Fromm
Chapter 7
Outline
• Biography of Fromm
• Fromm’s Basic Assumption
• Human Needs
• The Burden of Freedom
• Character Orientations
• P...
Outline
• Psychotherapy
• Fromm’s Methods of Investigation
• Related Research
• Critique of Fromm
• Concept of Humanity
Biography of Fromm
• Born in Frankfurt, Germany in 1900
• Only child of orthodox Jewish parents
• Humanistic philosophy gr...
Biography (cont’d)
• After receiving his Ph.D., Fromm
began studying psychoanalysis and
was eventually analyzed by Hanns
S...
Fromm’s Basic Assumption
• Personality can only be understood in the
light of history
• Humans have been torn away from th...
Human Needs
• Relatedness
– Drive for union with another person(s)
• Three basic ways:
1. Submission
2. Power
3. Love
• Tr...
Human Needs (cont’d)
• Rootedness
– Need to establish roots or to feel at home
again in the world
• Sense of Identity
– Ca...
Human Needs (cont’d)
• Frame of Orientation
– Being split off from nature, humans need a road
map to make their way throug...
The Burden of Freedom
• Mechanisms of Escape
– Authoritarianism
– Destructiveness
– Conformity
• Positive Freedom
– Sponta...
Character Orientations
• Nonproductive Orientations
– Receptive
– Exploitative
– Hoarding
– Marketing
• The Productive Ori...
Personality Disorders
• Necrophilia
– Love of death and hatred of all humanity
• Malignant Narcissism
– Belief that everyt...
Psychotherapy
• The therapist tries to help the patient
through shared communication in which the
therapist is simply a hu...
Methods of Investigation
• Social Character in a Mexican Village
– Study of social character in a isolated farming village...
Related Research
• Fromm did not express his ideas for the
purpose of generating research, and his
theory is among the lea...
Critique of Fromm
• Fromm’s Theory is:
– High on Organizing Knowledge
– Low on Guiding Action, Internal
Consistency, and P...
Concept of Humanity
• Average on Free Choice, Optimism,
Unconscious Influences, and
Uniqueness
• Low on Causality
• High o...
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Psy 3 fromm ppt

  1. 1. Fromm Chapter 7
  2. 2. Outline • Biography of Fromm • Fromm’s Basic Assumption • Human Needs • The Burden of Freedom • Character Orientations • Personality Disorders Cont’d
  3. 3. Outline • Psychotherapy • Fromm’s Methods of Investigation • Related Research • Critique of Fromm • Concept of Humanity
  4. 4. Biography of Fromm • Born in Frankfurt, Germany in 1900 • Only child of orthodox Jewish parents • Humanistic philosophy grew out of early reading of biblical prophets and an association with several Talmudic scholars • Influenced by writings of Freud and Marx
  5. 5. Biography (cont’d) • After receiving his Ph.D., Fromm began studying psychoanalysis and was eventually analyzed by Hanns Sachs, a student of Freud • In 1934, Fromm moved to the U.S. and began a psychoanalytic practice in New York • His books gained him a worldwide reputation beyond psychology and psychoanalysis • Died in Switzerland in 1980
  6. 6. Fromm’s Basic Assumption • Personality can only be understood in the light of history • Humans have been torn away from their prehistoric union with nature • “Human Dilemma” – humans have acquired the ability to reason about their isolated conditions
  7. 7. Human Needs • Relatedness – Drive for union with another person(s) • Three basic ways: 1. Submission 2. Power 3. Love • Transcendence – Urge to rise above a passive and accidental existence and into “the realm of purposefulness and freedom”
  8. 8. Human Needs (cont’d) • Rootedness – Need to establish roots or to feel at home again in the world • Sense of Identity – Capacity for humans to be aware of themselves as a separate entity
  9. 9. Human Needs (cont’d) • Frame of Orientation – Being split off from nature, humans need a road map to make their way through the world • Summary of Human Needs – These needs have evolved from humans’ existence as a separate species – Aimed at moving them toward a reunification with the natural world – Lack of satisfaction of any of these needs is unbearable and may result in insanity
  10. 10. The Burden of Freedom • Mechanisms of Escape – Authoritarianism – Destructiveness – Conformity • Positive Freedom – Spontaneous activity of the whole personality – Achieved when a person becomes reunified with others and with the world
  11. 11. Character Orientations • Nonproductive Orientations – Receptive – Exploitative – Hoarding – Marketing • The Productive Orientation – Psychologically healthy people work toward positive freedom
  12. 12. Personality Disorders • Necrophilia – Love of death and hatred of all humanity • Malignant Narcissism – Belief that everything one owns is of great value while anything belonging to others is worthless • Incestuous Symbiosis – Extreme dependence on one’s mother to the extent that one’s personality is blended with that of the host person
  13. 13. Psychotherapy • The therapist tries to help the patient through shared communication in which the therapist is simply a human being • Goal of Fromm’s psychotherapy: – Work toward satisfaction of the basic human needs of relatedness, transcendence, rootedness, a sense of identity, and a frame of orientation
  14. 14. Methods of Investigation • Social Character in a Mexican Village – Study of social character in a isolated farming village in Mexico – Found evidence of all the character orientations except the marketing one • A Psychohistorical Study of Hitler – Applied the techniques of psychohistory to study Hitler, the conspicuous example of someone with the syndrome of decay – Fromm traces and describes Hitler’s necrophilia, malignant narcissism, and incestuous symbiosis
  15. 15. Related Research • Fromm did not express his ideas for the purpose of generating research, and his theory is among the least productive of empirical study • Saunders & Munro (2000) – Saunders Consumer Orientation Index (SCOI) – College students and other adults in Austrailia who score high on the SCOI tend to be more angry, depressed, and anxious
  16. 16. Critique of Fromm • Fromm’s Theory is: – High on Organizing Knowledge – Low on Guiding Action, Internal Consistency, and Parsimony – Very Low on Generating Research and Falsifiability
  17. 17. Concept of Humanity • Average on Free Choice, Optimism, Unconscious Influences, and Uniqueness • Low on Causality • High on Social Influences
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