthia K. Shinabarger Reed Book authors: Samuel Wood Ellen G. Wood Denise Boyd
  • Chapter Ten Overview
    • The Lifespan Perspective
    • Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory
    • Research Support for Erikson’s theory
  • Chapter Ten Overview
    • Adolescence
    • Puberty
    • Cognitive Development
    • Moral Development
    • Parental Relationships
    • The Peer Group
    • Teen Pregnancy
  • Chapter Ten Overview
    • Early and Middle Adulthood
    • Physical Changes
    • Intellectual Abilities
    • The Impact of College Attendance
    • Lifestyle Patterns in Adulthood
  • Chapter Ten Overview
    • Later Adulthood
    • Physical Changes in Later Adulthood
    • Cognitive Changes in Later Adulthood
    • Alzheimer’s Disease – the Most Common Dementia
    • Social Development and Adjustment in Later Adulthood
    • Cultural Differences in Care for the Elderly
    • Death and Dying
  • Lifespan Perspective
    • Lifespan perspective: the view that changes happen throughout the entire human lifespan, literally from “womb to tomb.”
    • Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory
    • Erik Erikson proposed the only major theory of development to include the entire lifespan.
    • According to Erikson, individuals progress through eight psychosocial stages during the lifespan.
  • Lifespan Perspective
    • Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory (continued)
    • Each stage is defined by a conflict that arises from the individual’s relationship with the social environment and that must be resolved satisfactorily in order for healthy personality development to occur.
    • Erikson believed that a healthy adult personality depends on acquiring the appropriate basic attitudes in the proper sequence during childhood and adolescence.
  • Lifespan Perspective
    • Research Support for Erikson’s Theory
    • Infants’ Trust
    • Infants who are placed in poor-quality care, such as in centers where there are too few workers to adequately care for the number of infants present, are more likely to develop insecure attachments to their parents.
    • As a result, they are at greater risk for the negative outcomes associated with insecure attachment, which can persist into adulthood.
  • Lifespan Perspective
    • Research Support for Erikson’s Theory (continued)
    • Identity Crisis
    • Identity Crisis: the emotional turmoil a teen experiences when trying to answer the question “Who am I?”
    • James Marcia expanded on Erikson’s concept of an identity crisis in his proposal that adolescent identity development involves alternating between several different statuses of crisis and commitment.
  • Lifespan Perspective
    • Research Support for Erikson’s Theory (continued)
    • Identity Crisis (continued)
    • Identity achievement: a firm commitment to self-chosen occupational and personal goals.
    • Research has shown that identity development may begin in adolescence, but it is not complete until early adulthood.
    • Moratorium: the type of crisis in which options are explored.
  • Lifespan Perspective
    • Research Support for Erikson’s Theory (continued)
    • Identity Crisis (continued)
    • Foreclosure: pursuing the academic goals that others have chosen for the individual.
    • Identity diffusion: just “hanging out,” not taking their classes seriously or thinking about job opportunities, but rather waiting for something to come along that will push them in one direction or another.
  • Lifespan Perspective
    • Research Support for Erikson’s Theory (continued)
    • Generativity
    • In one cross-sectional study of young, midlife, and older women, researchers found that generativity did increase in middle age however, it did not decline in late adulthood.
    • Differences in generativity, as Erikson predicted, are related to variations in behavior.
    • There is some research support for Erikson’s claim that generativity is related to mental health in middle age.
  • Adolescence
    • Adolescence: the long transitional period between childhood and adulthood.
    • The concept of adolescence did not exist until 1904, when psychologist G. Stanley Hall first wrote about it in his book by that name.
  • Adolescence
    • Puberty
    • Puberty: a dramatic series of physiological changes that mark the transition from childhood to adolescence.
    • Puberty is not a single event.
    • Every person’s individual timetable for puberty is influenced primarily by heredity, although environmental factors, such as diet and exercise, also exert some influence.
  • Adolescence
    • Puberty (continued)
    • Physical Changes of Puberty
    • Puberty begins with a surge in hormone production, which, in turn, causes a number of physical changes.
    • Secondary sex characteristics: those physical characteristics that are not directly involved in reproduction, but distinguish the mature male from the mature female.
    • The major landmark of puberty for males is the first ejaculation; for females it is menarche , the onset of menstruation.
  • Adolescence
    • Puberty (continued)
    • The Timing of Puberty
    • Early-maturing boys, taller and stronger than their classmates, have an advantage in sports and capture admiring glances from girls.
    • Early puberty sometimes interacts with other variables to produce more negative developmental outcomes.
  • Adolescence
    • Puberty (continued)
    • The Timing of Puberty (continued)
    • Early maturation in girls brings increased self-consciousness and, often, dissatisfaction with their developing bodies.
    • Early-maturing girls are more likely than peers to develop bulimia and other eating disorders.
    • In addition, they have to deal with the sexual advances of older boys before they are emotionally or psychologically mature.
  • Adolescence
    • Puberty (continued)
    • Sexuality
    • Research has demonstrated that sex education that includes the message that postponing sex until adulthood is a good decision can reduce teen pregnancy rates.
    • The less sexually experienced teens typically attend religious services frequently and live with both biological parents, who are neither too permissive nor too strict in their discipline and rules.
  • Adolescence
    • Cognitive Development
    • Research has shown that metamemory skills also improve dramatically during adolescence.
    • Metamemory: the ability to think and control one’s own memory processes.
    • Teenagers are much more able than children to organize information efficiently.
  • Adolescence
    • Moral Development
    • Lawrence Kohlberg believed that moral reasoning is closely related to cognitive development and that it evolves in stages.
    • He studied moral development by presenting a series of moral dilemmas to male participants from the United States and other countries.
    • Kohlberg found that moral reasoning could be classified into three levels, with each level having two stages.
  •  
  • Adolescence
    • Moral Development (continued)
    • The Development of Moral Reasoning
    • Lawrence Kohlberg claimed that people progress through moral stages one stage at a time, in a fixed order.
    • He came to realize that discussion of moral dilemmas does not reliably improve moral behavior.
    • Kohlberg eventually agreed that direct teaching of moral and ethical values is necessary and compatible with his theory.
  • Adolescence
    • Moral development (continued)
    • Research on Kohlberg’s Theory
    • Snarey found support for the virtual universality of Stages 1 through 4, and for the invariant sequence of these stages in all groups studied.
    • Some findings suggest that Kohlberg’s postconventional level of moral reasoning may be more strongly associated with culture than are his lower levels.
  • Adolescence
    • Moral development (continued)
    • Gilligan’s Alternative Approach
    • Carol Gilligan asserts that Kohlberg’s theory is gender-biased.
    • Gilligan suggests that females, more than males, tend to view moral behavior in terms of compassion, caring, and concern for others.
    • More recent evidence suggests that females do tend to emphasize care and compassion in resolving moral dilemmas, while males tend to stress justice or at least give it equal standing with caring.
  • Adolescence
    • Parental Relationships
    • Research does not support the view that adolescents’ relationships with their parents are dominated by conflicts.
    • In fact, secure attachments to parents along with effective parenting practices, are just as critical to a teen’s development as they are to that of an infant or child.
    • The authoritative parenting style is the most effective and the permissive least effective for adolescents.
  • Adolescence
    • Parental Relationships (continued)
    • In a study of about 2,300 adolescents, those with permissive parents were more likely to use alcohol and drugs and to have conduct problems, and less likely to be engaged in school than were those with authoritative or authoritarian parents.
    • Steinberg suggests that authoritarian parenting is tied to parents’ strong belief that the child’s accomplishments are attributable to both his own efforts and to those of his family.
  • Adolescence
    • The Peer Group
    • Interactions with peers are critical while young people are fashioning their identities.
    • Judith Harris suggests that peers have more influence on young people than parents do.
    • But such a claim implies that the environmental influence of peers is strong enough to override both parents’ genetic contribution and their environmental influence.
  • Adolescence
    • The Peer Group (continued)
    • When parents adapt their approaches to parenting based on a teenager’s behavior and his or her peer associations, parental influence can counteract the negative effects of deviant peers.
    • Peer influences can render parenting more complex when children reach their teen years, but it is a great overstatement to say that peer influence can outweigh the effects of good parenting.
  • Adolescence
    • Teen Pregnancy
    • Risk factors for teen parenthood
    • Many of the same factors predispose both girls and boys to becoming teenaged parents: poverty, poor school performance, drug use, early dating, early sexual activity, multiple sex partners, peer rejection, aggressive behavior, and delinquency.
    • Boys who grow up without a father in the home are more likely to impregnate a girl.
  • Adolescence
    • Teen Pregnancy (continued)
    • Risk factors for teen parenthood (continued)
    • Both boys and girls whose parents are addicted to alcohol or drugs are at greater risk of adolescent parenthood than peers whose parents don’t have such problems.
    • Fulfillment of idealized gender roles may also be a factor in teen parenthood.
  • Adolescence
    • Teen Pregnancy (continued)
    • Consequences for Mother and Child
    • A higher proportion of pregnant teens than older mothers come from poor backgrounds; they are less likely to receive early prenatal medical care and adequate nutrition.
    • As a result, pregnant teenagers are at higher risk for miscarriage, stillbirth, and complications during delivery.
  • Adolescence
    • Teen Pregnancy (continued)
    • Consequences for Mother and Child (continued)
    • Among young women who give birth before age 18 and choose to keep their babies, half never complete high school.
    • Programs to help mothers stay in school and to learn how to take care of their babies do make a difference.
  • Adolescence
    • Teen Pregnancy (continued)
    • Consequences for Teen Fathers
    • One important longitudinal study of teen fatherhood is the Pittsburgh Youth Study.
    • In this study, becoming a teen father was associated with a large increase in delinquent behavior in the year following the baby’s birth.
  • Adolescence
    • Teen Pregnancy (continued)
    • Consequences for Teen Fathers (continued)
    • School drop-out rates were also dramatically higher for teen fathers.
    • The teens who became fathers were also more likely to use alcohol or drugs.
    • There are few support programs for teen fathers.
  • Early and Middle Adulthood
    • Physical Changes
    • Researchers divide the events associated with aging into two categories: primary aging and secondary aging.
    • Primary aging is biological and generally unavoidable.
    • Presbyopia: a condition, occurring in the mid- to late 40s, in which the lenses of the eyes no longer accommodate adequately for near vision, and reading glasses or bifocals are required for reading.
  • Early and Middle Adulthood
    • Physical Changes (continued)
    • Secondary aging is the result of poor health-related habits and lifestyle choices.
    • Menopause: the cessation of menstruation, occurring between ages 45 and 55, signifying the end of reproductive capacity.
    • The most common symptom associated with menopause and the sharp decrease in the level of estrogen is hot flashes, sudden feelings of being uncomfortably hot.
    • Although men do not have a physical event equivalent to menopause, they do experience a gradual decline in testosterone from age 20 until about age 60.
  • Early and Middle Adulthood
    • Intellectual Abilities
    • Younger adults outperform older adults on tests requiring speed or rote memory.
    • On tests measuring general information, vocabulary, reasoning ability, and social judgment, older participants usually do better than younger ones because of their greater experience and education.
    • Intellectual gains across early and middle adulthood have been documented in longitudinal studies.
  • Early and Middle Adulthood
    • Intellectual Abilities (continued)
    • The Impact of College Attendance
    • Some college is better than none, but there is a clear income advantage for degree-holders.
    • College Attendance and Development
    • The longer people attend college, even if they don’t graduate, the more likely they are to be capable of formal operational thinking and other forms of abstract logical thought.
  • Early and Middle Adulthood
    • The Impact of College Attendance (continued)
    • College Attendance and Development (continued)
    • College also offers adults the opportunity to sharpen their self-perceptions.
    • College attendance influences social development as well.
  • Early and Middle Adulthood
    • The Impact of College Attendance (continued)
    • Traditional and Nontraditional Students
    • Authoritative parenting is one of the factors other than intellectual ability that predicts success in college.
    • More important than parenting style, though, is a group of factors researchers use to classify students as traditional or non-traditional students.
  • Early and Middle Adulthood
    • The Impact of College Attendance (continued)
    • Traditional and Nontraditional Students (continued)
    • Traditional students make up roughly one-third of the college population in the United States.
    • The remaining two-thirds are distributed across the three nontraditional categories.
    • About two-thirds of traditional students obtain a degree within five years, a much higher graduation rate than any of the nontraditional categories.
  • Early and Middle Adulthood
    • The Impact of College Attendance (continued)
    • Traditional and Nontraditional Students (continued)
    • One reason for the lower graduation rates of non-traditional students may be that they, in contrast to traditional students, are concentrated in two-year colleges.
    • These institutions are less likely to have counseling centers and other support services that help students with academic and personal problems.
  • Early and Middle Adulthood
    • The Impact of College Attendance (continued)
    • Gender, Race, and College Completion
    • Women are more likely to graduate than men at all degree levels.
    • Female students use more effective study strategies than their male counterparts.
    • Male students are more likely to cheat and to be negatively influenced by peers in making decisions about behaviors such as binge drinking.
    • Race is linked to graduation rates as well.
    • White American students are more likely to drop out than Asian, Native American, and Hispanic American students.
  • Early and Middle Adulthood
    • Lifestyle Patterns in Adulthood
    • Singles
    • The happiest singles seem to be those who have relationships that provide emotional support.
    • The divorce rate among cohabiting couples is higher than the divorce rate for couples who do not live together before marriage.
    • Research suggests that cohabiting relationships prior to marriage are associated with emotionally negative, unsupportive communication and behavior patterns during marriage.
  • Early and Middle Adulthood
    • Lifestyle Patterns in Adulthood (continued)
    • Marriage
    • Most young singles, 66% of the men and 58.5% of the women, were in favor of living together before marriage, in order to find out more about each other prior to making a commitment.
    • Wood and others found that married people report much higher levels of well-being than unmarried people and that married women report slightly higher levels than married men.
  • Early and Middle Adulthood
    • Lifestyle Patterns in Adulthood (continued)
    • Marriage (continued)
    • Most people marry at least once in their lives and may be better off as a result.
    • Inglehart analyzed studies done in Europe and North America and reported that married couples are happier than people who are unmarried, separated, or divorced.
  • Early and Middle Adulthood
    • Lifestyle Patterns in Adulthood (continued)
    • Divorce
    • The marriages most likely to fail are marriages between teenagers, nonreligious marriages in which the bride was pregnant, and marriages of people whose parents had divorced.
    • The marriages that do survive are not necessarily happy.
    • Divorce often radically alters the course of an adult’s life, especially women.
  • Early and Middle Adulthood
    • Lifestyle Patterns in Adulthood (continued)
    • Parenthood
    • Several studies have shown that marital satisfaction declines after the birth of the first child.
    • The problem appears to center mainly on the division of work – that is, who does what.
    • Sharing responsibilities may be especially important when both parents work outside the home.
  • Early and Middle Adulthood
    • Lifestyle Patterns in Adulthood (continued)
    • Reinke’s Life Course for Women
    • Reinke and her colleagues interviewed 124 middle-class women aged 30 to 60 to gain information about their marriages, families, employment, life satisfactions and dissatisfactions, and life changes.
    • Researchers found major transitional periods in which participants seemed to reappraise their lives and consider changes.
  • Early and Middle Adulthood
    • Lifestyle Patterns in Adulthood (continued)
    • Reinke’s Life Course for Women (continued)
    • Women’s development is examined most profitably in relation to six phases in the family cycle:
            • The no-children phase
            • The starting-a-family/preschool phase
            • The school-age phase
            • The adolescent phase
            • The launching phase
            • The postparental phase
  • Early and Middle Adulthood
    • Lifestyle Patterns in Adulthood (continued)
    • Reinke’s Life Course for Women (continued)
    • Wink and Helson found that after children leave home, most women work at least part-time and tend to experience an increase in self-confidence and a heightened sense of competence and independence.
    • Contrary to the popular stereotype of the empty nest syndrome, most parents seem to be happier when their children are on their own.
  • Later Adulthood
    • Physical Changes in Later Adulthood
    • Primary and Secondary Aging Effects
    • One primary aging effect is the breakdown of the myelin sheaths of individual neurons in the brain, which causes a general slowing of behavior.
    • Decreases in the rate at which the body supplies oxygen to the brain also help explain the slowing-down phenomenon.
  • Later Adulthood
    • Physical Changes in Later Adulthood (continued)
    • Primary and Secondary Aging Effects (continued)
    • Primary aging affects sensory abilities as well.
    • Secondary aging takes a toll, too.
    • About 80% of Americans over age 65 have one or more chronic conditions.
    • Some individuals seem to have an intrinsic hardiness that protects them against environmental disease agents and even from their own poor health behaviors.
  • Later Adulthood
    • Physical Changes in Later Adulthood (continued)
    • Sex and Senior Citizens
    • Surveys indicate that more than 70% of adults over age 65 in the United States are still sexually active.
    • Declines in testosterone associated with aging in both men and women are partly responsible for diminished sexual activity and pleasure.
    • However, research suggests that older adults compensate for these primary aging effects with sexual experimentation.
  • Later Adulthood
    • Physical Changes in Later Adulthood (continued)
    • Successful aging
    • Successful aging perspective: successful aging approach that provides researchers with a comprehensive theoretical framework from which to derive hypotheses about aging.
    • John Rowe and Robert Kahn maintain that successful aging is a function of an elderly individual’s status and characteristics across three domains: physical health, cognitive functioning, and social engagement.
  • Later Adulthood
    • Cognitive Changes in Later Adulthood
    • Older adults who keep mentally and physically active tend to retain their mental skills.
    • Crystallized intelligence: verbal ability and accumulated knowledge; tends to increase over the lifespan.
    • Fluid intelligence: abstract reasoning and mental flexibility, which peak in the early 20s and decline slowly as people age.
  • Later Adulthood
    • Cognitive Changes in Later Adulthood (continued)
    • Several factors are positively correlated with good cognitive functioning in the elderly.
    • They are education level, a complex work environment, a long marriage to an intelligent spouse, and a higher income.
    • Women generally show less cognitive decline than men during old age.
    • There is some evidence that physical exercise positively affects cognitive functioning in old age.
  • Later Adulthood
    • Alzheimer’s Disease – The Most Common Dementia
    • As adults get older, the likelihood that they will develop one of several dementias increases.
    • Dementias: a group of neurological disorders in which deterioration in the brain causes memory impairments and altered personality and behavior.
    • About half of all cases of dementia result from Alzheimer’s Disease.
  • Later Adulthood
    • Alzheimer’s Disease – The Most Common Dementia (continued)
    • Alzheimer’s disease: a progressive and incurable disorder that involves widespread degeneration and disruption of brain cells.
    • At first, victims of Alzheimer’s disease show a gradual impairment in memory and reasoning, as well as in their efficiency in carrying out everyday tasks.
    • As the disorder progresses, Alzheimer’s patients become increasingly unable to care for themselves.
  • Later Adulthood
    • Alzheimer’s Disease – The Most Common Dementia (continued)
    • Autopsies of Alzheimer’s patients reveal that the cerebral cortex as well as the hippocampus contain neurons clogged with twisted, string masses and surrounded by dense deposits of proteins and other materials.
    • Heredity is a major factor in early-onset Alzheimer’s.
  • Later Adulthood
    • Alzheimer’s Disease – The Most Common Dementia
    • According to researchers, a high IQ coupled with life-long intellectual activity may delay or lessen the symptoms of Alzheimer’s in those who are at risk for the disease.
    • Certain anti-inflammatory drugs (such as ibuprofen) and the antioxidant Vitamin E may also provide a measure of protection.
  • Later Adulthood
    • Social Development and Adjustment in Later Adulthood
    • Life satisfaction appears to be most strongly related to good health, as well as to a feeling of control over one’s life.
    • Adequate income, participation in religious and social activities, and a satisfactory marital relationship are also associated with high levels of life satisfaction.
    • When life becomes more burdensome than enjoyable, an older person can fall victim to depression.
  • Later Adulthood
    • Social Development and Adjustment in Later Adulthood (continued)
    • Another factor in life satisfaction involves an older adult’s career-related decisions.
    • The loss of a spouse is also an event that may affect life satisfaction.
  • Later Adulthood
    • Cultural Differences in Care for the Elderly
    • African Americans are more likely than White Americans to regard elderly persons with respect and to feel that children should help their older parents.
    • Multigenerational households are by no means commonplace in the United States, regardless of ethnicity.
    • For the most part, older Americans have a strong preference for maintaining their independence and living in their own homes, although they and their adult children express a desire to live near each other.
  • Later Adulthood
    • Cultural Differences in Care for the Elderly (continued)
    • The living arrangements of American families are not typical of other countries around the world, where economic and social necessity often dictate living arrangements.
    • Elaine Brody and others studied the attitudes of three generations of American women toward providing care for their aged relatives.
    • Her study was replicated with a comparable sample of three generations of Japanese women in Tokyo.
  • Later Adulthood
    • Cultural Differences in Care for the Elderly (continued)
    • Women’s attitudes were studied because the care of aged relatives is typically provided by female family members.
    • American women expressed a stronger sense of obligation toward elderly members of their family.
  • Later Adulthood
    • Cultural Differences in Care for the Elderly (continued)
    • Campbell and Brody pointed out that in Japan, daughters-in-law, not daughters, most often care for elderly family members.
    • Brody and others found that married daughters experienced less strain and less depression resulting from parent care than those who were single, divorced, or widowed.
  • Later Adulthood
    • Death and Dying
    • Kübler-Ross on Death and Dying
    • Elisabeth Kübler-Ross interviewed some 200 terminally ill people and found they shared common reactions to their impending death.
    • Five stages people go through in coming to terms with death:
          • Denial
          • Anger
          • Bargaining
          • Depression
          • Acceptance
  • Later Adulthood
    • Death and Dying (continued)
    • Decisions about Death
    • Dr. Jack Kevorkian, convicted and jailed for his work, brought to the nation’s attention the plight of many hopelessly, terminally ill individuals who wish to end their lives.
    • Physician-assisted suicide has become the focus of a social movement.
    • To avoid leaving surviving family members with staggering medical bills, many people today write living wills.
  • Later Adulthood
    • Death and Dying (continued)
    • Decisions about Death (continued)
    • Hospices are agencies that care for the needs of the dying in ways that differ from traditional hospital care.
    • A hospice follows a set of guidelines:
      • The patient and his or her family will control decisions about the patient’s care.
      • The patient’s pain will be managed so that the patient’s remaining time is more livable.
  • Later Adulthood
    • Death and Dying (continued)
    • Decisions about Death (continued)
    • Hospice guidelines continued
      • Professional personnel will be available as needed, any time of the day or night.
      • Facilities will be less clinical and more homelike than typical hospital environments.
      • Family members may work with the hospice team as caregivers.
      • Family members may receive counseling before and after the patient dies and be helped through the grieving process.
  • Later Adulthood
    • Death and Dying (continued)
    • Bereavement
    • Contrary to what many believe, bereaved individuals who suffer the most intense grief initially do not get through their bereavement more quickly than others.
    • Dual-process coping, with periods of grieving and periods of relief, seems effective in dealing with the stress of losing a spouse.
  • Review of Learning Objectives
    • The Lifespan Perspective
    • How does Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development differ from other developmental theories?
    • What does research suggest about the accuracy of Erikson’s theory?
  • Review of Learning Objectives
    • Adolescence
    • What physical and psychological changes occur as a result of puberty?
    • What cognitive abilities develop during adolescence?
    • What are the differences among Kohlberg’s three levels of moral development?
  • Review of Learning Objectives
    • Adolescence (continued)
    • What outcomes are often associated with the authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting styles?
    • What are some of the beneficial functions of the adolescent peer group?
    • What are some of the consequences of teenage pregnancy?
  • Review of Learning Objectives
    • Early and Middle Adulthood
    • What is the difference between primary and secondary aging?
    • In what ways do cognitive functions change between the ages of 20 and 60?
    • How does attending college affect adult development?
    • What are some current trends in lifestyle patterns among young adults?
  • Review of Learning Objectives
    • Late Adulthood
    • What are some physical changes associated with later adulthood?
    • What happens to mental ability in later adulthood?
    • How does Alzheimer’s disease affect the brain?
  • Review of Learning Objectives
    • Late Adulthood
    • What does research indicate about older adults’ life satisfaction?
    • In what ways do the experiences of older adults differ across cultures?
    • According to K ü bler-Ross, what stages do terminally ill patients experience as they come to terms with death?