Each stage is defined by a conflict that arises from the individual’s relationship with the social environment and that must be resolved satisfactorily in order for healthy personality development to occur.
Erikson believed that a healthy adult personality depends on acquiring the appropriate basic attitudes in the proper sequence during childhood and adolescence.
Infants who are placed in poor-quality care, such as in centers where there are too few workers to adequately care for the number of infants present, are more likely to develop insecure attachments to their parents.
As a result, they are at greater risk for the negative outcomes associated with insecure attachment, which can persist into adulthood.
Foreclosure: pursuing the academic goals that others have chosen for the individual.
Identity diffusion: just “hanging out,” not taking their classes seriously or thinking about job opportunities, but rather waiting for something to come along that will push them in one direction or another.
In a study of about 2,300 adolescents, those with permissive parents were more likely to use alcohol and drugs and to have conduct problems, and less likely to be engaged in school than were those with authoritative or authoritarian parents.
Steinberg suggests that authoritarian parenting is tied to parents’ strong belief that the child’s accomplishments are attributable to both his own efforts and to those of his family.
Many of the same factors predispose both girls and boys to becoming teenaged parents: poverty, poor school performance, drug use, early dating, early sexual activity, multiple sex partners, peer rejection, aggressive behavior, and delinquency.
Boys who grow up without a father in the home are more likely to impregnate a girl.
Successful aging perspective: successful aging approach that provides researchers with a comprehensive theoretical framework from which to derive hypotheses about aging.
John Rowe and Robert Kahn maintain that successful aging is a function of an elderly individual’s status and characteristics across three domains: physical health, cognitive functioning, and social engagement.
Alzheimer’s Disease – The Most Common Dementia (continued)
Autopsies of Alzheimer’s patients reveal that the cerebral cortex as well as the hippocampus contain neurons clogged with twisted, string masses and surrounded by dense deposits of proteins and other materials.
Heredity is a major factor in early-onset Alzheimer’s.
African Americans are more likely than White Americans to regard elderly persons with respect and to feel that children should help their older parents.
Multigenerational households are by no means commonplace in the United States, regardless of ethnicity.
For the most part, older Americans have a strong preference for maintaining their independence and living in their own homes, although they and their adult children express a desire to live near each other.